The Symptoms of The Delta Variant Appear To Differ From Traditional COVID Symptoms. Here’s What To Look Out For

We’ve been living in a COVID world for more than 18 months now. At the outset of the pandemic, government agencies and health authorities scrambled to inform people on how to identify symptoms of the virus.

But as the virus has evolved, it seems the most common symptoms have changed too.

Emerging data suggest people infected with the Delta variant — the variant behind most of Australia’s current cases and highly prevalent around the world — are experiencing symptoms different to those we commonly associated with COVID earlier in the pandemic.


Read more: What’s the Delta COVID variant found in Melbourne? Is it more infectious and does it spread more in kids? A virologist explains

Clear explanations about the pandemic from a network of research experts

We’re all different

Humans are dynamic. With our differences come different immune systems. This means the same virus can produce different signs and symptoms in different ways.

A sign is something that’s seen, such as a rash. A symptom is something that’s felt, like a sore throat.

The way a virus causes illness is dependent on two key factors:

  • viral factors include things like speed of replication, modes of transmission, and so on. Viral factors change as the virus evolves.
  • host factors are specific to the individual. Age, gender, medications, diet, exercise, health and stress can all affect host factors.

So when we talk about the signs and symptoms of a virus, we’re referring to what is most common. To ascertain this, we have to collect information from individual cases.

It’s important to note this data is not always easy to collect or analyse to ensure there’s no bias. For example, older people may have different symptoms to younger people, and collecting data from patients in a hospital may be different to patients at a GP clinic.

So what are the common signs and symptoms of the Delta variant?

Using a self-reporting system through a mobile app, data from the United Kingdom suggest the most common COVID symptoms may have changed from those we traditionally associated with the virus.

The reports don’t take into account which COVID variant participants are infected with. But given Delta is predominating in the UK at present, it’s a safe bet the symptoms we see here reflect the Delta variant.


The Conversation, CC BY-ND

While fever and cough have always been common COVID symptoms, and headache and sore throat have traditionally presented for some people, a runny nose was rarely reported in earlier data. Meanwhile, loss of smell, which was originally quite common, now ranks ninth.

There are a few reasons we could be seeing the symptoms evolving in this way. It may be because data were originally coming mainly from patients presenting to hospital who were therefore likely to be sicker. And given the higher rates of vaccination coverage in older age groups, younger people are now accounting for a greater proportion of COVID cases, and they tend to experience milder symptoms.

It could also be because of the evolution of the virus, and the different characteristics (viral factors) of the Delta variant. But why exactly symptoms could be changing remains uncertain.


Read more: Coronavirus: how long does it take to get sick? How infectious is it? Will you always have a fever? COVID-19 basics explained


While we still have more to learn about the Delta variant, this emerging data is important because it shows us that what we might think of as just a mild winter cold — a runny nose and a sore throat — could be a case of COVID-19.

This data highlight the power of public science. At the same time, we need to remember the results haven’t yet been fully analysed or stratified. That is, “host factors” such as age, gender, other illnesses, medications and so on haven’t been accounted for, as they would in a rigorous clinical trial.

And as is the case with all self-reported data, we have to acknowledge there may be some flaws in the results.

Does vaccination affect the symptoms?

Although new viral variants can compromise the effectiveness of vaccines, for Delta, the vaccines available in Australia (Pfizer and AstraZeneca) still appear to offer good protection against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses.



Importantly, both vaccines have been shown to offer greater than 90% protection from severe disease requiring hospital treatment.

A recent “superspreader” event in New South Wales highlighted the importance of vaccination. Of 30 people who attended this birthday party, reports indicated none of the 24 people who became infected with the Delta variant had been vaccinated. The six vaccinated people at the party did not contract COVID-19.

In some cases infection may still possible after vaccination, but it’s highly likely the viral load will be lower and symptoms much milder than they would without vaccination.

We all have a role to play

Evidence indicating Delta is more infectious compared to the original SARS-CoV-2 and other variants of the virus is building.

It’s important to understand the environment is also changing. People have become more complacent with social distancing, seasons change, vaccination rates vary — all these factors affect the data.

But scientists are becoming more confident the Delta variant represents a more transmissible SARS-CoV-2 strain.


Read more: What’s the difference between mutations, variants and strains? A guide to COVID terminology


As we face another COVID battle in Australia we’re reminded the war against COVID is not over and we all have a role to play. Get tested if you have any symptoms, even if it’s “just a sniffle”. Get vaccinated as soon as you can and follow public health advice.

By: Research Leader in Virology and Infectious Disease, Griffith University

Source: The symptoms of the Delta variant appear to differ from traditional COVID symptoms. Here’s what to look out for

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Critics:

Deltacoronavirus (Delta-CoV) is one of the four genera (Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta-) of coronaviruses. It is in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Deltacoronaviruses infect mostly birds and some mammals.

genesis

While the alpha and beta genera are derived from the bat viral gene pool, the gamma and delta genera are derived from the avian and pig viral gene pools.

Recombination appears to be common among deltacoronaviruses.Recombination occurs frequently in the viral genome region that encodes the host receptor binding protein. Recombination between different viral lineages contributes to the emergence of new viruses capable of interspecies transmission and adaptation to new animal hosts.

References

  1. Lau SKP, Wong EYM, Tsang CC, Ahmed SS, Au-Yeung RKH, Yuen KY, Wernery U, Woo PCY. Discovery and Sequence Analysis of Four Deltacoronaviruses from Birds in the Middle East Reveal Interspecies Jumping with Recombination as a Potential Mechanism for Avian-to-Avian and Avian-to-Mammalian Transmission. J Virol. 2018 Jul 17;92(15):e00265-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00265-18. Print 2018 Aug 1. PMID: 29769348

External links

The 5 Most Commonly Reported Covid-19 Symptoms

 

The official list of Covid-19 symptoms should be expanded as the existing one could “miss many Covid-19 cases”, experts have argued. The UK should follow other countries and include a broader range of symptoms, according to a group of scientists. Classic symptoms of Covid-19, listed on the NHS website, are a high temperature, a new continuous cough and/or a loss or change to a person’s sense of smell or taste.

But the most commonly reported symptoms by people taking part in the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Covid-19 Infection Survey are cough, headache and fatigue. The latest ONS release shows 61% of people who tested positive reported symptoms. Of these, 42% had a cough, 39% reported headache and 38% reported fatigue, according to the ONS.

Muscle ache was reported by a quarter of people and 32% reported having a sore throat. Meanwhile a third reported fever and 21% reported loss of smell and 15% reported loss of taste. A separate study – the Zoe Covid Symptom study – recently reported that a headache, sore throat and runny nose are now the most commonly reported symptoms. These are most likely symptoms of the Delta variant.

Writing in the British Medical Journal (BMJ), Dr Alex Crozier and colleagues – including Professor Calum Semple who is a member of Sage – suggest that limiting testing to only people with fever, cough and a change in taste or smell could “miss or delay identification of many Covid cases”.

They suggest this could “hamper efforts to interrupt transmission” of the virus. The group argue that increasing the symptom list could improve Britain’s pandemic response by expanding the criteria for self-isolation and eligibility for symptomatic testing.

The “narrow” case definition “limits” the early detection of contagious people, which restricts the efforts of the Test and Trace programme, they say. Non-traditional symptoms “often manifest earlier”, they added. The US Centres for Disease Control lists 11 more symptoms than the UK, and the World Health Organisation includes nine more. The testing capabilities are now able to facilitate people with a broader spectrum of symptoms, they added.

They say testing people with a single non-specific symptom could overwhelm capacity in the UK, but “combinations of symptoms could be used to help identify more cases sooner without overwhelming testing capacity”. The authors continue: “The UK’s decision to adopt a narrow case definition was based on ease of communication, avoiding confusion with other infections and preserving testing capacity.

People who had mild symptoms at first can still have long-term problems, says the NHS. The signs of long Covid vary from person to person, but the NHS now lists the following common symptoms: extreme tiredness (fatigue), shortness of breath , chest pain or tightness , problems with memory and concentration (“brain fog”), difficulty sleeping (insomnia), heart palpitations, dizziness , pins and needles ,joint pain, depression and anxiety, tinnitus, earaches, feeling sick, diarrhoea, stomach aches, loss of appetite, a high temperature, cough, headaches, sore throat, changes to sense of smell or taste and rashes.

This situation is now different — testing capacity is high. “Covid-19 is associated with a wide range of symptoms. Many patients do not experience the UK’s official case-defining symptoms, initially, or ever, and other symptoms often manifest earlier. Limiting the symptomatic testing to those with these official symptoms will miss or delay identification of many Covid-19 cases, hampering efforts to interrupt transmission.

“Expanding the clinical case definition of Covid−19, the criteria for self-isolation, and eligibility for symptomatic testing could improve the UK’s pandemic response. The Department of Health and Social Care has been approached for comment by PA Media. We will update this piece if there is a response.

The reason women might be more susceptible to long Covid might lie in differences in how our immune systems work – or that’s what scientists hypothesise, anyway. Research is needed to look into this. In a 2016 review on the differences in immune responses between males and females, professor Sabra Klein, of The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and professor Katie Flanagan, of Monash University, said females’ strong immune responses result in faster clearance of pathogens and greater vaccine efficacy compared to males. But it also contributes to females’ increased susceptibility to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

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Source: The 5 Most Commonly Reported Covid-19 Symptoms | HuffPost UK Life

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Critics:

Patients with COVID-19 can present with neurological symptoms that can be broadly divided into central nervous system involvement, such as headache, dizziness, altered mental state, and disorientation, and peripheral nervous system involvement, such as anosmia and dysgeusia. Some patients experience cognitive dysfunction called “COVID fog“, or “COVID brain fog”, involving memory loss, inattention, poor concentration or disorientation. Other neurologic manifestations include seizures, strokes, encephalitis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome (which includes loss of motor functions).

Other neurological symptoms appear to be rare, but may affect half of patients who are hospitalized with severe COVID-19. Some reported symptoms include delirium, stroke, brain hemorrhage, memory loss, psychosis, peripheral nerve damage, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Neurological symptoms in many cases are correlated with damage to the brain’s blood supply or encephalitis, which can progress in some cases to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Strokes have been reported in younger people without conventional risk factors.

As of September 2020, it was unclear whether these symptoms were due to direct infection of brain cells, or of overstimulation of the immune system. A June 2020 systematic review reported a 6–16% prevalence of vertigo or dizziness, 7–15% for confusion, and 0–2% for ataxia.

References

Scientists Find an Odd Link Between Aspirin, Air Pollution, and Male Brains

If you look at the smudged skylines of Los Angeles, California or Beijing, China, the haziness creates the illusion of cities shrouded in perpetual gray. That smog is driven by a pollutant that doesn’t just ruin the view — it worms its way into the brain, influencing the health of people exposed.

In a new study, scientists find another reason why air pollution is bad for the brain — this time zeroing in on the effect it has on men’s brain health. The study examines the negative effect of fine particulate matter, also known as PM 2.5 pollution. You might know it as black carbon or “soot.”

“Our study is the first one that demonstrates that exposure to PM2.5, even just over a few weeks, can impair cognitive performance,” lead author Xu Gao tells Inverse. Gao is an assistant professor at Peking University and a researcher affiliated with Columbia University.

What’s new — Scientists are increasingly unearthing new information about how the tainted air we breathe harms our bodies, whether it’s worsening the severity of Covid-19 or reducing men’s sperm count.

Gao and colleagues found air pollution is associated with considerable negative short-term effects on cognitive health in a sample of older white men. This finding was published Monday in the journal Nature Aging.

The study suggests PM 2.5 levels not usually considered hazardous can still cause individuals to suffer from cognitive decline due to short-term air pollution. This implies “there is no safe zone for PM 2.5,” Gao says.

Interestingly, the researchers found that men who take what’s known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) did not suffer as many harmful effects from PM 2.5 pollution. These anti-inflammatory medications include pills like aspirin.

This finding emerged although NSAIDs don’t have any known relationship to cognitive performance. The researchers suspect NSAIDs have a “modifying effect” on the inflammatory responses prompted by inhaling polluted air.

These findings are preliminary — Gao says it’s too early to endorse taking NSAIDs as a way to protect oneself from air pollution. However, he does venture to say people on these medications “may have additional benefits.”

Air pollution is associated with an ever-growing laundry list of health risks, including:

PM 2.5 pollution is especially harmful. These tiny air particles are 2.5 microns or less in size — for comparison, human hair is roughly 70 microns in diameter. This category of pollution is why you see gray horizons in cities like Los Angeles — it’s associated with smog and poor air quality. It’s arguably the greatest environmental risk factor for human mortality.

But there is some good news amidst all this doom and gloom. Some recent studies, for example, suggest exercise can offset some of the harmful effects of air pollution — even in urban areas.

Air pollution deaths have also declined by half between 1990 and 2010, correlating with improved federal regulations on air quality. But it can still do considerable short-term and long-term damage to the human mind, according to this latest Nature Aging study.

How they did it — The scientists analyzed data from 954 men in the Boston area between 1995 and 2021. The average age of a man in the study data was 69-years-old. None had chronic health conditions, but 64 percent were former smokers.

The participants were also questioned about their use of NSAIDs, including aspirin. They also took cognitive tests, including tests on their ability to remember words and repeat numbers, as well as screening exercises used to test for dementia.The researchers also analyzed this data in conjunction with information on weather patterns in the Boston area, since air pollution varies by season and is greater in the winter.

Finally, they obtained data on air pollution from a Harvard University supersite, which they used as a baseline to measure air pollution in the Greater Boston areas.

Using this information, the researchers were able to paint a picture of cognitive health that correlates with short-term air pollution and also study any potential effects of NSAIDs on cognitive performance.

Why it matters — Media and policymakers have focused, rightly so, on the number of deaths resulting from air pollution each year, which now number 200,000 annually in the U.S — and that’s just from the air that meets EPA standards.

Much less attention has been paid to air pollution’s impacts on short-term and long-term cognitive performance. The research that has been done has found air pollution can impair the cognitive performance of children, and influence cognitive decline in older adults.

Although this new study focuses on short-term effects, the researchers also conducted a sensitivity analysis to include the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution. And while preliminary, the findings don’t bode well for the human mind’s ability to withstand air pollution in the long run.

“We found that both short and long exposures were related to cognitive function,” Gao says. But the study has limitations — The study team acknowledges that their work is just a starting point. Much more research needs to be done to expand on their intriguing findings — and go beyond the scope of the study’s design.

For example, the study only focuses on older white men, “which suggests the possibility that the results might not be generalizable to other ethnic groups and/or women” the team writes. Gao would like to conduct further research involving people of different ages, races, and genders to confirm whether similar effects would occur among various demographics.

“We believe that younger people may have a better adaptive response to air pollution than the elderly. Females are also different from males with respect to health outcomes,” Gao says.

Meanwhile, scientists have long known that communities of color suffer disproportionately from air pollution. A recent Science study found Black and Hispanic individuals experience particularly high levels of PM 2.5 pollution — the subject of this study.

The researchers also analyzed this data in conjunction with information on weather patterns in the Boston area, since air pollution varies by season and is greater in the winter.

But the study has limitations — The study team acknowledges that their work is just a starting point. Much more research needs to be done to expand on their intriguing findings — and go beyond the scope of the study’s design.

What’s next — Ultimately, what’s needed is more information on both the long-term impacts of air pollution on cognitive health and the relationship between NSAIDs and air pollution. This research could be used to inform future policy, both in the U.S. and abroad.

And while Gao suggests NSAIDs could be helpful in treating the cognitive effects of air pollution, it is not a replacement for policies that reduce the actual source of pollution. Recent efforts by the Biden administration to move toward electric vehicles, as well as California’s stricter vehicle emissions standards, could help shift the tide against air pollution.

“Although our study shows that taking NSAIDs may be a solution to air pollution’s harm, [it’s] definitely not the final answer to the threats of air pollution. Changing our policies of air pollution towards a more restrictive manner is still warranted,” Gao says.

But it’s data that drives policy forward — evidence that pollution isn’t just a topic on our minds, it literally influences the brain.

By: Tara Yarlagadda

Source: Scientists find an odd link between aspirin, air pollution, and male brains

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Regeneron Says Antibody Therapy Prevents COVID-19 Infections

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals is planning to ask the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to allow its antibody cocktail to be used as a preventive treatment for COVID-19, the company said Monday.

New results from a clinical trial conducted with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases found the drug reduced the risk of symptomatic infection by 81 percent in people who were not infected at the start of the trial, Regeneron said.

The company has already received emergency use authorization from the FDA to use its antibody drugs to treat adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 and pediatric patients at least 12 years old who have tested positive for the virus and are at high risk of severe disease but are not yet hospitalized.

The trial enrolled 1,505 people who were not infected with the virus but lived in the same household as someone who recently tested positive. The patients were randomized to receive either one dose of the antibody therapy or a placebo administered as injections.

After 29 days, 11 people out of the 753 who received a single 1,200 mg dose of the treatment developed symptomatic COVID-19; 59 people who received a placebo out of 752 participants developed symptomatic COVID-19.

The drug provided 72 percent protection against symptomatic infections in the first week and 93 percent protection in subsequent weeks, Regeneron said. The data has not yet been peer reviewed or published.

Regeneron also said the trial found individuals treated with the therapy who experienced a symptomatic infection resolved their symptoms in one week, compared to three weeks with placebo. Infected individuals also cleared the virus faster with the therapy, the company said.

Adverse events occurred in 20 percent of patients who received the antibody drug and 29 percent of those who received a placebo, Regeneron said, but nobody withdrew from the trial because of them.

None of the participants who received the therapy were hospitalized or went to the ER because of COVID-19 over the course of 29 days; four in the placebo group did so. There were four deaths in the trial — two in the therapy group and two in the placebo group — but none were reported due to COVID-19 or the drug.

“With more than 60,000 Americans continuing to be diagnosed with COVID-19 every day, the REGEN-COV antibody cocktail may help provide immediate protection to unvaccinated people who are exposed to the virus, and we are also working to understand its potential to provide ongoing protection for immunocompromised patients who may not respond well to vaccines,” George Yancopoulos, president and chief scientific officer at Regeneron, said in a statement.

The trial tested the antibody treatment for use as a “passive vaccine,” which involves directly injecting antibodies into the body. Traditional vaccines rely on a person’s immune system to activate and develop its own antibodies.

That means the treatment may provide immediate benefits, in contrast to active vaccines, which take weeks to provide protection. In addition, using injections rather than an infusion could make administering it more convenient than the currently authorized use for antibody drugs.

While much of the attention has been focused on vaccines, experts say therapeutic treatments are just as important to ending the pandemic, which has killed more than 562,000 Americans.

Source: Regeneron says antibody therapy prevents COVID-19 infections | TheHill

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COVID-19 Vaccination Passports Worry Public Health Experts

More and more people are getting vaccinated, and some are even traveling. Which has led to a debate over whether countries should require COVID-19 vaccination passports or IDs. The European Union is proposing a so-called Digital Green Pass so vaccinated people can move more freely.

Family vacation in Italy? Business trip to China? No problem. Just show me your COVID-19 vaccine certificate. This might be the future. “I think it would certainly speed up the recovery of those sectors that have been slowed down or shut down because of risk of exposure to COVID,” said Glenn Melnick, a health economist at the University of Southern California.

Many worry about creating an underclass of unvaccinated people who also can’t travel. Dr. Wafaa el-Sadr at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health said the U.S. still has a lot of work to do.

“I’m hopeful that if there’s a true commitment in this country to equity that we would be able to reach a point where we have been able to overcome the very real barriers that people are facing now in accessing vaccination,” she said.

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NBC News medical contributor Dr. Vin Gupta and CNBC’s senior health and science reporter Meg Tirrell join TODAY to discuss the latest news surrounding coronavirus vaccine candidates. They discuss the possibility of a vaccine passport required by businesses and events to ensure the safety of customers and employees. » Subscribe to TODAY: http://on.today.com/SubscribeToTODAY » Watch the latest from TODAY: http://bit.ly/LatestTODAY
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And if it’s going to happen, Jennifer Nuzzo at Johns Hopkins University said, universal verification systems will be needed. “You are requiring countries to show proof of having provided something that is very hard to get, that can create incentives for perhaps not being completely transparent about what’s actually going on,” she said.

As other countries start to experiment with vaccine credentials, Americans who want to travel may have to participate.

Source: COVID-19 “vaccine passports” worry public health experts – Marketplace

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Histamine Intolerance: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Histamine intolerance is not a sensitivity to histamine, but an indication that you’ve developed too much of it. Histamine is a chemical responsible for a few major functions:

  • communicates messages to your brain
  • triggers release of stomach acid to help digestion
  • releases after injury or allergic reaction as part of your immune response

When histamine levels get too high or when it can’t break down properly, it can affect your normal bodily functions. Histamine is associated with common allergic responses and symptoms. Many of these are similar to those from a histamine intolerance.

While they may vary, some common reactions associated with this intolerance include:

In more severe cases of histamine intolerance, you may experience:

What causes high histamine levels?

You naturally produce histamine along with the enzyme diamine oxidase (DAO). DAO is responsible for breaking down histamine that you take in from foods.

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SEVEN Causes of Histamine Intolerance For access to blog, article, podcast, shareable quotes: advancednaturopathic.com/SEVEN-Causes-of-Histamine-Intolerance/ Get Dr. Roberts’ new book: http://advancednaturopathic.com/build… Join Us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/AdvancedNatu… Follow Us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/drmelinaroberts ——————– ABOUT DR. MELINA ROBERTS ——————-
Dr. Melina Roberts is a Naturopathic Doctor, Author of Building a Healthy Child, Founder and Clinic Director of Advanced Naturopathic Medical Centre in Calgary. She is a leading authority in the field of naturopathic medicine specializing in European Biological Medicine effectively treating digestive issues, chronic disease and cancer.
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If you develop a DAO deficiency and are unable to break down histamine, you could develop an intolerance. Some reasons your DAO enzyme levels could be affected include:

  • medications that block DAO functions or prevent production
  • gastrointestinal disorders, such as leaky gut syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease
  • histamine-rich foods that cause DAO enzymes to function improperly
  • foods that block DAO enzymes or trigger histamine release

Bacterial overgrowth is another contributing factor for developing a histamine intolerance. Bacteria grows when food isn’t digested properly, causing histamine overproduction. Normal levels of DAO enzymes can’t break down the increased levels of histamine in your body, causing a reaction.

Controlling histamine levels with diet

Foods to avoid

A healthy diet contains moderate levels of histamine. However, there are some foods high in histamine that can trigger inflammatory reactions and other negative symptoms.

Histamine-rich foods are:

There are also a number of foods that trigger histamine release in the body, such as:

Foods that block DAO production include:

Foods to eat

If you have a histamine intolerance, incorporating low-histamine foods into your diet can help reduce symptoms. There’s no such thing as a histamine-free diet. Consult with a dietician before you eliminate foods from your diet.

Some foods low in histamine include:

Diagnosing histamine intolerance

Before reaching a diagnosis, your doctor will eliminate other possible disorders or allergies that cause similar symptoms. Doctors may also suggest following an elimination diet for 14 to 30 days. This diet requires you to remove any foods high in histamine or histamine triggers, and slowly reintroduce them to watch for new reactions.

Your doctor might also take a blood sample to analyze if you have a DAO deficiency. Another way to diagnose histamine intolerance is through a prick test. A 2011 studyTrusted Source examined the effectiveness of a prick test to diagnose histamine intolerance. Researchers pricked the skin of 156 people and applied a 1 percent histamine solution.

For those with suspected histamine intolerance, the prick test was positive for 79 percent, revealing a small red, itchy bump on the tested area that didn’t resolve within 50 minutes. Histamine intolerance can cause uncomfortable symptoms, but it can be treated with a low-histamine diet.

Histamine intolerance shouldn’t be self-diagnosed since symptoms are similar to other allergens, disorders, or infections. If you think you might have an intolerance or are experiencing irregular symptoms, talk with your doctor.

Medically reviewed by Daniel Murrell, M.D. — Written by Kiara Anthony

Source: Histamine Intolerance: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

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ns. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.
Medically reviewed by Daniel Murrell, M.D. — Written by Kiara Anthony — Updated on March 7, 2019

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Feeling Cold: Why Do You Feel Colder Than Others?

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I’m freezing,” has to be my most used phrase. I’m not even talking about during winter, when everyone’s cold, but all year round. You can find me complaining about the fact that I can’t feel my fingers in mild March or that I need a jacket during July’s heatwave evenings. I won’t even begin to tell you how many layers I wear when I go skiing.

The Stylist team’s morning call is also a never-ending chorus of complaints about temperature (yes, our editor was wrapped up in a puffer jacket this morning). Yet, my housemate can walk down the street in shorts in December, and others sweat the second they put a coat on.

So why do some people just seem to feel the cold more than others – and what does it mean?

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What is the best temperature for sleep? Why you should never sleep with the central heating on

Finding out what is ‘normal’ when it comes to our temperature is pretty tricky though, explains Dr Clare Eglin from the Extreme Environments Laboratory in the Health and Exercise Science department at the University of Portsmouth. While our core temperature should ideally not change, “our perception of whether we find somewhere warm or cool is very individual and usually down to our skin temperature,” Dr Eglin says. “This is what gives our body feedback, and lots of things can affect that from the clothes that we are wearing to the activities we are doing – and also the wind and dampness of the environment.”

However, there are genetic and personal factors that can mean that two people, wearing the same thing, in the same environment feel different temperatures.

Why do some people feel colder than others?

There are many factors to this, including:

  • Overall body size can impact how cold you feel, as smaller people have less cells in their body that produce heat
  • People with higher levels of body fat and/or muscle mass have more insulation and a higher resting metabolic rate so burn energy faster
  • Being active not only warms the body immediately but can have a long-term effect on temperature regulation
  • Older people also tend to have a slower resting metabolic rate, so may feel the cold more

These factors do mean that gender is a big divider, as women are generally smaller than men and carry less muscle mass. We’ve all fought over the thermostat in the office (or central heating while at home) but the fact is that “the temperature deemed comfortable for most people is meant to be about 21 degrees. Actually, that’s ideal for a man in a suit, but women generally do better with a higher temperature,” says Dr Eglin.

Interestingly, we feel this disparity internally too. “Estrogen and progesterone, which change throughout the menstrual cycle, affect how quickly our blood vessels constrict to the cold. So depending what part of the menstrual cycle you’re in, you might find your hands and feet get colder, affecting your overall temperature perception,” says Dr Eglin.

Plus, your temperature perception can change throughout the day. “For instance, at six o’clock in the morning your core temperature is at its lowest, and from midday to mid-afternoon, it’s at its highest,” she adds.

Why do my hands feel cold?

Don’t panic if, like me, you have hands like ice cubes on a summer’s day. “It is a very typical thing, particularly for women, as our hands are really good for regulation,” says Dr Eglin. Our hands have a large surface area but a small volume and are filled with lots of blood vessels very close to the surface of the skin. “They’re very good for losing heat and so therefore, when you’re slightly cool, the blood flow shuts down,” she says.

While “peripheral temperature is generally nothing to worry about”, it can be a sign of Raynaud’s syndrome, an extreme response to cold or stress where arteries narrow to the point that fingers and toes turn white or blue and feel cold and numb – but circulation returns to normal when warm again.

Is it bad to be cold all the time?

Generally, being cold is simply down to our body type, and as long as we take precautions it’s not a bad thing. But if constant coldness is mixed with other symptoms it could be a sign of something more serious. For example, coldness paired with tiredness or dizziness could be a symptom of an iron or B12 deficiency, or even anaemia. Constantly being cold coupled with hair loss, a change in your digestive system and weight gain could also be a sign of a low thyroid – when the gland stops producing enough thyroxine (a hormone which regulates your metabolism).

Ultimately, your body is pretty good at regulating itself, so trust what it’s telling you. “Our behaviour is the most important thing when it comes to keeping warm. I think quite often we underestimate the weather in the UK. You always hear people say ‘It’s not that bad, it’s not like we’re in the Arctic!’, but with the windchill and dampness it can be very cold. We don’t pay enough attention to that,” says Dr Eglin. So, bundle up when you’re feeling the chill.

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Source: Feeling cold: why do you feel colder than others?

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Sleeping in cold weather: 6 ways to get a good night’s rest in winter

Winter workouts: 9 tips to help motivate yourself to exercise when it’s cold

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Why Do Eating Disorders Persist?
[…] hunger, dizziness, weakness and feeling cold) are interpreted in a positive light, seeing them as signs of their success in controlling eatin […]
We Have Many More Than Five Senses — Here’s How To Make The Most Of Them –
digest.bps.org.uk – Today
[…] to participants and asking them about their social plans — the team found support for the idea that feeling cold physically is associated with feeling “colder” socially, driving a desire for more contact wit […]
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[…] This trick will also reduce the surprise of instantly feeling cold on a sore area […]
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metro.co.uk – March 30
[…] It will be mainly drier at first with Good Friday feeling cold in the morning with likely a touch of frost in the west, while most of the nation will experienc […]
2021 APRA Music Awards welcome ONEFOUR, Miiesha and Lime Cordiale as first-time nominees – Music News
http://www.abc.net.au – March 30
[…] Chris Cester – ‘Chase The Feeling’ Cold Chisel – ‘Getting The Band Back Together’ Spacey Jane – ‘Good For You’ Hockey Dad – ‘I Missed Out […]
How this Mom Got Over Her Eating Disorder With a Plant-Base Diet
thebeet.com – March 30
[…] I was in a constant state of feeling cold, both physically and emotionally, and at the core of everything, I now recognize I was in terribl […]
Fundraiser for Allison Friday by David Richardson : Allison Friday Quad-Amputee Recover Rebuild Renew
[…] She had gone to bed the night before feeling cold and weak and thought it was the last of a particularly awful flu she and many others had in lat […]
Ion channels associated with dental hypersensitivity to cold foods and drinks
exbulletin.com – March 29
[…] “David said,’Well, which other tissues in the body are feeling cold,’” Zimmerman recalls […]
3 Ways To Support Memory
goodmenproject.com – March 29
[…] For example, hearing a bird overhead, seeing an image that flashes in front of a person, feeling cold when getting something out of the freezer, or smelling a brief fragrance when walking by a coffe […]
18 Disturbing Facts You’ll Want To Unlearn
[…] your own immune system destroying your red blood cells, constant hemorrhaging, and constantly feeling cold and out of breath […]
17 Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar Without Diabetes –
[…] Others however may experience cold sweats which is a bodily response characterized by sweating and feeling cold or chilly at the same time […]
Buying the right sleeping bag made simple
freerangeamerican.us – March 28
[…] This is the temperature that an average man can sleep in a curled-up position for six hours without feeling cold […]
Newsletter, March 29th 2021 –
[…] irradiation, thyroid cancer, autoimmune disease, or thyroidectomy leads to symptoms like fatigue, feeling cold, constipation, and weight gain […]
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banterrepublic.blog – March 27
[…] I can’t sleep good when I know the food is feeling cold in the fridge […]
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theparentian.com – March 27
[…] or fatigue Nausea Faintness or dizziness Muscle cramps Vaginal bleeding An irregular heartbeat Feeling cold or clammy Abrupt swelling in the hands, ankles, and face Trouble walking Leakage of amniotic flui […]
First lab-grown mini-thyroids use patients’ own tissue
[…] irradiation, thyroid cancer or autoimmune disease or thyroidectomy leads to symptoms like fatigue, feeling cold, constipation, and weight gain […]
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womensleanbodyformula.com – March 27
[…] cause nutritional deficiencies, gallstones, and other side effects such as fatigue, irritability, feeling cold, muscle cramps, dizziness, and so on […]
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bestlifeonline.com – March 27
[…] According to the CDC, experiencing chills—feeling cold or shivering when you’re not specifically in a cold environment—is another one of the most commo […]
SQPFTW Rustic End Table (Fully Assembled) – Solid Wood Nightstand with 2 Drawers/Side Table/ – No Assembly Required Table for Bedroom, Livingroom and Bathroom, 17″ L x 15″ W x 22.8″ H – Rustic Brown
amazon.com – March 26
[…] On the contrary, there are many industrial style (iron and wood) furniture in the market, feeling cold […]
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[…] As well as weight loss, sufferers may experience insomnia, constipation, bloating, feeling cold, hair loss, and swelling of the hands, face and feet […]
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zone3.com – March 26
[…] This might sound obvious but the mind can play tricks on you, if you stay in beyond feeling cold you can even start to feel warm again […]
Football: LMFC Training 30 March –
[…] participate in activity, please check you: Do not have symptoms of a high temperature (feeling hot, feeling cold, shivers, feeling under the weather) […]
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finerbedrooms.co.uk – March 25
[…] It is perfect for when you’re feeling cold, stressed or for soothing tense muscles or aches […]
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[…] If you have signs of a slow metabolism including: weight gain from fat, loss of muscle, dry skin, feeling cold often You have reduced your total caloric intake and still do not loose weight You have no rea […]
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[…] habits or routines around food changes in your mood You may also notice physical signs, including: feeling cold, tired or dizzy problems with your digestion your weight being very high or very low for someone of […]
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threadreaderapp.com – March 25
[…] 1 Kings 1:1 It is sad that many people go into relationships without knowing the difference between FEELING COLD/HAVING COLD, & FEELING HEAT/GETTING HEAT […] #marriage #issuesofmarriage A man who is feeling cold is not the same as the one who has cold. With good layers of clothes, the one who is feeling cold might feel heat and get better, but winter clothes cannot make a man who has cold get heat! The one […]
Fever – Natural Herbs Clinic
[…] are typically caused by other factors relating to the illness behind the fever and include: Feeling cold when nobody else does Shivering Lack of appetite Dehydration — preventable if the person drink […]
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[…] dietary fat can leave you feeling hungry even after a meal, struggling to focus and concentrate and feeling cold frequently […]
Top 10 First Aid Emergencies To Be Prepared For – Coast2Coast
[…] If the person complains of feeling cold, cover the patient with a clean sheet or blanket to prevent hyperthermia and get immediate medica […]
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http://www.abc.net.au – March 24
[…]   Share post WedWednesday 24 MarMarch 2021 at 4:28am By Michael Doyle DOYLE JOKE: I was feeling cold at school the other day […]
Outfit of the Day: Midi Skirts are perfect for transitioning from winter to spring
[…] I feel I can start wearing more colours and feel like I’m wearing a Spring outfit but without feeling cold outside […]
Grunting And Nasal Flare: 7 Symptoms Of Covid In Under 18s | HuffPost UK Life
[…] Feeling cold and clammy with pale or mottled skin […]
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http://www.opdivo.com – March 23
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation your voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Aurora Borealis SE 2018
wonderlostinwanderlust.com – March 23
[…] As we started feeling cold, Oliver warmed Lingonberry Juice over the fire and passed it around […]
What do buyers want? Five fundamental factors that turn viewings into sales.
coxandcohomes.co.uk – March 23
[…] There’s a fine line between a room being emptied of clutter and a room feeling cold and bare, and we’ll help you strike the perfect balance […]
Why Loli Beauty’s New Acne Spot Treatment Is the Answer to My Maskne
http://www.vogue.com – March 23
[…] provide that protective barrier between my mask and any blemishes but one that didn’t leave my skin feeling cold or rub off on the mask (ultimately defeating the point) […]
Why Am I Always Cold? 7 Possible Reasons and Solutions
[…] But when you’re feeling cold for what seems like no reason at all (and everyone around you is perfectly fine), it might be tim […]
Story time: Sick after running (or: should I take a break?) : running
http://www.reddit.com – March 22
[…] Feeling cold, despite the 25ºC […]
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crweworld.com – March 22
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
OTC Dynamics | $RHHBY Pivotal Phase III Study Shows Genentech’s Tecentriq Helped People With Early Lung Cancer Live Longer Without Their Disease Returning
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
The anti‐scientists bias: The role of feelings about scientists in COVID‐19 attitudes and behaviors – Sanchez – – Journal of Applied Social Psychology
onlinelibrary.wiley.com – March 22
[…] all of our studies, political conservatives were more likely to feel cold toward scientists, and feeling cold toward scientists related to being less likely to engage in COVID behaviors […]
Poetry: John Olson —
caesuramag.org – March 22
[…] Here he is the Father of Complication at the end of the long crushed day feeling cold as a nickel but fit as a fiddle & ready to go yeah yeah yeah play Bach on the harmonica […]
Ireland weather: Met Eireann forecast day big change hits as drastic airmass swings conditions – Dublin Live
[…] Feeling cold with a touch of frost possible in areas sheltered from a brisk southwest breeze […] Feeling cold with highs of 5 to 8 degrees and fresh westerly winds, strongest along Atlantic coasts […]
Pivotal Phase III Study Shows Genentech’s Tecentriq Helped People With Early Lung Cancer Live Longer Without Their Disease Returning
stocksnewsfeed.com – March 22
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Pivotal Phase III Study Shows Genentech’s Tecentriq Helped People With Early Lung Cancer Live Longer Without Their Disease Returning | Business Wire
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Common signs of Eating Disorders
[…] These can include: Feeling tired  Feeling dizzy  Feeling cold a lot of the time  Suffering from a range of digestive symptoms (e […]
CALENDAR
[…] contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19 in the past 14 days; have a fever; or are feeling cold– or allergy-like symptoms including cough, stuffy or runny nose, headache, or loss of sense o […] contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19 in the past 14 days; have a fever; or are feeling cold– or allergy-like symptoms including cough, stuffy or runny nose, headache, or loss of sense o […] contact with someone who has tested positive for COVID-19 in the past 14 days; have a fever; or are feeling cold– or allergy-like symptoms including cough, stuffy or runny nose, headache, or loss of sense o […]
Pivotal Phase III Study Shows Genentech’s Tecentriq Helped People With Early Lung Cancer Live Longer Without Their Disease Returning – 1stOncology™: Cancer Intelligence Service
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Yervoy: Uses, Side Effects, Dosages, Precautions
[…] skin Endocrine (hormone) signs/symptoms: Persistent or unusual headaches, abnormal tiredness, feeling cold all the time, weight gain or weight loss, mood or behavior changes, dizziness or fainting […]
Genentech: Press Releases | Sunday, Mar 21, 2021
http://www.gene.com – March 21
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Lockdown, Systems, Cybernetics (& a Dash of Football)
[…]  A person feeling cold will put on a jumper and a mouse feeling hungry will go looking for food […]
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http://www.buzz.ie – March 21
[…] Feeling cold with highs of 5 to 8 degrees and fresh westerly winds, strongest along Atlantic coasts […]
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cerebralpalsyscotland.org.uk – March 21
[…] Sensory issues Temperature:  Where a child is prone to feeling cold through the night, or where nightwear/bed-covers end up being wriggled off – onesie suits ca […]
Genentech: Press Releases | Sunday, Mar 21, 2021
http://www.gene.com – March 21
[…] or weight loss feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual urinating more often than usual hair loss feeling cold constipation their voice gets deeper dizziness or fainting changes in mood or behavior, such a […]
Paul Gascoigne vows to win Italian I’m A Celebrity for late nephew | Daily
[…] As well as weight loss, sufferers may experience insomnia, constipation, bloating, feeling cold, hair loss, and swelling of the hands, face and feet […]
My children keep asking to speak to their dad killed in crashed NAF plane — Widow
punchng.com – March 21
[…] I just felt Sunkanmi was dead because I was feeling cold […]
MaryO/COVID Vaccine 2
cushingsbios.com – March 20
[…] Tuesday, March 16, 2021:  My arm was sorer than Monday and I was still feeling cold, sleeping off and on […]  I was feeling cold but I don’t know if it was chills or really a cold […]
What is wrong with your kidneys: Be careful with these symptoms
thehealthmaster.com – March 20
[…] Feeling cold:  Anaemia can also make the person feel cold even in warm conditions […]
Anorexia Nervosa: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment
[…] of anorexia include: Confused or slow thinking Poor memory or judgment Thin, brittle hair and nails Feeling cold all the time Feeling faint, dizzy, or weak Feeling tired or sluggish Irregular periods or neve […]
Benefits of Getting Heating And Air Repair Near Me Services Before It’s Hot Or Cold Out –
cooltechknoxville.wordpress.com – March 19
[…] In this case, you’ll spend several days feeling cold until you’ll get a heating and air repair near me […]
First Look Friday | Custom Oakley’s, a bespoke rando bag and more
[…] I shopped around for a bag that would fit these criteria but the options out there left me feeling cold, so I eventually settled on ordering a custom bag from Cory Brenn in Glasgow, and I couldn’t b […]
UK Weather forecast, alerts and UVB index, Friday 19 March 2021
[…] Feeling cold across Kent and East Sussex in the easterly breeze […]
Blue Tag Sale | Samsung South Africa
[…] Free Airconditioner 9000 BTU + (Free Installation) AR09TSHCBWK/FA Stay comfortably cool without feeling cold Reduces energy use by 77%* to save money Reduces noise and energy use by 73%* LEARN MORE AR950 […]
Remede Spa review: We tried an ancient Turkish ritual | Honeycombers
thehoneycombers.com – March 18
[…] Worried about feeling cold? I was, too […]
COVID-19: Novel Coronavirus News and Updates
[…] Bluish lips or face Signs of low blood pressure (too weak to stand, dizziness, lightheadedness, feeling cold, pale, clammy skin) Dehydration (dry lips and mouth, not urinating much, sunken eyes) New o […]
Body Temperature of Older… – Talitha Cumi Home Care Inc | Facebook
Body Temperature of Older Adults Feeling cold and hot is something our bodies can control. For older adults, this capability is decreased, making them prone to hypothermia and hyperthermia. That explains why seniors don’t sweat a lot or right away in hot temperatures, increasing the risk of heatstroke in the age group. With that, seniors must also wear layers of clothes to feel warm. #Seniors #AtTalithaCumiHomeCareInc
Many Frontline Workers Decline COVID Vaccines
nofrakkingconsensus.com – March 17
[…] following her first dose: “I woke up in the middle of the night with a horrible headache, nausea, feeling cold but no fever…It’s the first time I’ve had so many side effects after an injection, yet I vaccinat […]
Language learning keeps communities together through the pandemic | Features | jhnewsandguide.com
[…] ” He was also able to provide her a jacket, since she mentioned she was feeling cold […]
Why Do I Get Cold After I Eat? Causes and Potential Indications
[…] Feeling cold after eating may be related to the type of food you’re eating or even your diet […] That said, extreme body chills, shivering, or constantly feeling cold after eating could also be a symptom of an underlying medical condition […] Low blood sugar levels may make you more sensitive to feeling cold or cause cold sweats (6). If you’re routinely feeling cold during intermittent fasting, this may be a sign that you need to consume more calories during you […]
you and the hues – icelikestwice – TWICE – Fandom [Archive of Our Own]
archiveofourown.org – March 17
[…] She hugs herself as she walks down the sidewalk, feeling cold as she does her drunken walk of shame […]
the momentary space that we call now – Chapter 2 – beecalm – SK8 the Infinity (Anime) [Archive of Our Own]
archiveofourown.org – March 17
[…] Hypothermia is at its most dangerous when you stop feeling cold […]
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drdevinmiles.com – March 16
[…]   Symptoms associated with kidney disease include: fatigue weakness feeling cold shortness of breath trouble thinking clearly swelling in hands or feet feeling itchy darkenin […]
What is Dream Work?. How to alchemically activate your… | by Joshua Burkhart | Mar, 2021
joshuaburkhart.medium.com – March 16
[…] myself and others through old lenses of conditioning, that cause so much separation, leaving me feeling cold, untouched, unnourished; a state that then affects my ability to be warm to others, accepting o […]
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deyproject.org – March 16
[…]   They can be prone to feeling cold and vulnerable to panic attacks […]
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island.lk – March 16
[…] These were very well documented as chills (feeling cold), fever and body aches […]
New Release | The Wolff Legacy by @AuthorCJB #suspense #bookish #newrelease #bookboost
[…] Swallowing the pain, she reached out tentatively, feeling cold metal… Bars? Suddenly remembering her phone, she pulled it from her pocket […]
The Voice of the Customer Still Matters – In Spite of What McKinsey Say
engagecustomer.com – March 15
[…]   While I agree with many of the issues raised, the solution McKinsey put forward left me feeling cold to say the least […]
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[…] cancer or autoimmune disease or thyroidectomy leads to hypothyroidism symptoms like fatigue, feeling cold, constipation and weight gain […]
Phase 3 Trial of Libtayo® (cemiplimab) Monotherapy in Advanced Cervical Cancer Stopped Early for Positive Result on Overall Survival | Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. (Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)
[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
One of The Lifestyles That Leads to Poor Health Nowadays- [By Imaam Muhammad Ibn Saaleh Al-Uthaymeen] –
salaficentre.com – March 15
[…] He does not want to receive any inconvenience – neither (feeling) cold during cold (days) nor the heat during hot (days), nor does he want to be touched by anything, s […]
Phase 3 trial of Libtayo® (cemiplimab) monotherapy in advanced cervical cancer stopped early for positive result on overall survival – Sanofi Genzyme
[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
Crwe World | Phase 3 Trial of Libtayo® (cemiplimab) Monotherapy in Advanced Cervical Cancer Stopped Early for Positive Result on Overall Survival
crweworld.com – March 15
[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals : Phase 3 Trial of Libtayo® (cemiplimab) Monotherapy in Advanced Cervical Cancer Stopped Early for Positive Result on Overall Survival | MarketScreener
[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
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[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
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[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
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[…] weight loss, feeling more hungry or thirsty than usual, urinating more often than usual, hair loss, feeling cold, constipation, your voice gets deeper, dizziness or fainting, or changes in mood or behavior, suc […]
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How To Lower Resting Heart Rate: 5 Practical Steps To Take Today

How to lower resting heart rate

Wondering how to lower resting heart rate but not sure where to start? We’ve got the expert answers you’re looking for. Heart rate is a great key indicator of overall health and fitness levels. The heart is one of the hardest working muscles in the body so making sure it’s functioning properly is key.

Your heart rate will naturally spike throughout the day depending on how much you move and other factors such as stress levels and stimulants such as coffee, but it’s your resting heart rate that’s most important.

Resting heart rate simply refers to how many times your heart beats per minute whilst in a rested state. The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends taking your resting heart rate when you wake after a good night’s sleep.

You can check your resting heart rate by holding two fingers against one of your pulse points for a minute and counting the number of beats. However, technology can help provide a more accurate reading. The best heart rate monitors can be used in a resting state as well as during physical activity to help you monitor your heart rate zones, whilst today’s best fitness trackers (which include the best Fitbits) also provide heart-rate stats.

Generally speaking, the lower resting heart rate you have, the healthier your heart is and the fitter you are – although factors such as age can play a role. The AHA advises that for most people, a normal resting heart rate should be between 60 – 100. However, for those who are particularly active – professional athletes, for example – it’s okay for it to be between 50 and 60.

Studies have shown that elevated resting heart rates are linked with higher body weight and blood pressure, along with lower levels of physical fitness. If yours is above the recommended range, then there are steps you can take to reduce your resting heart rate. Here are five practical ways to make a start…

Increase your activity levels

There’s a reason that professional athletes have a very low resting heart rate – exercise strengthens the heart muscle. So just like when we get stronger if we increase other muscles, when the heart muscle gets stronger it means it works more efficiently – pumping blood quicker around the body.

Dr Zoe Williams, an NHS GP and wellness ambassador for Garminagrees: “There are a variety of ways you can lower your resting HR, but fitness is a great way to start.  “While it might seem counterintuitive to exercise, as this usually brings your heart rate up, the more frequently you exercise the more your heart will learn to be stronger and be more efficient at pumping blood. Then, when you’re in rest mode, your heart is more easily able to maintain a lower heart rate.”

If you are new to exercise, start slow. You could try walking to lose weight, download one of the best fitness apps, or try the Couch to 5k beginner’s running plan. Alternatively, work with a personal trainer to build a workout routine that is tailored to you. The key is to find something you enjoy doing to ensure you stick with it.

Eat a balanced diet

Of course, one of the main benefits that people talk about when cleaning up their diet is weight loss – but when you start to eat healthily, it has a major effect on how your heart performs too.

Brad Emmott, a personal trainer and Head of Recovery at Manor London explains: “If you’re someone who carries excess weight, your heart is having to work harder to pump blood through it. If you lose that excess weight, it won’t need to work as hard.”

Rather than drastically changing your diet overnight and restricting entire food groups (which is never usually a good idea), take it one step at a time. Try to see it as a lifestyle change, rather than a diet.Start small by increasing the amount of fruit and vegetables you eat every day – five is the recommended daily intake. This will naturally decrease your consumption of processed foods, which are typically high in salt and saturated fat.

From here, start to ‘balance’ your plate at every meal, roughly aiming for half vegetables, a quarter protein and a quarter carbohydrates – the perfect mix for feeling full and fueled. See our portion size guide for more information.

Decrease alcohol and sugar consumption

Most of us like to enjoy the odd glass of wine or gin and tonic with friends. But the effects of regular drinking – especially above the recommended guidelines (14 units a week for Brits, two drinks a day for US men and one drink a day for US women) – can result in an elevated heart rate, high blood pressure and the weakening of the heart muscle over time.

Williams says that too much sugar can have similar effects: “For some, eating sugar in excess can mean the body interprets this significant rise in sugar and energy as the result of stress, and releases cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones cause the heart rate to increase, which will in turn cause blood pressure to rise.”

The guidance in the UK is that adults should have no more than 30g of free sugars a day. In the US, the recommended daily limit is 10 teaspoons.

Get more sleep

Williams says creating better sleeping habits is key to lowering your resting heart rate. “One of the best ways to promote consistent sleep is having a healthy sleep routine. By following a standard schedule, the mind and body become accustomed to a healthy sleep pattern.”Many of the best fitness watches now also have sleep monitoring, which can be a useful tool in understanding your existing sleep patterns.

“By monitoring your sleep you can track improvements and adjust your bedtime accordingly to ensure you are getting between seven- and nine-hours sleep, which should ultimately help lower your resting heart rate overtime,” advises Williams. The best sunrise alarm clocks can also help to establish healthy and regular sleep patterns.

Manage your stress levels

Whether it’s down to your job, home life or personal issues, stress will take its toll on your health. Emmott believes we need to learn to manage it so it doesn’t negatively impact our resting heart rate and overall health.“Stress of any kind, physical or emotional does increase heart rate and can have long-term adverse effects on your health,” he says.

“There is no way to eliminate stress in daily life, but managing it is important to keeping a healthy heart.”In addition to the action points outlined above, he recommends that meditation, social interaction (virtual included) and being in nature can help manage stress levels.

Once again, using a fitness tracker to help assess your stress levels is also a good idea. “Knowing your stress level can help you identify stressful moments throughout your day and could help identify triggers of your stress, so you can begin to eliminate and manage stressful situations,” Williams says.

“For example, if your stress scores were high, it would be a great time to take five minutes away from what you were doing to do some deep breathing. This doesn’t have to impact your day, you can do it while boiling the kettle, but breaking the chronic stress cycle is so important for your long-term health and short-term mental wellbeing.”

 

 

Source: How to lower resting heart rate: 5 practical steps to take today | Fit&Well

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Can Substituting Sugar With Stevia Benefit Weight Loss?

https://i0.wp.com/onlinemarketingscoops.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/signs-of-weight-loss-te-main-200727_98506497de17b6072ca7c8c987525d54.jpg?resize=924%2C462&ssl=1

The bottom line is that the only way to lose weight is to create a calorie deficit by eating fewer calories than your body burns for energy. There are many ways to accomplish this, and targeting added sugars and replacing them with stevia is an easy and tasty fix.

Research has shown that subjects given stevia-containing foods or beverages consumed fewer calories throughout the day. (2,3)

The Truth About Added Sugars

It seems like everything we read talks about avoiding carbs and sugar.In the U.S., the average intake of added sugars reaches up to 270 calories or more than 13 percent of calories per day based on an average 2000 calorie diet.

Not surprisingly, the largest source of added sugars in the typical diet is beverages, including soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened coffee and tea, energy drinks, alcoholic beverages, and flavored waters. They account for almost half (47%) of all added sugars consumed by the U.S. population.

The other major source of added sugars is snacks and sweets.(1) Most people don’t realize how much sugar they consume from other sources like marinades, sauces, salad dressings, yogurt, crackers and other items that don’t “seem sweet.”

The 2015-2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends limiting added sugars to less than 10% of total calories or about 50 grams per day based on 2000 calories.

If your body needs fewer calories based on size, age, and activity level, the gram limits are even lower.

To take it a step further, the American Heart Association recommends limiting added sugars to 24g grams per day (6 teaspoons) for women and 36 grams per day (9 teaspoons) for men.

It’s obviously an area of concern in our standard American diet as the term “added sugars” appeared 138 times in the dietary guidelines report!

Knowing Your Limit for Added Sugars

Simply put, consumption of added sugars can make it difficult for people desiring to lose weight to meet their nutrient needs while staying within calorie limits.

Whenever anyone restricts total calories, everything eaten needs to contain more nutrients to make sure you get what you need for proper fueling while limiting total calories. One of the simplest strategies is to limit added sugars.

Why? Because they are more often found in foods that do not provide quality vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that we look for to help prevent lifestyle diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancers.

That’s where products like stevia fit in.

Can Stevia Help with Weight Loss?

Since stevia is a plant-based, zero-calorie sweetener with a taste 50-350 times sweeter than sugar, a little goes a long way. By substituting stevia for sugar in your daily routine, there are many ways to cut total calories and sugar grams.

  1. Using stevia to sweeten your coffee or tea (hot or iced), saves 16 calories per teaspoon over sugar. A few cups per day with a few teaspoons each can really add up quickly. Each stevia packet is formulated to equal the sweetness of 2 teaspoons of sugar. Take some with you to your favorite coffeehouse or restaurant and add your own.
  2. Instead of eating pre-sweetened Greek yogurt with up to 20 grams of sugar, start with the plain variety and add your own stevia, vanilla extract, cinnamon and fruit.
  3. Swap stevia for sugar, honey or maple syrup in your oatmeal, homemade salad dressings, baked goods and other recipes that call for sugar. Even subbing in ½ the amount in a recipe can make a big difference.

We would love to hear your sugar swap success stories. How do you enjoy Pyure Organic Stevia?

References:

  1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- 2018, 8th edition, Added Sugars page 54: https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/resources/2015-2020_Dietary_Guidelines.pdf
  2. Anton SD, Martin CK, Han H, Coulon S, Cefalu WT, Geiselman P, Williamson DA. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Appetite 2010;55:37–43.
  3. Tey SL, Salleh NB, Henry J, Forde CG. Effects of aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake. Int J Obes (Lond) 2017;41:450–7.

Source: Can Substituting Sugar with Stevia Benefit Weight Loss?

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Is stevia dangerous for our health? Can stevia affect fertility levels? If stevia is safe, what amount is safe for us to eat? What other sweeteners are safe to eat? What sweeteners does Dr Greger recommend? Are there any studies on the safety of stevia? Keep listening as Dr Michael Greger answers these questions…….
This is for educational purposes only and no copyright infringement is intended. Videos; Dr Greger’s Q & A https://www.facebook.com/pg/Nutrition… Stevia vids http://nutritionfacts.org/?fwp_search… Erythritol http://nutritionfacts.org/video/eryth… Studies; Gut bacteria and Stevia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8… World Health Evaluation https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2… Effects of stevia on health https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1… https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2… Stevia and Fertility https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1… https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2… Dr Greger’s YouTube Channel https://www.youtube.com/user/Nutritio…
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Why Do Antibodies Fade After a COVID-19 Infection & Will The Same Thing Happen With Vaccines

Plasma cells secreting antibodies

The goal of the COVID-19 vaccines being rolled out worldwide is to stimulate our immune systems into creating a protective response against the coronavirus, particularly by generating antibodies. These antibodies then circulate in our blood until needed in the future, attacking and removing the coronavirus quickly from our bodies if we become infected.

The speed with which the scientific and medical communities have developed and tested these new vaccines has been extraordinary. However, this short timescale leaves us with some outstanding questions.

Key among these is how long the protection we receive from vaccination, or indeed from infection with the virus itself, will last. We know, for example, that antibody levels drop quite quickly following a COVID-19 infection.

How the immune system remembers

Our body’s remarkable ability to remember past encounters with infectious microorganisms and retain robust defences against them is due to the phenomenon of immunological memory. This memory resides in white blood cells known as lymphocytes, of which there are two main types: T cells and B cells.

When the body faces a new challenge – either a new infection or vaccine – specific T cells and B cells are recruited to deal with it. “Memory” versions of these specific cells are then kept on standby in case the same issue is encountered again in the future.

It is these B cells that are responsible for releasing antibodies into the blood. When an infection or vaccination occurs, some of them will metamorphose into specialised antibody-production factories, known as plasma cells.

Antibodies are proteins, and like any other protein will be naturally broken down and removed from the body within a few months at most. This is the reason why protection from antibodies that we receive passively, for example from our mothers in the womb or through breast milk, does not last very long. For longer-term protection, we need to produce antibodies for ourselves.

Our body’s ability to maintain antibody levels following infection or vaccination is a result of two mechanisms. In the early stages, if memory B cells detect any persistent infection or vaccine, some will continue to turn into new antibody-producing plasma cells.

Once the infection or vaccine has been completely removed, memory B cells no longer replenish the plasma cell population, which declines. However, some may persist as long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs), which can live for many years in our bone marrow, continually manufacturing and releasing large quantities of antibodies. LLPCs aren’t always created after an infection, but if they are, antibodies against a specific infection can be found in the blood for a long time after the infection has cleared.

Although we don’t yet fully understand which immunisation conditions are best for generating LLPCs, their presence has been linked to certain locations. For example, a US group discovered that LLPCs appear to prefer the marrow of certain bones above others. Ten years after tetanus vaccination, LLPCs were found in femur, humerus and tibia bone marrow much more commonly than that of the ribs, radius, vertebrae or iliac crest.

Quite why LLPCs prefer the marrow of these bones is not yet clear. One interesting possibility is differences in the bone marrow fat level. LLPCs were found to be surrounded by large numbers of fat cells in these bones. This suggests that it may be bone marrow fat content that affects the ability of LLPCs to move to – and reside long term in – certain bones.

But if LLPCs aren’t created, that doesn’t mean someone cannot generate more antibodies against a threat if it is encountered again in the future. Providing the person has generated memory B cells, these will recognise the familiar threat, and once again some will start transforming into new plasma cells, to begin antibody production once more.

Vaccine type affects durability too

There are many reasons why vaccination or infection do not always provide protection that is long lasting. Some of this is due to individual variation in our response to a given vaccine. However, the features of vaccines themselves determine the nature of the antibody response too.

One study found that although a greater proportion of individuals who received tetanus and diphtheria vaccines developed protective antibodies, these antibodies faded more rapidly than those generated by measles, mumps or smallpox vaccines. The key difference between these vaccines is that those against tetanus and diphtheria contain only isolated proteins (modified versions of the toxins that tetanus and diphtheria bacteria make), whereas the measles, mumps and smallpox vaccines contain live, weakened versions of these viruses.

Some people may not produce good responses to live vaccines due to pre-existing immunity to the vaccine itself, having already had a natural infection. However, those that do respond well tend to keep their responses for longer. This is partly due to persistence of the live vaccine in the body, which encourages the short-term replenishment of plasma cells. It is also likely that live vaccines are better at producing LLPCs.

We have already seen that the rate at which antibodies decay following COVID-19 can differ, for example between men and women. Many of the new COVID-19 vaccines are based on novel delivery methods, such as viral vectors or messenger RNA molecules. Clearly these are very effective in their delivery of rapid protection. But quite how well they will activate memory B cells and LLPCs, imparting long-lived immunity, remains to be seen.

 

By: Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences, Brunel University London

Source: Why do antibodies fade after a COVID-19 infection, and will the same thing happen with vaccines?

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New data suggest it may be vaccine or bust. Get more medical news analysis at https://www.methodsman.com or https://www.medscape.com -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- You might be interested in my latest video: “Thanksgiving in the Coronavirus Era – Just Don’t Do It” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNuvw…
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