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How Exercise Lowers Alzheimer’s Risk by Changing Your Brain

Senior woman on bicycle by beach

More and more studies are showing how regular exercise benefits the brain, and in particular, the aging brain. What’s less clear is how exactly exercise counters the cognitive decline that comes with aging and diseases like Alzheimer’s.

To find out, for nearly a decade, Ozioma Okonkwo, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and his colleagues have studied a unique group of middle-aged people at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s. Through a series of studies, the team has been building knowledge about which biological processes seem to change with exercise.

Okonkwo’s latest findings show that improvements in aerobic fitness mitigated one of the physiological brain changes associated with Alzheimer’s: the slowing down of how neurons breakdown glucose. The research, which has not been published yet, was presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association on Aug. 9.

Okonkwo works with the 1,500 people on the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP)—all of whom are cognitively normal, but have genes that put them at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s, or have one or two parents who have been diagnosed with the disease, or both. In the latest study, Okonkwo recruited 23 people from the WRAP population who were not physically active. Eleven were asked to participate in an exercise regimen to improve their aerobic fitness for six months, and 12 served as the control.

All had their brains scanned to track Alzheimer’s-related brain changes including differences in how neurons metabolized glucose, since in people with Alzheimer’s glucose breakdown slows. At the end of the study period, the group that exercised more showed higher levels of glucose metabolism and performed better on cognitive-function tests compared to the controls.

“We are carrying our research full circle and beginning to demonstrate some causality,” says Okonkwo about the significance of his findings.

In their previous work, he and his team identified a series of Alzheimer’s-related biological changes that seemed to be affected by exercise by comparing, retrospectively, people who were more physically active to those who were not.

In this study, they showed that intervening with an exercise regimen could actually affect these processes. Taken together, his body of research is establishing exactly how physical activity contributes to significant changes in the biological processes that drive Alzheimer’s, and may even reduce the effect of strong risk factors such as age and genes linked to higher risk of neurodegenerative disease.

For example, in their earlier work his group confirmed that as people age, the presence of Alzheimer’s-related brain changes increases—including the buildup of amyloid, slower breakdown of glucose by brain cells, shrinking of the volume of the hippocampus (central to memory), and declines in cognitive function measured in standard recall and recognition tests.

But they found that in people who reported exercising at moderate intensity at least 150 minutes a week, as public health experts recommend, brain scans showed that these changes were significantly reduced and in some cases non-existent compared to people who were not active. “The association between age and Alzheimer’s brain changes was blunted,” says Okonkwo, “Even if [Alzheimer’s] got worse, it didn’t get worse at the same speed or rate among those who are physically active as in those who are inactive.”

In another previous study, they found the benefits of exercise in controlling Alzheimer’s processes even among those with genetic predisposition for the disease. When they divided the participants by fitness levels, based on a treadmill test and their ability to efficiently take in oxygen, they found that being fit nearly negated the effect of the deleterious gene ApoE4. “It’s a remarkable finding because it’s not something that was predicted,” says Okonkwo.

In yet another previous study, Okonkwo and his team also found that people with higher aerobic fitness showed lower amounts of white matter hyperintensities, brain changes that are signs of neuron degeneration and show up as brighter spots on MRI images (hence the name). White matter hyperintensities tend to increase in the brain with age, and are more common in people with dementia or cognitive impairment.

They form as neurons degrade and the myelin that surrounds their long-reaching arms—which helps nerves communicate with each other effectively—starts to deteriorate. In people with dementia, that process happens faster than normal, leading to an increase in white matter hyperintensities. Okonwko found that people who were more aerobically fit showed lower amounts of these hyperintensities than people who were less fit.

Given the encouraging results from his latest study of 23 people that showed intervening with exercise can change some of the Alzheimer’s-related brain changes of the disease, he plans to expand his small study to confirm the positive effect that exercise and better fitness can have in slowing the signs of Alzheimer’s. Already, his work has inspired a study launched earlier this year and funded by the National Institutes of Health that includes brain scans to track how physical activity affects biological factors like amyloid and glucose in people at higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s.

The cumulative results show that “there may be certain things we are born with, and certain things that we can’t change ]when it comes to Alzheimer’s risk], but a behavior like physical exercise might help us to modify that,” says Heather Snyder, vice president of medical and scientific relations at the Alzheimer’s Association.

By Alice Park

Source: How Exercise Lowers Alzheimer’s Risk by Changing Your Brain | Time

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Why Cardiac Arrest Is More Likely To Kill Women Than Men, And What We’re Going To Do About It

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If you were walking down the street and a man fell to the pavement clutching his chest, would you know what to do? According to a recent study, of 19,331 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, there’s a 45 percent chance that someone would rush forward to give the man the CPR he needs.

Important follow-up question: if you were walking down the street and a woman fell to the pavement clutching her chest, would you know what to do? The same study showed that a woman is 27 percent less likely than a man to get CPR from a bystander in public. While there isn’t enough research on the intersecting factors of gender and race, studies looking at race and gender separately suggest that women of color are even less likely to receive bystander CPR.

As half a million Americans will die from cardiac arrest annually, timely CPR is an incredibly important matter. Even as major health organizations train tens of millions of people in resuscitation techniques each year, women still lack equal access to the lifesaving compressions of CPR.

It’s important to look at why bystanders are so much less likely to intervene to save a woman in cardiac arrest. The first barrier is a wildly inaccurate myth that women don’t even experience cardiac arrest. Though many people think heart issues are a “men’s problem,” heart disease actually affects more women than men, killing roughly one woman every minute. Even when bystanders accurately identify that a woman needs CPR, they may be afraid to touch her breasts, confused about where to put their hands, or apprehensive about pushing down hard and fast on a woman’s body.

So, how do we address this laundry list of misconceptions that are literally killing women? The same way we popularized the resuscitation techniques that remarkably double or triple cardiac arrest victims’ chances of survival: through education.

Imagine a CPR manikin (the medical term for the dummies used in training courses), that expressionless, universal human form meant to represent everybody and anybody who could suffer cardiac arrest. See something missing from the manikin’s body? Or rather, two things?

Noticing this shocking oversight, an equal parts pissed-off and inspired team at JOAN Creative had an idea—the WoManikin. The WoManikin is a universal attachment that can easily be slipped over the common flat-chested manikin to add breasts. The WoManikin teaches people how to perform CPR on a torso with breasts during training, so they’ll know what to do when they see a woman or person with breasts in cardiac arrest.

By putting the sleeve design on WoManikin.org as an open source pattern and starting a fund to create more attachments, JOAN hopes to get a WoManikin in every CPR training program in the country by 2020. JOAN developed the WoManikin in collaboration with CPR experts, cardiologists, and organizations that care about closing the gender gap in CPR. So, in that way, the WoManikin doesn’t just provide a way to challenge biased CPR training—it shows what happens when women collaborate and apply creativity to tackle the inequities around them.

To learn more and join the fight to end gender disparities in CPR, visit WoManikin.org.

Hannah Lewman Hannah Lewman Brand Contributor

Hannah Lewman is a Strategist for JOAN Creative.

Source: Why Cardiac Arrest Is More Likely To Kill Women Than Men, And What We’re Going To Do About It

3 Things Coca-Cola, AWS And Smartsheet Taught Me About Innovation

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In today’s market, companies that are not constantly evolving or changing go extinct very quickly. Back in 1950, the average age of a company on the S&P 500 was 60 years old; today, it’s 20. With so many companies failing, disappearing, or getting consolidated, transformation is critical for businesses seeking to survive, let alone compete and win.

To be successful in product innovation, start with the customer and work backwards to determine the products you need to design and build.Smartsheet

Some companies are really good at transformation and continuous innovation; disruption is built into their DNA. Others struggle with their legacies of success, becoming overly focused on self preservation, which leads to slow decision making and aversion to risk.

But it’s not impossible for large companies to reinvent their business; indeed, it’s essential for their survival. During the course of my career, I’ve been fortunate to work at three amazing companies — all very different — each of which has been integral in transforming their industry.

Through these experiences, I learned important lessons about innovation and business transformation that can be applied to almost any company. Here are three critical keys to success:

1. Start with the customer

To be successful in product innovation, start with the customer and work backwards to determine the products you need to design and build. Only by truly understanding your customers can you deliver products that they will love.

When I worked on Coca-Cola Freestyle, we knew we had to start with the consumer and figure out what they wanted, so we did a ton of research. We started with focus groups in five different cities, five groups per city, all different age groups and demographics. The insights we gathered in these sessions informed our quantitative research, in which we ultimately talked to more than 7,000 consumers.

By truly understanding consumer preferences, we were able to build the Coca-Cola Freestyle in a way that appealed to consumers, with striking results: Installing a Freestyle machine led to increased beverage sales for restaurants by 17- 20 percent, and increased Coca-Cola sales volume by 30-40 percent in those locations. What’s more, about 25 percent of consumers who knew about Freestyle told us that they chose which restaurant they went to based on whether it had a Freestyle machine!

To innovate at Smartsheet, we set out to understand what problems our customers are trying to solve and then build solutions that help them do that. Smartsheet is a cloud-based work-execution platform that makes it easy for anyone to get work done without having to wire together a bunch of other tools. Today, most of the companies chasing this market overestimate the technical bar that most business users can clear, which results in overly complex products that are not easy for most business users to adopt. At Smartsheet, we really focus on how we can meet the needs of the average business user.

Every time we build a new product, we start by writing a document called a “PR/FAQ” (Press Release/Frequently Asked Questions”), which outlines what we’re going to build — and why — before we actually go to code (an exercise I brought with me from Amazon.) This means we create the story that we want to tell customers on the day the product launches — before we actually build anything. Then, we iterate on the press release until we like what it says about the product and how it solves a problem for the customer. We validate it with existing customers. Only when we’re satisfied that what we have is the right product definition do we begin work on building the proposed product.

2. Small independent teams move faster

Once you determine what to build based on research and customer feedback, assign a small team to the project and empower them to make decisions and innovate. Keeping the team small and focused helps prevent scope creep and eliminates the management overhead required to coordinate work across a large group. It is important to establish mechanisms for the team to escalate when they need help, but try to limit the amount of energy the team has to expend reporting up. This will speed innovation.

To develop Coca-Cola Freestyle, I built a small dedicated team that was completely isolated from the rest of the organization. We reported to a board of advisors on a quarterly basis but were empowered to make decisions without having to ask for permission.This was pretty game-changing, as it allowed us to move fast, experiment and learn, and be singularly focused on capturing the opportunity we saw in the market.

Coke’s idea of isolating a small, scrappy team to work on product innovation is the Amazon model as well. In fact, Amazon has a name for it: a “two-pizza team.” Almost every new service that starts at Amazon starts with a two-pizza team — a team small enough to feed with two pizzas.

Small, scrappy teams can help you make better decisions by forcing you to make trade-offs based on the constraints faced by the team. They’re better able to innovate quickly and course correct as needed to keep the project on track.

3. Take a long view

Another key to supporting innovation is to take a long view of the business. Rather than expecting an immediate return on an innovative new idea, focus on how you’ll develop the product to best serve your target market.

At Amazon, they take a very long view of the business. When we launched a service at Amazon, no one was pushing us with the question: How fast can you get to profitability? Instead, the discussion was framed around:

●    What’s the market you’re going after?

●    How much of the market do you think you can serve with the MVP (Minimum Viable Product — the first, solid foray to market)?

●    Where do you think you’d go after that?

Rather than worry about getting a very quick return on investment, the idea is that if we build meaningful, compelling products, we’ll figure out how to make money over the long term.

At Smartsheet, we not only take a long view of our business, but also encourage our customers to do the same. For example, when customers come to us for a solution, we try to understand the problem they are trying to solve or the pain point they want our help to address. This deep understanding enables us to build solutions that are both opinionated and flexible. We bring best practices to the table, along with a real point of view on ways that our customers can change how they work, and how we can help their businesses innovate faster as they navigate a constantly changing market — now, and into the future.

Gene Farrell Gene Farrell Brand Contributor

Source: 3 Things Coca-Cola, AWS And Smartsheet Taught Me About Innovation

How Will The Failure Of Biogen’s Alzheimer’s Drug, Aducanumab, Impact R&D?

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Photographer: Scott Eisen/Bloomberg

© 2016 Bloomberg Finance LP

The landscape of experimental Alzheimer’s disease (AD) drugs is strewn with failures, so much so that it has been referred to as “an unrelenting disaster zone”. Recognizing the greatly increasing number of patients with this disease, many biopharma companies have invested a lot of resources in attacking this problem, only to be turned away in late stage studies as happened to Merck with its BACE inhibitor, verubecestat, and Lilly with its beta-amyloid antibody, solanezumab.

Now add Biogen to the list of companies that have failed in this arena. Its drug, aducanumab, partnered with Eisai, was believed to be better in removing beta-amyloid from the brain than any agent previously tested. Many have hypothesized that beta-amyloid causes the formation of damaging clumps of debris in the brain leading to AD. Unfortunately, Biogen halted a major clinical trial with aducanumab due to a futility analysis showing that the drug doesn’t work.

This is a terrible result for Alzheimer’s patients who had hoped that this was the drug that would finally succeed in treating AD. But the demise of aducanumab is also disastrous for Biogen which had expended an enormous amount of resources into this program, likely at the expense of other opportunities. It was a risky bet and one for which Wall Street has delivered a punishing blow. Biogen’s stock dropped by nearly 30% shortly after announcing the disappointing aducanumab results.

How is Biogen going to respond? As John Carroll has reported, many industry analysts believe that there aren’t many gems in the Biogen pipeline that can make up for the loss of this potential blockbuster. In predicting Biogen’s next steps, perhaps there are some learnings from another such pipeline failure – that of Pfizer’s torcetrapib.

Torcetrapib was the first of a class of compounds known as CETP inhibitors, drugs that both raised HDL-cholesterol and lowered LDL-cholesterol. A CETP inhibitor had the potential to remodel a heart patient’s lipid profile thereby greatly reducing his risk of a heart attack or stroke. There was tremendous excitement generated in this potential breakthrough treatment, not just in Pfizer but also among cardiologists and heart patients. In fact, internal commercial analyses predicted annual sales in excess of $15 billion. However, as happened with aducanumab, on December 4th, 2006, Pfizer announced that torcetrapib failed its long-term clinical study. The drug was dead. The Wall Street reaction was swift, albeit not as dramatic as Biogen’s experience. Pfizer stock dropped 10% as a result of this news.

Internally, the Pfizer reaction was intense. Torcetrapib was supposed to be the blockbuster that would drive growth into the next decade. Its loss created an enormous hole. Pfizer CEO Jeff Kindler responded in a couple of ways. First, he decided to “right size” R&D in relation to lower expected future revenues. In effect, hundreds of millions of dollars needed to be cut from R&D. Pfizer’s R&D budget had already undergone major portfolio adjustments and reorganizations over the previous five years due to the acquisition of Warner-Lambert Parke-Davis in 2000 followed by the acquisition of Pharmacia in 2004. Meeting the new R&D budget targets weren’t going to be achieved by simple cuts; rather, major research sites had to be closed and jobs had to be eliminated. Gone were R&D sites around the world including those in France, Japan and, most significantly, the iconic laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

But budget cuts weren’t going to be enough for Pfizer to meet its desired goals. The company began assessing major M&A opportunities and in 2009 it acquired Wyeth for $68 billion leading to yet another round of reorganizations and portfolio reshuffling. The ripple effect of the torcetrapib demise was felt by the entire company and lasted for a number of years.

So, how will Biogen respond? Undoubtedly, there will be budget cuts. In addition, perhaps Biogen will look at its R&D portfolio and give a higher priority to those programs that have the potential to deliver revenues in the short term. There might also be a push to drop programs deemed to be very risky or where the proof-of-concept requires long, expensive clinical trials. Finally, it wouldn’t be surprising to see Biogen become aggressive in their M&A activities. But make no mistake. The death of an important drug like aducanumab will have both a short and a long term effect on Biogen as a company and especially on R&D.

I was the president of Pfizer Global Research and Development in 2007 where I managed more than 13,000 scientists and professionals in the United States, Europe, and Asi…

Source: How Will The Failure Of Biogen’s Alzheimer’s Drug, Aducanumab, Impact R&D?

Open Innovation In Japan Breaks New Ground In The Operating Room

Yoshihiro Muragaki (left) and Jun Okamoto (right) of Tokyo Women's University's Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science

Yoshihiro Muragaki (left) and Jun Okamoto (right) of Tokyo Women’s Medical University’s Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science pose in a version of the Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT).JAPAN BRANDVOICE

Imagine undergoing surgery on a robotic bed that can automatically help perform a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan while an artificial intelligence (AI) system actively supports surgeons by suggesting various procedures. It sounds like a scenario from a Hollywood movie, but it’s reality in Japan.

Doctors at the Tokyo Women’s Medical University – Waseda University Joint Institution for Advanced Biomedical Sciences (TWIns) recently performed a groundbreaking brain surgery to treat essential tremor, a neurological disorder. It was the first clinical use of the latest version of the institution’s Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT). Hyper SCOT, as it’s known, brings robotics and AI into the operating theater so that patients can have better post-surgical outcomes. It’s an impressive example of the many forms of open collaboration driving innovation in Japan.

A new frontier in surgery

Walking into the Hyper SCOT operating room at Tokyo Women’s Medical University, one gets the feeling of entering Sick Bay aboard the starship Enterprise from Star Trek. Silver doors slide open to reveal a sleek white room illuminated by variable-color lights. In the center are a pair of robots: an operating bed that swivels to position a patient under a large MRI scanner nearby, and a dual-armed industrial-style robot that can support a surgeon’s arms while operating. On the wall are high-resolution images of a patient’s brain. Surgeons can gesture to zoom in or change the images’ orientation, a feature inspired by the Tom Cruise film Minority Report.

As a next-generation operating room, SCOT can reduce risks and increase benefits for patients, says Muragaki.

As a next-generation operating room, SCOT can reduce risks and increase benefits for patients, says Muragaki.JAPAN BRANDVOICE

Hyper SCOT is designed to transform surgery from an analog process, where standalone equipment is not connected, into a digital process where data are shared. It can support surgical teams by providing them with a rich stream of data from networked medical tools as well as AI-powered advice on surgical options. SCOT also aims to improve precision by helping brain surgeons accurately navigate to a tumor site. Although MRI had only been available to surgeons before an operation, Hyper SCOT would enable them to get scans during the procedure, which could dramatically improve outcomes.

“If we have many kinds of information, we need some kind of strategy desk, like Mission Control at NASA,” says SCOT project leader Yoshihiro Muragaki, a professor in Tokyo Women’s Medical University’s Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science. “Our moonshot is to make new eyes, brains and hands for surgeons. With SCOT, we can perform precision-guided therapy.”

Okamoto demonstrates a SCOT brain imagery gestural interface inspired by the film Minority Report at Tokyo Women's Medical University.

Okamoto demonstrates a SCOT brain imagery gestural interface inspired by the film Minority Report at Tokyo Women’s Medical University. JAPAN BRANDVOICE

A neurosurgeon himself, Muragaki conceived of the SCOT project and has spearheaded it since its inception in 2000. Back then it was known as the Intelligent Operating Theater, a version now known as Classic SCOT. Supported by a grant from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), the system began as an initiative to enhance interoperability among devices used in the medical theater, but the development team later added features such as multiple surgery cameras that can send imagery to remote consultants, usually senior surgeons. These advisors have a bird’s-eye view of the action as well as near-real time data streams of patients’ vital statistics. Since 2000, the technology has been used in some 1,900 cases, mostly brain surgeries. MRI has been key in detecting residual tumor tissue that escaped surgeons’ notice during operations.

“Even under a microscope, it’s very difficult to detect where brain tumor tissue ends and healthy tissue begins,” says Muragaki. “That’s why we need MRI during surgery. It’s a very powerful tool for removing tumors. But that also means we can only use MRI-compatible devices in the operating room and we must choose them carefully.”

Fruits of teamwork

With over 100 researchers, SCOT is the result of a complex collaboration between academia and the private and public sectors. Aside from the two universities in TWIns, Muragaki and colleagues are working with Hiroshima University and Shinshu University, where versions of SCOT are being evaluated in clinical settings. High-tech companies are also helping to develop SCOT, including Hitachi, Canon Medical, and Air Water. Another participant is Denso. It developed a medical-equipment middleware called OpeLiNK that is based on factory automation technology as well as ORiN, a platform created with the support of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), a leading Japanese state-backed research center. Orchestrating all these players was essential in creating SCOT.

Another major benefit of SCOT is the ability to obtain scans using an MRI machine (right) during surgery.

Another major benefit of SCOT is the ability to obtain scans using an MRI machine (right) during surgery. JAPAN BRANDVOICE

“If one company tried to do this alone, it would want to use its own technology and keep rivals out,” says Muragaki. “That company wouldn’t succeed in integrating all the various technologies. That’s why public institutions are vital for this kind of open innovation project. They act like the frame in a traditional sensu Japanese folding fan, keeping everything together as the project unfolds.”

The collaborations that gave birth to SCOT were recently recognized when it picked up the Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare Award as part of the first Japan Open Innovation Prize. Sponsored by the Japanese government, the accolade was set up to promote initiatives that can serve as future role models for open innovation. In Japan, companies traditionally kept R&D in-house, even in recent years. But the public and private sectors have been pushing open innovation as a vehicle for enhancing competitiveness. Collaborations between government labs, corporations and universities are now flourishing. Major telecom carrier KDDI, for instance, launched the first of a series of Open Innovation Funds in 2012, aimed at investing in IT startups in Japan and overseas.

“There’s a growing recognition that if a company categorizes itself as a camera company, for instance, it is limiting itself,” Keiichiro Koumura, an official with major real estate company Mitsui Fudosan, recently told attendees at an open innovation seminar at Mitsui Fudosan’s Base Q in Tokyo. “Because as technology changes, cameras have become smartphones. One way to address this is open innovation.”

Keiichiro Koumura of Mitsui Fudosan (center left) and Hideaki Nagano of Samurai Incubate (center right) discuss open innovation during a seminar at Base Q in Tokyo.

Keiichiro Koumura of Mitsui Fudosan (center left) and Hideaki Nagano of Samurai Incubate (center right) discuss open innovation during a seminar at Base Q in Tokyo.japan brandvoice

Looking to the future

As for SCOT, Muragaki hopes to spread the technology to other hospital facilities such as intensive care units, and apply it to other forms of surgery such as vascular operations. He also hopes to take the technology overseas.

“Most doctors are resistant to change. Before they try SCOT, surgeons don’t regard it as something that’s necessary but once they give it a go, their view changes,” says Muragaki. “After brain surgeries, we want to try the technology on bone tumors, and keep going. If you could do all surgeries with SCOT, it would decrease risks and increase benefits. That’s something we can work toward.”

To find out more about SCOT, visit the university’s website here.

For more on the Japanese Government’s innovations and technologies, please click here.

Japan is changing. The country is at the forefront of demographic change that is expected to affect countries around the world. Japan regards this not as an onus but as

Source: Open Innovation In Japan Breaks New Ground In The Operating Room

Blood Type: Microbiome and Diet — CFS Remission

One of my favorite sources for information on the microbiome is run by Dr. Peter J. D’Adamo. For many years he has advocated eating for your blood type. In this week’s issue of New Scientist. an article “Your gut bacteria may match your blood group – but we don’t know why“ The difference between many […]

via Blood Type: Microbiome and Diet — CFS Remission

HLA system in solid organ transplantation part 25 — MEDICINE FOR ALL

HLA mismatches and the production of alloantibodies HLA mismatches are not only the trigger for alloreactive T cells to destroy the transplant parenchyma, they also lead to the formation of alloreactive anti-HLA antibodies; and together they contribute to acute and chronic rejection, and the eventual immunologically-mediated transplant loss. But it is not the number […]

via HLA system in solid organ transplantation part 25 — MEDICINE FOR ALL

Researchers Find A Web Of Factors Behind Multiple Sclerosis

As the story goes, nearly 80 years ago on the Faroe Islands — a stark North Atlantic archipelago 200 miles off the coast of Scotland — a neurologic epidemic may have washed, or rather convoyed, ashore. Before 1940 the incidence of multiple sclerosis on the Faroes was near, if not actually, zero, according to the tantalizing lore I recall from medical school. Yet in the years following British occupation of the islands during World War II, the rate of MS rose dramatically, leading many researchers to assume the outbreak was caused by some unknown germ transmitted by the foreign soldiers……..

Source: Researchers Find A Web Of Factors Behind Multiple Sclerosis

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) part 102 — MEDICINE FOR ALL

The discovery that foetal cells are devoid of the highly polymorphic HLA class Ia molecules, except for a low expression of HLA-C, is believed to play a dominant role for the induction of tolerance to the semi-allogenic foetus. Interestingly, the foetal-derived tissue in placenta does express the loss polymorphic HLA class Ib molecules, HLA-E, […]

via Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) part 102 — MEDICINE FOR ALL

Therapy for Pregnant Women With Anxiety Offers Alternative to Medication – Andrea Petersen

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“It was something to look forward to,” Ms. Bakker said, while her youngest child, five-month-old Winston, sat on her lap and clutched a fuzzy toy chick. The group is part of Dr. Green and her colleagues’ treatment program for perinatal anxiety at St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton. It is one of a small but growing number of psychological therapy programs that are specifically designed for pregnant and postpartum women who struggle with anxiety and depression. They address a critical need. While scientific studies have generally found that antidepressant medications are safe to use during pregnancy and breast-feeding, there are still some concerns about their impact on babies……………

Read more: https://www.wsj.com/articles/therapy-for-pregnant-women-with-anxiety-offers-alternative-to-medication-1541257200

 

 

 

 

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