“Epidemiological studies suggest that night-shift workers are at [approximately] 25% to 40% higher risk for mental illnesses, including depression and anxiety,” says Sarah Chellappa, a neuroscientist at the University of Cologne in Germany. Chellappa and her collaborators wanted to understand why. In both parts of the experiment, participants completed a computerized questionnaire about their mood several times a day.
When the researchers implemented the schedule switch, participants’ mood plummeted, and failed to improve during the four days they spent on the reversed schedule. The findings suggested that one reason for an increased risk of depression among shift workers is the misalignment of the body’s internal clock with the outside world.
Up to one in five people in industrialized countries are shift workers and the study participants included individuals who worked nights, as well as those who worked day shifts. People in both groups experienced a darkening of mood when their schedules were knocked out of whack — an indication that circadian misalignment has negative effects even on long-time shift workers..
“This is not just some academic question,” says Frank Scheer, a chronobiologist at Harvard Medical School in Boston and Chellappa’s collaborator on the study of circadian misalignment. “It’s something that’s of relevance to one of the most vulnerable populations” of workers.
Much of the public conversation around depression casts the disease as a chemical imbalance in the brain. But mood disorders have increased with modern lifestyles. There is growing evidence that circadian-rhythm disruptions and altered light exposure (with more artificial light at night and less natural daylight during the day) that accompany those lifestyles increase the risk of depression.
“Our modern environment is not really great for our circadian clock,” says Colleen McClung, a chronobiologist at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. “This is an ancient mechanism in our brains and our bodies that evolved at the very beginning of life on Earth, and now we have the ability to have electric lights and to fly across time zones and work late at night. And our biology has not caught up to that at all.”
Scientists have known for decades that sleep problems and circadian disruption are associated with depression. The cause-and-effect relationships between these factors have been difficult to tease apart. But, as the links become clearer, more attention is turning to non-pharmacological therapies that modulate sleep and circadian rhythms — sometimes known as chronotherapeutics — as treatments for depression. Some researchers are even investigating the possibility of delivering circadian-rhythm modulation in a pill. Others are exploring ways to tweak the details of modern life to reduce the risk of depression, particularly for shift workers.
Light and shadow
According to one study, more than 90% of people with depression have sleep problems, and sleeping too much or too little is one of the diagnostic criteria for depression. In the past decade, multiple studies have tracked people’s sleep habits and mental health over time and have shown that sleep difficulties at a certain time point increase the likelihood that a person will develop depression later in life. Poor sleep turns out to be not only a symptom but also a predictor.
Fortunately, psychologists have an arsenal of behavioural interventions that can improve sleep, says Aliza Werner-Seidler, a clinical psychologist at the Black Dog Institute at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. These interventions frequently help people to sleep better and can also ease depression symptoms. “If a client was sitting in front of me with significant sleep problems and significant mental-health problems, and didn’t have a preference on where to start, I would definitely be going down the sleep problem route,” says Werner-Seidler.
What’s more, sleep has a protective effect: improving sleep can help to prevent depression in adults. Werner-Seidler is now wrapping up a study to test whether a sleep intervention delivered through an app can stave off the development of symptoms of mental illness in adolescents aged 12–16 with sleep problems; preliminary results are promising, she says. She is working with more than 20 schools in New South Wales to help improve student sleep.
Another non-pharmaceutical approach to treating depression involves the manipulation of light, one of the strongest influences on the circadian system that keeps the body’s internal clock in synch with the environment. Studies over the past decade have shown that light also has a direct antidepressant effect, through the stimulation of mood-regulating brain centres.
Spending 30 minutes in front of a source of bright, full-spectrum light in the morning is well established as a treatment for seasonal depression. But the use of light therapy for other forms of depression has been slower to develop, says Christian Cajochen, head of the Centre for Chronobiology at the University of Basel in Switzerland.
Early studies of light therapy for non-seasonal depression reported mixed results — but in the past decade, researchers have begun to take a second look. A 2016 study showed that the antidepressant fluoxetine plus bright light therapy provides more consistent relief from non-seasonal depression than either treatment alone. And in July, a group of researchers including Cajochen reported results from a study of people with perinatal depression that suggest light therapy can help these patients as well. Although best used in conjunction with pharmaceutical antidepressants, light is “as potent as antidepressant drugs”, Cajochen says.
In some cases, a more radical overhaul of the body’s circadian rhythms might be necessary to treat depression. In the early 1970s, researchers realized that keeping people with depression awake for 36 hours often provided immediate relief of their symptoms. As a research assistant on a ward for people with severe depression in 1975 at the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland, Blynn Bunney, now a biological psychologist at the University of California, Irvine, recalls witnessing effects of sleep deprivation that were nothing short of “miraculous”.
But such patients generally saw their symptoms return after a good night’s sleep — a big problem for actually implementing sleep deprivation as a treatment for depression. Later studies showed that this relapse could be prevented by combining sleep deprivation with light therapy and what researchers call sleep phase advance — essentially, going to bed earlier. In a 2009 study, a group including Bunney showed that half of people who underwent this routine remained in remission after seven weeks.
Sleep deprivation, also known as wake therapy, is now used in some European countries. Although the intervention is brief, it’s intense — staff must work to keep people awake — and until recently it has been studied mostly in in-patient settings. But a pilot study published in 2021 showed that the approach could be adapted to help people who are not hospitalized, raising the prospect of much wider use.
The increased focus on the importance of the circadian system in depression has also spurred a search for drugs that can alter or strengthen circadian rhythms. Such medication could be used as an alternative or add-on treatment to conventional antidepressants or as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder — a condition characterized by extreme mood swings.
Two of the most important existing treatments for bipolar disorder, lithium and valproic acid, both affect circadian rhythms, says McClung, who has studied other circadian-modulating compounds in a mouse model of bipolar disorder. And in mouse brains, sleep deprivation and the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine both cause similar changes in the expression of circadian-related genes. This provides a hint that the circadian system might be especially relevant to the search for compounds that can provide fast relief from depression symptoms.
But drugs that can get into the brain without causing other side effects have proved elusive. For example, agomelatine, a compound related to melatonin, a hormone involved in the sleep–wake cycle, is approved as an add-on treatment for depression in Europe and Australia. But phase III trials in the United States showed weak results and possible liver toxicity.
If elements of modern life increase the risk for depression, what about tweaking modern life to be friendlier to mental health? Such changes could help shift workers and others alike. For example, Chellappa and Scheer have unpublished data showing that eating in synch with typical mealtimes, even if a person’s sleep schedule is altered, can prevent the adverse effects of circadian disruption on mood.
This might be a tricky strategy for shift workers to implement, given all the other constraints on their schedules. But it could be used to help fight jet lag and other circadian disruptions that are prevalent in modern life, the researchers say.
Another approach might be to redesign evening lighting in homes or night-shift lighting in factories so that it doesn’t affect the body’s internal clock. The circadian system responds most strongly to blue light at wavelengths of around 480 nanometres. Taking advantage of LED technology, researchers can create light spectra that exclude these wavelengths but otherwise look normal to the human eye.
However, it’s much easier to implement such lighting on a flat computer screen or electronic display than in overhead or ambient lighting, says Manuel Spitschan, a visual neuroscientist and chronobiologist at the Max Planck Institute in Tübingen, Germany. Using room lighting that makes a blank piece of paper appear reassuringly white might make a person’s skin look grey — and that uncanny appearance of the world might have its own psychological effects.
Excluding those doing shift work, many people might be able to moderate the mood-altering effects of modern life on the circadian system by changing their behaviour rather than changing technology, Spitschan argues. He was part of an international team of scientists that earlier this year released recommendations for better ‘light hygiene’, such as getting outside during the morning and limiting artificial light in the hours before bed in the evening.
Refining such recommendations will require studies that reflect the light exposures people actually experience in their everyday lives, rather than the extreme conditions of lab studies, Spitschan cautions. Still, it’s an empowering thought: “We’re not lab rats,” he says. “We don’t just sit in a shoebox and someone else changes the lighting.”
By: Sarah DeWeerdt
- “What makes us sleep?”. NICHD – Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- Edgar RS, Green EW, Zhao Y, van Ooijen G, Olmedo M, Qin X, et al. (May 2012). “Peroxiredoxins are conserved markers of circadian rhythms”. Nature. 485 (7399): 459–64. Bibcode:2012Natur.485..459E. doi:10.1038/nature11088. PMC 3398137. PMID 22622569.
- Vitaterna MH, Takahashi JS, Turek FW (2001). “Overview of circadian rhythms”. Alcohol Research & Health. 25 (2): 85–93. PMC 6707128. PMID 11584554.
- Bass J (November 2012). “Circadian topology of metabolism”. Nature. 491 (7424): 348–56. Bibcode:2012Natur.491..348B. doi:10.1038/nature11704. PMID 23151577. S2CID 27778254.
- Theophrastus, ‘Περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία’ – Enquiry into plants and minor works on odours and weather signs, with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, bart 1916 https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/27820
- Bretzl H (1903). Botanische Forschungen des Alexanderzuges. Leipzig: Teubner.[page needed]
- Lu G (25 October 2002). Celestial Lancets. Psychology Press. pp. 137–140. ISBN 978-0-7007-1458-2.
- de Mairan JJ (1729). “Observation Botanique”. Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Sciences: 35–36.
- Gardner MJ, Hubbard KE, Hotta CT, Dodd AN, Webb AA (July 2006). “How plants tell the time”. The Biochemical Journal. 397 (1): 15–24. doi:10.1042/BJ20060484. PMC 1479754. PMID 16761955.
- Dijk DJ, von Schantz M (August 2005). “Timing and consolidation of human sleep, wakefulness, and performance by a symphony of oscillators”. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 20 (4): 279–90. doi:10.1177/0748730405278292. PMID 16077148. S2CID 13538323.
- Danchin A. “Important dates 1900–1919”. HKU-Pasteur Research Centre. Archived from the original on 2003-10-20. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
- Antle MC, Silver R (November 2009). “Neural basis of timing and anticipatory behaviors”. The European Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (9): 1643–9. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06959.x. PMC 2929840. PMID 19878281.
- Bruce VG, Pittendrigh CS (1957). “Endogenous Rhythms in Insects and Microorganisms”. The American Naturalist. 91 (858): 179–195. doi:10.1086/281977. S2CID 83886607.
- Pittendrigh CS (1993). “Temporal organization: reflections of a Darwinian clock-watcher”. Annual Review of Physiology. 55 (1): 16–54. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.55.030193.000313. PMID 8466172. S2CID 45054898.
- Pittendrigh CS (October 1954). “On Temperature Independence in the Clock System Controlling Emergence Time in Drosophila”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 40 (10): 1018–29. Bibcode:1954PNAS…40.1018P. doi:10.1073/pnas.40.10.1018. PMC 534216. PMID 16589583.
- Halberg F, Cornélissen G, Katinas G, Syutkina EV, Sothern RB, Zaslavskaya R, et al. (October 2003). “Transdisciplinary unifying implications of circadian findings in the 1950s”. Journal of Circadian Rhythms. 1 (1): 2. doi:10.1186/1740-3391-1-2. PMC 317388. PMID 14728726.
Eventually I reverted, for the same reason, to “circadian” …
- Halberg F (1959). “[Physiologic 24-hour periodicity; general and procedural considerations with reference to the adrenal cycle]”. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitaminforschung. Beiheft. 10: 225–96. PMID 14398945.
- Koukkari WL, Sothern RB (2006). Introducing Biological Rhythms: A Primer on the Temporal Organization of Life, with Implications for Health, Society, Reproduction, and the Natural Environment. New York: Springer. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-4020-3691-0.
- Halberg F, Carandente F, Cornelissen G, Katinas GS (1977). “[Glossary of chronobiology (author’s transl)]”. Chronobiologia. 4 Suppl 1: 1–189. PMID 352650.
- Konopka RJ, Benzer S (September 1971). “Clock mutants of Drosophila melanogaster”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 68 (9): 2112–6. Bibcode:1971PNAS…68.2112K. doi:10.1073/pnas.68.9.2112. PMC 389363. PMID 5002428.
- Reddy P, Zehring WA, Wheeler DA, Pirrotta V, Hadfield C, Hall JC, Rosbash M (October 1984). “Molecular analysis of the period locus in Drosophila melanogaster and identification of a transcript involved in biological rhythms”. Cell. 38 (3): 701–10. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90265-4. PMID 6435882. S2CID 316424.
- Zehring WA, Wheeler DA, Reddy P, Konopka RJ, Kyriacou CP, Rosbash M, Hall JC (December 1984). “P-element transformation with period locus DNA restores rhythmicity to mutant, arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster”. Cell. 39 (2 Pt 1): 369–76. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90015-1. PMID 6094014.
- Bargiello TA, Jackson FR, Young MW (1984). “Restoration of circadian behavioural rhythms by gene transfer in Drosophila”. Nature. 312 (5996): 752–4. Bibcode:1984Natur.312..752B. doi:10.1038/312752a0. PMID 6440029. S2CID 4259316.
- Bargiello TA, Young MW (April 1984). “Molecular genetics of a biological clock in Drosophila”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (7): 2142–6. Bibcode:1984Natur.312..752B. doi:10.1038/312752a0. PMC 345453. PMID 16593450.
- “The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017”. http://www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-10-06.
- [unreliable medical source?] “Gene Discovered in Mice that Regulates Biological Clock”. Chicago Tribune. 29 April 1994.
- [non-primary source needed] Vitaterna MH, King DP, Chang AM, Kornhauser JM, Lowrey PL, McDonald JD, et al. (April 1994). “Mutagenesis and mapping of a mouse gene, Clock, essential for circadian behavior”. Science. 264 (5159): 719–25. Bibcode:1994Sci…264..719H. doi:10.1126/science.8171325. PMC 3839659. PMID 8171325.
- Debruyne JP, Noton E, Lambert CM, Maywood ES, Weaver DR, Reppert SM (May 2006). “A clock shock: mouse CLOCK is not required for circadian oscillator function”. Neuron. 50 (3): 465–77. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.03.041. PMID 16675400. S2CID 19028601.
- Collins B, Blau J (May 2006). “Keeping time without a clock”. Neuron. 50 (3): 348–50. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.04.022. PMID 16675389.
- Toh KL, Jones CR, He Y, Eide EJ, Hinz WA, Virshup DM, et al. (February 2001). “An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome”. Science. 291 (5506): 1040–3. Bibcode:2001Sci…291.1040T. doi:10.1126/science.1057499. PMID 11232563. S2CID 1848310.
- Jones CR, Campbell SS, Zone SE, Cooper F, DeSano A, Murphy PJ, et al. (September 1999). “Familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome: A short-period circadian rhythm variant in humans”. Nature Medicine. 5 (9): 1062–5. doi:10.1038/12502. PMID 10470086. S2CID 14809619.
- Johnson C (2004). Chronobiology: Biological Timekeeping. Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 67–105.
- Sharma VK (November 2003). “Adaptive significance of circadian clocks”. Chronobiology International. 20 (6): 901–19. doi:10.1081/CBI-120026099. PMID 14680135. S2CID 10899279.
- [non-primary source needed] Sheeba V, Sharma VK, Chandrashekaran MK, Joshi A (September 1999). “Persistence of eclosion rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster after 600 generations in an aperiodic environment”. Die Naturwissenschaften. 86 (9): 448–9. Bibcode:1999NW…..86..448S. doi:10.1007/s001140050651. PMID 10501695. S2CID 13401297.
- [non-primary source needed] Guyomarc’h C, Lumineau S, Richard JP (May 1998). “Circadian rhythm of activity in Japanese quail in constant darkness: variability of clarity and possibility of selection”. Chronobiology International. 15 (3): 219–30. doi:10.3109/07420529808998685. PMID 9653576.
- [non-primary source needed] Zivkovic BD, Underwood H, Steele CT, Edmonds K (October 1999). “Formal properties of the circadian and photoperiodic systems of Japanese quail: phase response curve and effects of T-cycles”. Journal of Biological Rhythms. 14 (5): 378–90. doi:10.1177/074873099129000786. PMID 10511005. S2CID 13390422.
- Mori T, Johnson CH (April 2001). “Independence of circadian timing from cell division in cyanobacteria”. Journal of Bacteriology. 183 (8): 2439–44. doi:10.1128/JB.183.8.2439-2444.2001. PMC 95159. PMID 11274102.
- Hut RA, Beersma DG (July 2011). “Evolution of time-keeping mechanisms: early emergence and adaptation to photoperiod”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 366 (1574): 2141–54. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0409. PMC 3130368. PMID 21690131.
- Dubowy C, Sehgal A (April 2017). “Drosophila melanogaster”. Genetics. 205 (4): 1373–1397. doi:10.1534/genetics.115.185157. PMC 5378101. PMID 28360128.
- [unreliable medical source?] Nagoshi E, Saini C, Bauer C, Laroche T, Naef F, Schibler U (November 2004). “Circadian gene expression in individual fibroblasts: cell-autonomous and self-sustained oscillators pass time to daughter cells”. Cell. 119 (5): 693–705. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.11.015. PMID 15550250. S2CID 15633902.
- [non-primary source needed] Michel S, Geusz ME, Zaritsky JJ, Block GD (January 1993). “Circadian rhythm in membrane conductance expressed in isolated neurons”. Science. 259 (5092): 239–41. Bibcode:1993Sci…259..239M. doi:10.1126/science.8421785. PMID 8421785.
- Refinetti R (January 2010). “The circadian rhythm of body temperature”. Frontiers in Bioscience. 15 (3): 564–94. doi:10.2741/3634. PMID 20036834. S2CID 36170900.
- Scheer FA, Morris CJ, Shea SA (March 2013). “The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors”. Obesity. 21 (3): 421–3. doi:10.1002/oby.20351. PMC 3655529. PMID 23456944.
More Remote Working Apps:
https://givvy-numbers.app.link/qNDZMGGbhsb Givvy Mobile Lottery
https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham Quintex Capital
https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/2535466 Genesis Mining
https://www.bybit.com/en-US/invite?ref=ALEXP Bybit Crypto Trade
https://cashbox.money/r/6ded936cbc264c7e9add5dd5565bb31a Cash Box Money
https://alpariforex.org/fa/registration/?cpa_partner_id=13687690 Alpari Forex Trading
https://dealcheck.io?fp_ref=armin16 Dealcheck Real Estate Evaluator
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/369164 prime stocks
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/296191 gluten free
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/286851 diet fitness diabetes
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/213027 writing job
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049 profile mate
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524 super backdrop
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/184902 gaming jobs
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/343405 PR Rage
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/371547 design beast
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/376879 commission smasher
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376925 MT4Code System
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375959 viral dash
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376877 forex expert
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376381 ada leadz
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/337292 DFY Suite 3.0 Agency+ information
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/291061 VideoRobot Enterprise
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/327447 Klippyo Kreators
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/324615 ChatterPal Commercial
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907 WP GDPR Fix Elite Unltd Sites
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/342585 VidSnatcher Commercial
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/320972 Storymate Luxury Edition
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/320466 iTraffic X – Platinum Edition
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/330783 Content Gorilla One-time
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402 Push Button Traffic 3.0 – Brand New
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/321987 SociCake Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/289944 The Internet Marketing
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/297271 Designa Suite License
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/310335 XFUNNELS FE Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/343635 MediaCloudPro 2.0 – Agency
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353558 MyTrafficJacker 2.0 Pro+
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/365061 AIWA Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/357201 Toon Video Maker Premium
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/351754 Steven Alvey’s Signature Series
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/344541 Fade To Black
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/290487 Adsense Machine
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/315596 Diddly Pay’s DLCM DFY Club
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/355249 CourseReel Professional
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649 SociJam System
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/263380 360Apps Certification
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377557 Instant Website Bundle
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377194 GMB Magic Content
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376962 PlayerNeos VR
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381812/ BrandElevate Bundle information
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381807/ BrandElevate Ultimate
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/ WowBackgraounds Plus
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381689/ Your3DPal Ultimate
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380877/ BigAudio Club Fast Pass
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/379998/ Podcast Masterclass
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/366537/ VideoGameSuite Exclusive
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381179 YTSuite Advanced
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381749/ Xinemax 2.0 Commercial
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/382455 Living An Intentional Life
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381812 BrandElevate Bundle
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381935 Ezy MultiStores
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381194/ DFY Suite 4.0 Agency
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381976/ AppOwls Bundle
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381615/ WOW Backgrounds 2.0
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381560 ALL-in-One HD Stock Bundle
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382326/ Viddeyo Bundle
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381617/ The Forex Joustar
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383751/ ADA Web Accessibility Compliance
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383942/ 10 Bold Actions In Positive Life & Work
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383706/ Adtivate Agency
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384099/ My Passive Income Blueprints
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/329145/ Content Tool Kit
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/ QR Verse Bundle
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/ VIADZ Ad Template
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383051/ EngageYard Ad Creator
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383751/ Local Leader Bundle
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383119/ Tonai Voice Content
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/ Vocalic Commercial
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383483/ Dropshiply Store Creator
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384025/ Levidio Royal Podcasting
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383094/ Develop Self Empowerment
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379223/ Hostley Domain Creator
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383447/ Mech Forex Robot
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383177/ Motion Kingdom Studio
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/144577/ Forex Blizz Trading
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383307/ Animaxime V2
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/ Promovidz Promotion Videos
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379051/ CanvaKitz Business Templates
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/383113/ Agencyscale Business Agency
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/347847/ Pitchdeck Professional Presentations
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381179/ YTSuite YouTube Ads Campaigns
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/382455/ Living an International Life
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/188236/ Galactic Dimension backgrounds
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381749/ Xinemax Hollywood Creator
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381194/ DFY Suite 4.0 Agency
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381231/ Appowls Mobile Apps
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381935/ Ezy Multi Stores
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/ WOW Backgrounds
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381685/ Your 3DPal
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381617/ Forex Joustar
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/ Ultrafunnels A.I
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/128215/ DUX Forex Signals
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/ Trendio Keyword Content
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381439/ FX Goldminer
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/ Pixal 2.022
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380087/ Big Audio Club
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379995/ Podcast Advantage
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/380543/ Local Sites
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/369500/ PodKastr Commercial
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/351606/ Insta Keyword
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374505/ 7 Minutes Kit
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383057/ Aweber Crash Course
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/ WP Simulator
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379995/ Podcast Advantage
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380692/ Boost Optimism
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/36517/ PlanB Muscle Growth
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/ TV Boss Fire
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379455/ Webprimo Website Builder
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384619/ Agency Client Finder
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384625/ Power Reviews
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384630/ Appoint B Agency
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/267113/ Sunday Freebie
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384573/ EBook Agency
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/75989/ Ejaculation Total
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/ Quit Smoking
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353694/ Mobi First
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384848/ Heal Your Emptiness
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382333/ Facebook Cash Machin
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/ Video Games
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/358870/ Diabetes Guide
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353334/ Fitness Nutrition Guide
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/366872/ Organic Life Guide
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/367353/ Human Synthesys Studio
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384653/ 9 figure Success
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383809/ Crypto Kit
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385046/ Stackable Picture
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/25069/ Forex Atlatian
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/132677/ Forex Scouts
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378113/ Crypto Rocket
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/377665/ PigMoney Method
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374345/ Crypto Underworld
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372305/ XBrain Forex
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/ Seniors Income
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382796/ Ad Raven
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/324492/ Graphic Alta
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382425/ Art Of Living
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/377815/ Credit Repair
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381337/ DFY Content Club
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381689/ 3D Pal Toons
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380385/ Movid Animation
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379244/ Extreme Adz
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379020 Live Your Truth
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/47481/ Forex Blue Stark
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/ Forex Mastery
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/ Forex Mastery
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/95037/ Forex Hybrid Scalper
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384759/ CourseAlly eLearning
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385180/ EZ Local Appointment
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380197/ Mat1 Simple Funnel
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/ WordPress Mastery
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/371095/ Next Drive
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385873/ Linkable DFY
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/216101/ Extreme Coupon
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386305/ High Converting Emails
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386337/ Email Monetizer