What AI Practitioners Could Learn From A 1989 MIT Dissertation

Child at laptop

More than thirty years ago, Fred Davis developed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as part of his dissertation at MIT. It’s one of the most widely cited papers in the field of technology acceptance (a.k.a. adoption). Since 1989, it’s spawned an entire field of research that extends and adds to it. What does TAM convey and how might today’s AI benefit from it?

TAM is an intuitive framework. It feels obvious yet powerful and has withstood the test of time. Davis started with a premise so simple that it’s easy to take it for granted: A person will only try, use and ultimately adopt technology if they are willing to exert some effort. And what could motivate users to expend this effort?

He outlined several variables that could motivate users, and many researchers have added to his list over the years, but these two variables are the ones that were most important: 1. Does it look easy to use? 2. Will it be useful? If the learning curve doesn’t look too steep and there’s something in it for them, a user will be inclined to adopt. Many researchers have added to this foundation over the years. For example, we’ve learned that a user’s intention can also be influenced by subjective norms.

We’re motivated to adopt new tech at work when senior leadership thinks it’s important. Perceived usefulness can also be influenced by image, as in, “Does adopting this tech make me look good?” And lastly, usefulness is high if relevance to the job is high.

TAM can be a powerful concept for an AI practitioner. It should be front-of-mind when embedding AI in an existing tool or process and when developing an AI-first product, as in, one that’s been designed with AI at the center of its functionality from the start. (Think Netflix.) Furthermore, AI can be used to drive adoption by levering TAM principles that increase user motivation.

Making AI more adoptable

With the proliferation of AI in sales organizations, AI algorithms are increasingly embedded in tools and processes leveraged by sales representatives and sales managers. Adding decision engines to assist sales representatives is becoming increasingly common. A sales organization may embed models that help determine a customer’s propensity to buy or churn, recommend next best actions or communications and more. The problem is, many of these initiatives don’t work because of a lack of adoption.

TAM can help us design these initiatives more carefully, so that we maximize the chances of acceptance. For example, if these models surface recommendations and results that fit seamlessly into reps’ tools and processes, they would perceive them as easy to use.

And if the models make recommendations that help a sales person land a new customer, prevent one from leaving and help them upsell or cross-sell when appropriate, reps would perceive them as useful. In other words, if the AI meets employees where they are and offers timely, beneficial support, adoption becomes a no-brainer.

We also see many new products and services that are AI first. For these solutions, if perceived ease of use or perceived usefulness are not high, there would be no adoption. Consider a bank implementing a tech-enabled solution like mobile check deposits. This service depends on customers having a trouble-free experience.

The Newark airport’s global entry system uses facial recognition to scan international flyers’ faces. It’s voluntary, and the experience is fantastic. The kiosk recognizes my face, and a ticket is printed for me to take to the immigration officer. Personally, I find this AI-first process a better experience than the previous system that depended on fingerprints, and now I will always opt for the new one.

Using AI to drive adoption

And perhaps counter intuitively, what if AI was used to drive elements of TAM within existing technology? Can AI impact perceived usefulness? Can AI impact perceived ease of use? Consider CRM. It has been improved and refined over the years and is in use within most sales organizations, yet the level of dissatisfaction with CRM is high and adoption remains a challenge.

How can AI help? A machine learning algorithm that uses location services can recommend that a rep visit a nearby customer, increasing the perceived usefulness of their CRM solution. Intelligent process automation can also help reps see relevant information from a contracting database as information on renewals are being entered. Bots can engage customers on behalf of the representatives to serve up more qualified leads. The possibilities are numerous. All these AI features are designed to ensure that CRM lives up to its promise as a source of value to the sales representative.

Outside of sales, consider patients. In the past few years, many new technologies have been introduced to help diabetics. Adoption of this technology is critical to self-management, and self-management is critical to treating the disease. For any new technology in this space, patients need to see that it’s useful to them.

AI can play a role in gathering information such as glucose levels, activity and food intake and make recommendations on insulin dosing or caloric intake. Such information gathering could go a long way toward reducing the fatigue that diabetics feel while they make countless health and nutrition decisions throughout the day.

AI’s algorithmic nature makes it easy to forget that it’s another technology and that it can aid technology. Its novelty can convince us that everything about it is new. TAM holds up because it’s intuitive, straightforward and proven. While we boldly innovate a path forward in the world of AI, shed convention and think like a disruptor, let’s keep an eye on our history too. There’s some useful stuff in there.

Follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out my website.

Arun provides strategy and advisory services, helping clients build their analytics capabilities and leverage their data and analytics for greater commercial effectiveness. He currently works with clients on a broad range of analytics needs that span multiple industries, including technology, telecommunications, financial services, travel and transportation and healthcare. His areas of focus are AI adoption and ethics, as well as analytics organization design, capability building, AI explainability and process optimization.

Source: What AI Practitioners Could Learn From A 1989 MIT Dissertation

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The AI Practitioners Guide for Beginners is a series that will provide you with a high-level overview of business and data strategy that a machine learning practitioner needs to know, followed by a detailed walkthrough of how to install and validate one of the popular artificial intelligence frameworks: TensorFlow on the Intel® Xeon® Scalable platform. Read the AI Practitioners Guide for Beginners article:
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Why You Need a Virtual Office in 2021

As businesses and entrepreneurs have persevered through 2020, the climate has shifted from business continuity and pivoting to how to recapture business and growth as we enter 2021. Throughout the year, businesses of all sizes and various industries have sought innovative ways to launch new products or services while in this new normal of quarantine, restrictive travel and working from home.

How are entrepreneurs doing this? Social media immediately comes to mind, but more than that, many are using virtual office services, virtual assistants and reimagining what it means to work from home. The proliferation of virtual offices is allowing businesses to have a physical footprint in a market, grow their business and stay connected to their customer base while remaining apart.

Related: 5 Ways Your Business Can Benefit From a Virtual Office

What is a virtual office?

A virtual office is typically provided by coworking or flex office providers, although there are some online-only providers. From business address services, phone services, virtual assistants, office space available by the hour or day, coworking and other offerings, a virtual office can be the primary address of a business, used as a satellite office for a business or used for larger businesses looking to reduce their overhead costs. More than a PO Box, businesses are able to use their virtual office to list their business on Google and other online search engines, have physical office space on an ‘as-needed’ basis, utilize telephone services and receive mail or packages.

Why do I need a virtual office?

With the unpredictability of what 2021 may bring, a virtual office provides you with business options and space, whereas previously, the options would have involved investing in a long-term, costly commercial lease. By utilizing a virtual office service, your business has options. You can test a market without large overhead costs, scale slowly in a new market without hiring multiple employees and have the flexibility of canceling a virtual office if unsuccessful. Most virtual office plans are month-to-month and can easily be canceled.

Second, you must show your existing customer base that they are making the right choice by investing in you. People want to buy from businesses that solve their problems and have an upward trajectory for stability and growth. Even incremental investments in new markets demonstrate perseverance and strength, and signal to existing customers that you are a stable choice to assist their business through 2021.

Third, by establishing a strong business relationship with your virtual office provider, you can be a part of a business networking community already established in that location. Typically, the management is in constant communication with other businesses and entrepreneurs that both have physical office space or a virtual office. customerbase

Throughout the past year, most have worked hard at reinventing their business via new networking opportunities, and now have a calendar packed with virtual networking lunch and learns, virtual “happy hours” and other innovative events.

Related: Employee Engagement: How to Get Remote Workers to Care About Your Business as Much as You Do

Businesses and entrepreneurs alike are looking to rebound from 2020, and by using a virtual office, most find they can enter new markets, reduce overhead and become more appealing to their customer base. There is only one guarantee about 2021 — just like 2020, expect the unexpected!

By: Adam Horlock Entrepreneur Leadership Network Writer

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Learn more in our free remote leadership training: https://bit.ly/3cTQyZp

In order for any team to survive and thrive, there needs to be a culture of inclusion, collaboration, and respect. As the manager of a remote team, developing and promoting this type of culture is an especially important task. When coworkers aren’t physically in the same place, there are fewer opportunities to foster interpersonal interaction and connection, so it’s important to be proactive and creative. Really, an effective remote team should feel pretty similar to a team with a physical office.

Humans are social creatures who want to feel safe and have a sense of belonging—the key here is relationship building. Creating a positive social vibe will help your team members build relationships with each other. Building strong relationships across your team can lead to an increase in psychological safety, strengthened attachment to the team and organization, and elevated performance outcomes.

You may be asking yourself, “how do I create an inclusive and productive work from home culture?” Let’s check in with Debbie Farese. Debbie is HubSpot’s Director of Global Web Strategy. She’s been leading a 100% remote team for more than two years and wants to share her tips on how to create an inclusive virtual office.

VR is helping teach people how to fire their employees

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Poor Barry Thompson is about to get fired, and you’re the unfortunate one shouldered with lowering the ax. You might not feel sorry for Barry given he’s virtual. But the idea is that firing him in VR will help prepare you if you ever need to terminate someone who isn’t made of pixels.

Barry is the creation of Talespin Studios, a VR company that develops virtual- and augmented-reality training programs for Fortune 500 partners including Farmers Insurance and telecom and finance companies. The company introduced Barry to demonstrate its “Virtual Human Technology.”What it looks like to fire an employee in VR

“The premise behind the software is giving employees a safe space to practice challenging interpersonal situations, while using AI to create emotionally realistic characters to stimulate and challenge them,” says Kyle Jackson, CEO and co-founder of Talespin.

The company, which is based in Southern California and The Netherlands, built Barry using speech recognition, AI, natural language processing, gamified scoring, dynamic feedback and enterprise learning management system, or LMS, integration. He can fluidly converse with the real person wearing the VR headset, display realistic emotion and understand context.

The highly realistic-looking Mr. Thompson has gray hair and bags under his eyes and looks like he’s probably put a whole lot of years into the company. His reaction to the bad news varies depending on how you handle the situation. In some scenarios, he gets angry and yells, in others he cries. If you handle his firing well, he calmly accepts the news..

“Users that elicit the more dramatic or emotional responses from Barry can learn from the experience and try to do better next time,” Jackson says.

Talespin virtual humans give trainees the chance to practice other challenging interpersonal situations with colleagues and co-workers, such as giving managerial feedback, negotiating and making a sale.

In one sales scenario, for example, the CEO of a company you’re trying to sell your firm’s services to has her arms crossed, looks away as you explain why you’re there, and says you won’t get the full time requested for the meeting. You have to rely on your training to overcome her disinterest and unlock different parts of the conversation where you can be successful.

VR is already teaching people to deliver babiesoperate machinery and how to weld. As our sister site TechRepublic suggests, VR could be the future of sexual harassment training in the workplace since it’s more immersive than HR-based classes or slideshow and video presentations and lets users feel what’s it like to be harassed.

“The immersive properties and rich, consistent contextual cues associated with VR improve the quality and speed of initial learning,” according to Training Industry. “One strength of VR is that it can be implemented in such a way as to target [both] the behavioral skills system and the cognitive skills system.”

Talespin isn’t the only company creating VR training content for workers. Thousands of Walmart employees have donned Oculus Go virtual reality headsets for a training program created by Strivr, which also counts Verizon, Fidelity and United Rentals among its customers.

“When you watch a module through the headset, your brain feels like you actually experienced a situation,” Andy Trainor, Walmart’s senior director of Walmart US Academies, said when announcing the program last year.

Or, as Talespin’s Jackson puts it, “Virtual humans can help us become better humans.”

Now, can someone please hook Barry up with a new job?

By:

Source: https://www.cnet.com/

 

 

Delivering A Great Digital Experience? Prove It – Bridget Bisnette

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Imagine that you can provide your customers with visibility and actionable insights on how “users”—be it customers or employees—are consuming applications, what their digital experience is while using them, and more importantly quantify how those experiences directly impact revenue, productivity, costs, and other business KPIs.For those of you not currently in the business of providing Digital Experience Management (DEM) services to your customers, imagine the impact to your business. How could doing so, expand your customer relationships outside of IT operations, while creating a new revenue stream for your business……………….

 

 

 

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China’s Ping An Insurance Firm Partner With Sanya City Authorities to Build DLT-Powered Smart City – Ogwu Osaemezu Emmanuel

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Ping An Insurance Group, a highly reputed China-based insurance corporation has joined forces with the Sanya municipal government to develop a “smart city” that would be powered by blockchain technology, artificial intelligence (AI) and other new technologies,” according to a local news source, People’s Daily on November 14, 2018. Per sources close to the matter, in a bid to contribute its bit to urban development in China, Ping An Group has reportedly inked a strategic agreement with Sanya Municipal People’s Government to construct a “Smart City” run entirely by innovative technologies including the revolutionary blockchain technology, big data, artificial intelligence, and others…………..

Read more: https://btcmanager.com/chinas-insurance-dlt-powered-smart-city/

 

 

 

 

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The Math Behind The 5-Hour Rule: Why You Need To Learn 1 Hour Per Day Just To Stay Relevant – Michael Simmons

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Three years ago, I coined the term The 5-Hour Rule after researching the most successful, busy people in the world and finding that they shared a pattern: They devoted at least 5 hours a week to deliberate learning. Since then, I’ve preached The 5-Hour Rule to more than 10 million readers. The reason I keep writing about it is two-fold..I believe it’s the single most critical practice we all can adopt to ensure our long-term career success, Almost no one takes this rule as seriously as they should…Recently, I’ve realized that The 5-Hour Rule is more than just a pattern. It’s more like a fundamental law in our current age of knowledge. And it’s backed up by basic math and a growing body of research……..

Read more: https://medium.com/the-mission/the-math-behind-the-5-hour-rule-why-you-need-to-learn-1-hour-per-day-just-to-stay-relevant-90007efe6861

 

 

 

 

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Business Does Not Need the Humanities But Humans Do – Gianpiero Petriglieri

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Sometimes a simple story is all it takes to capture complex issues, or so it seems. Take this one. A few years ago, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg lost a game of Scrabble to a friend’s teenage daughter. “Before they played a second game, he wrote a simple computer program that would look up his letters in the dictionary so that he could choose from all possible words,” wrote New Yorker reporter Evan Osnos. As the girl told it to Osnos, “During the game in which I was playing the program, everyone around us was taking sides: Team Human and Team Machine………..

Read more: https://hbr.org/2018/11/business-does-not-need-the-humanities-but-humans-do

 

 

 

 

 

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AI Innovators: This Researcher Uses Deep Learning To Prevent Future Natural Disasters – Lisa Lahde

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Meet Damian Borth, chair in the Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning department at the University of St. Gallen (HSG) in Switzerland, and past director of the Deep Learning Competence Center at the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI). He is also a founding co-director of Sociovestix Labs, a social enterprise in the area of financial data science. Damian’s background is in research where he focuses on large-­scale multimedia opinion mining applying machine learning and in particular deep learning to mine insights (trends, sentiment) from online media streams. Damian talks about his realization in deep learning and shares why integrating his work with deep learning is an important part to help prevent future natural disasters……..

Read more: https://www.forbes.com/sites/nvidia/2018/09/19/ai-innovators-this-researcher-uses-deep-learning-to-prevent-future-natural-disasters/#be6f7b16cd16

 

 

 

 

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Microlearning Best Practices Creating A Lesson – Isha Sood

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Microlearning definitely does not involve cramming all the material you used to deliver in 15 minutes into 5 – that is a strategy bound to lead to failure. Some re-engineering of content to match a targeted approach on the achievement of one key outcome must happen and will put most of our skills as communicators to the test. Microlearning development involves two key stages……

Read more: https://elearningindustry.com/microlearning-best-practices-creating-lesson

 

 

 

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Silicon Valley’s ‘Pixar’: Why The Startup Studio Behind Hims’ Breakout Success Just Raised $150M – Alex Konrad

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When direct-to-consumer men’s health startup Hims launched in November 2017, it seemed to come out of nowhere. Offering easy-access prescriptions for men’s issues like hair loss and erectile dysfunction through a quick online doctor consultation, Hims had sleek branding and eye-popping numbers for a debutant: $1 million in first-week sales and $7 million in funding right out of the gate from blue-chip investors including Kirsten Green and Josh Kushner. Even in Silicon Valley’s hard-charging startup culture, Hims’ momentum stood out…….

Read more: https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexkonrad/2018/10/10/atomic-startup-studio-new-fund/#2e3a3bf52e57

 

 

 

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