Google Maps Could Promote Safe Bike Routes

 

While Google Maps increasingly offers information on where bike lanes are, its routing algorithms don’t offer the same level of nuance that drivers enjoy.  Google Maps has a suite of features to make driving easier. The app gives users options to avoid tolls and highways and even recommends low-emission routes where available.

Bikers using the app, though, have far fewer options, particularly when it comes to determining how safe a route is. Fixing that could get more people on bikes and e-bikes, two of the most accessible forms of no-carbon transit available today. Given that the transportation sector is the biggest contributor to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, encouraging the use of alternatives to driving — especially driving gas-powered cars — is more urgent than ever.

With its abundant data and mapping resources, Google Maps is well-poised to create a powerful tool that keeps people safe while navigating their city by bike. Doing so could encourage the use of one of the most reliable zero-emissions transportation technologies, a benefit that dovetails nicely with Google’s ambitious emissions reduction goals.

That’s not to say it’s a cut-and-dried task, though. The puzzle of how to set up a mapping algorithm for driving is relatively simple compared to doing so for biking. Estimating roughly how long it will take to drive somewhere requires little more than knowing speed limits and whether or not intersections have stop signs or stop lights. For biking, though, finding the “right” route is a lot more qualitative.

Often, safety trumps speed. A quiet residential road with speed bumps but without a bike lane can feel more comfortable for bikers — especially new bikers — than a busy thoroughfare with a painted-on bike lane where delivery trucks tend to idle.

While Google Maps and other mapping apps increasingly offer information on where bike lanes are, its routing algorithms don’t offer the same level of nuance that drivers enjoy. Routing options for bikers, whose goals range from commuting to exercising, are largely missing from the platform. As a consequence, bikers have tended to rely more on crowdsourcing, either via the rider-to-rider grapevine or a patchwork of tech-focused alternatives that vary by country and city.

But the lack of a single, comprehensive bike-routing app represents an opportunity for tech companies like Google and Apple, especially given that the pandemic-related boom in biking seems to have staying power. Both companies have rolled out new features to flesh out their bike mapping features in the last year and have plans to continue improving them, but there’s still a long way to go before the mapping apps serve as a reliable alternative to crowdsourcing.

The status quo of simplistic routing options on the most popular mapping apps, said Warren Wells, the policy and planning director of the Marin County Bicycle Coalition, represents a barrier to entry for new riders. He worries that first-time riders will rely on Google Maps in the same way they do for driving and follow a route blindly; even if they use Google’s bike lane layer, it is not clear which bike lanes are fully protected by a physical barrier and which are simply painted onto the shoulder of a busy road.

“For 100 years, we have engineered every street to work fine for driving, more or less,” said Wells. “We have put just so little effort into making every street easy to bike on.”

If a new biker ends up on one of these many high-capacity roads that happen to have an often unprotected bike lane, they are liable to arrive at their destination scared or jaded and never get on a bike again. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 1,000 bicyclists are killed and over 130,000 are injured in the U.S. each year.

Some biking groups have stepped in to fill the route-mapping void, creating their own apps for cyclists. In the Netherlands, for instance, the national cyclists union, Fietsersbond, created its own mapping software that gives users qualitative options for their journeys. While the interface is not nearly as advanced as Google’s — Wells compared it to the early 2000s version of MapQuest — the app offers bikers many more ways to explore routes, including options like “easy,” “car-free,” “shortest” or “nature” routes.

Google Maps usually offers bikers three options for a biking journey, but it is generally not clear what distinguishes one from another, especially for someone new to a city or new to a bike. In 2018, the Chicago Reader’s John Greenfield created a guide to the city’s lowest-stress bike routes, dubbed the Mellow Chicago Bike Map, which incorporated the opinions of riders in a biking community forum online. (It was later updated as biking interest swelled mid-pandemic.)

Jean Cochrane, a Chicago-based civic technologist and casual biker, stumbled upon the map and turned it into a website with routing capacity, primarily for her own use. However, it has become widely used by others looking to get around Chicago.

“I think that has really been its own huge sea change in the way that I experienced biking,” Cochrane said, “where I do bike much further distances in the city between neighborhoods in a way that I never really have before because I feel like I have a way of accessing other neighborhoods safely.”

The website distinguishes between off-street bike paths, mellow streets (which are largely residential and often have infrastructure like speed bumps or traffic circles to slow down cars), main streets (which usually have bike lanes) and other streets. The simple routing software that Cochrane incorporates into the site prioritizes bike paths and mellow streets in suggesting routes to users.

Demand is high for this kind of resource. Cochrane said people have reached out to her about creating a version of the same webpage for other U.S. cities, but absent the crowdsourcing that Greenfield did initially for Chicago’s “mellow” streets, redoing the project from scratch is a heavy lift. This is in part because determining which streets are “mellow” is harder than it might appear: Cochrane characterized it as a “data problem.”

At least in Chicago, installing infrastructure to slow traffic is a largely decentralized process, and public data is hard to find. The open-source project OpenStreetMap has some of that information, Cochrane said, but it’s incomplete and user-generated, and thus difficult for her to rely upon.

“I know exactly what I would build, if I could know where every speed bump is in the city of Chicago,” she said. “I would love to be able to restrict my directions to residential streets or to streets with traffic-calming infrastructure.”

But, Cochrane said, if anyone is able to cobble together the data that’s relevant to bikers, it’s Google, which she described as a “data leviathan.” The company confirmed that it uses a combination of imagery and data from both government authorities and community contributions, and has partnerships with more than 10,000 local governments, transit agencies and other organizations globally. Google also has access to data on road type and quality, stairs, hills, and elevation.

“The value proposition of Google is that they have this omniscient understanding of all of the streets and businesses in so many different places in the U.S.,” Cochrane said.

In July, the company outlined plans to offer more bike route information. The routing sample included in the post illustrates a detailed breakdown of the type of road bikers encounter, from major thoroughfares to shared paths, and gives riders choices between routes with descriptors like “more bike lanes” and “less turns.” This functionality is slated to roll out “soon” in cities where Google Maps already offers biking directions, including New York, London and Tokyo; the company did not respond to questions from Protocol about a more precise timeline, though.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s latest report emphasizes that walkable communities — including protected pedestrian and bike pathways — can help cities reduce their emissions by encouraging low- or no-emission transportation options. With a user base that is more than 1 billion strong, Google Maps is uniquely positioned to effect a virtuous cycle: If more people are comfortable navigating their city by bike, that’s more people with a stake in improving low- and no-carbon infrastructure for getting around.

Source: Google Maps could promote safe bike routes – Protocol

Critics By  Alexis C. Madrigal

Behind every Google Map, there is a much more complex map that’s the key to your queries but hidden from your view. The deep map contains the logic of places: their no-left-turns and freeway on-ramps, speed limits and traffic conditions. This is the data that you’re drawing from when you ask Google to navigate you from point A to point B — and last week, Google showed me the internal map and demonstrated how it was built.

It’s the first time the company has let anyone watch how the project it calls GT, or “Ground Truth,” actually works. Google opened up at a key moment in its evolution. The company began as an online search company that made money almost exclusively from selling ads based on what you were querying for. But then the mobile world exploded. Where you’re searching from has become almost as important as what you’re searching for.

Google responded by creating an operating system, brand, and ecosystem in Android that has become the only significant rival to Apple’s iOS. And for good reason. If Google’s mission is to organize all the world’s information, the most important challenge — far larger than indexing the web — is to take the world’s physical information and make it accessible and useful.

“If you look at the offline world, the real world in which we live, that information is not entirely online,” Manik Gupta, the senior product manager for Google Maps, told me. “Increasingly as we go about our lives, we are trying to bridge that gap between what we see in the real world and [the online world], and Maps really plays that part.”

This is not just a theoretical concern. Mapping systems matter on phones precisely because they are the interface between the offline and online worlds. If you’re at all like me, you use mapping more than any other application except for the communications suite (phone, email, social networks, and text messaging).

Google is locked in a battle with the world’s largest company, Apple, about who will control the future of mobile phones. Whereas Apple’s strengths are in product design, supply chain management, and retail marketing, Google’s most obvious realm of competitive advantage is in information. Geo data — and the apps built to use it — are where Google can win just by being Google. That didn’t matter on previous generations of iPhones because they used Google Maps, but now Apple’s created its own service.

How the two operating systems incorporate geo data and present it to users could become a key battleground in the phone wars. But that would entail actually building a better map. The office where Google has been building the best representation of the world is not a remarkable place. It has all the free food, ping pong, and Google Maps-inspired Christoph Niemann cartoons that you’d expect, but it’s still a low-slung office building just off the 101 in Mountain View in the burbs.

I was slated to meet with Gupta and the engineering ringleader on his team, former NASA engineer Michael Weiss-Malik, who’d spent his 20 percent time working on Google Mars, and Nick Volmar, an “operator” who actually massages map data. “So you want to make a map,” Weiss-Malik tells me as we sit down in front of a massive monitor. “There are a couple of steps. You acquire data through partners.

You do a bunch of engineering on that data to get it into the right format and conflate it with other sources of data, and then you do a bunch of operations, which is what this tool is about, to hand massage the data. And out the other end pops something that is higher quality than the sum of its parts.” This is what they started out with, the TIGER data from the US Census Bureau (though the base layer could and does come from a variety of sources in different countries).

.

Related contents:

Google‘s post-cookie ad tech tests face skepticism Advertising Age

03:14 Sun, 18 Sep
18:13 Fri, 16 Sep
03:28 Fri, 16 Sep
21:30 Thu, 15 Sep
19:03 Thu, 15 Sep
17:37 Thu, 15 Sep
21:57 Wed, 14 Sep
19:31 Wed, 14 Sep
18:05 Wed, 14 Sep
18:00 Wed, 14 Sep
14:08 Wed, 14 Sep
13:06 Wed, 14 Sep
08:00 Wed, 14 Sep
07:17 Wed, 14 Sep
Google Must Face Texas AG Suit Over Ad Tech Competition Policy International
04:04 Wed, 14 Sep
03:13 Wed, 14 Sep
01:55 Wed, 14 Sep
00:40 Wed, 14 Sep
NIST and Google to Create New Supply of Chips for Researchers and Tech Startups National Institute of Standards and Technology (Press Release)
20:10 Tue, 13 Sep
17:20 Tue, 13 Sep
13:04 Tue, 13 Sep
12:09 Tue, 13 Sep
10 Bold Actions In Positive Life & Work                https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383942/
360Apps                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/263380
3D Pal Toons                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381689/
4brandcommercial        https://jvz1.com/c/202927/375487
7 Minutes Kit                    https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374505/
9 figure Success                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384653/
Ad Raven                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382796/
Ada leadz                           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376381
ADA Web                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383751/
AdRaven                          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/382851/
Adsense Machine                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/290487
Adtivate Agency                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383706/
AdzHero                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/366972/
AffiliateMatic                 https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381148/
Agency Client Finder                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384619/
AgencyScale                          https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383111/
Agencyscale                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/383113/
AIWA Commercial              https://jvz2.com/c/202927/365061
AIWA22                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377907/
ALL-in-One HD Stock                   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381560
Animaxime                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383307/
Appimize                            https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370227
Appoint B Agency                     https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384630/
Appointomatic               https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374258
Appowls                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381231/
AppOwls                https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381976/ Bundle
Art Of Living                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382425/
Audiencetoolkit              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/302715
Aweber Crash Course                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383057/
Backlinkindexer           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/88118
BevTraders                               http://www.bevtraders.com/?ref=arminham
Big Audio Club                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380087/
BigAudio Club                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380877/
Boost Optimism                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380692/
BrandElevate                  https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381812
BrandElevate                https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381807/
Bybit Crypto Trade                  https://www.bybit.com/en-US/invite?ref=ALEXP
CanvaKitz                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379051/
ChatterPal Commercial                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/324615
Clientfinda                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370806
Clipsreel                             https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372682
Commission smasher          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/376879
Content Gorilla              https://jvz2.com/c/202927/330783
Content Tool Kit                     https://jvz3.com/c/202927/329145/
CourseAlly eLearning                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384759/
CourseReel                          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/355256/
CourseReel                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/355249
Courserious                       https://jvz8.com/c/202927/360397/
Coursova                         https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376527
Creaitecontentcreator          https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376986
Credit Repair                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/377815/
Crypto Kit                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383809/
Crypto Rocket                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378113/
Crypto Underworld                           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374345/
Dealcheck                                  https://dealcheck.io?fp_ref=armin16
Design beast               https://jvz6.com/c/202927/371547
Designa Suite License                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/297271
Develop Self Empowerment                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383094/
DFY Content Club                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381337/
DFY Suite                                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/337292
DFY Suite                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381194/
DFY Suite                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381194/
Diabetes Guide                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/358870/
Diddly Pay’s DLCM                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/315596
Diet fitness diabetes              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/286851
Domainname                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377005
Dropshiply                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383483/
DUX Forex Signals                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/128215/
EBook Agency                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384573/
Ejaculation Total                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/75989/
Email Monetizer                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386337/
EngagerMate                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/328172
EngageYard                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383051/
Extreme Adz                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379244/
Extreme Coupon                  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/216101/
EZ Local Appointmen                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385180/   t
Ezy                https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381935/
Ezy MultiStores               https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381935
Facebook Cash Machine                 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382333/
Facedrip                          https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376325/
FaceSwap                 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381768/
Fade To Black                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/344541
Fanpage                          https://jvz4.com/c/202927/144349
Fitness Nutrition                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353334/
Followup Builder                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386313/
Forex Atlatian                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/25069/
Forex Blizz                             https://jvz8.com/c/202927/144577/
Forex Blue Stark                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/47481/
Forex expert                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376877
Forex Hybrid Scalper                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/95037/
Forex Joustar                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381617/
Forex Joustar                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381617/
Forex Mastery                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/
Forex Scouts                         https://jvz6.com/c/202927/132677/
forrk                                              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/373449
FusionMT4                             https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372523/
FX Goldminer                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381439/
Galactic                         https://jvz1.com/c/202927/188236/
Gaming job                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/184902  s
Genesis Mining                         https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/2535466
Givvy Mobile Lottery             https://givvy-numbers.app.link/qNDZMGGbhsb
Gluten free                              https://jvz4.com/c/202927/296191
GMB Magic                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377194
Graphic Alta           https://jvz2.com/c/202927/324492/
Heal Your Emptiness                         https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384848/
High Converting Emails                  https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386305/
HostLegends                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384755/
Hostley Domain Creator                        https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379223/
Human Synthesys Studio                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/367353/
ImageX                      https://jvz6.com/c/202927/363237/
IMSyndicator                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/370769
Inboxr                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/312692
Insta Keyword                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/351606/
Instant Website                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377557
InstantWebsiteBundle          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377557
iTraffic X                          https://jvz2.com/c/202927/320466
keysearch                                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/194909
Klippyo Kreators                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/327447
KoinCart                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383555/
Leadvalet                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/385580/
Levidio Royal Podcasting                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384025/
Linkable DFY                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385873/
Linkomatic                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380937/
LiteTrading                                 https://www.litefinance.com/?uid=929237543
Live Your Truth                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379020
Living An Intentional Life              https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/382455
Living an International Life                  https://jvz8.com/c/202927/382455/
Local Leader                   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383751/
Local Sites                  https://jvz4.com/c/202927/380543/
LocalAgencyBox                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/359468
LocalCentric                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/379339/
Marketingblocks             https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374934
MarketPresso                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/369837
Mat1 Simple Funnel                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380197/
Maxslides                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376842
Mech Forex Robot                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383447/
MediaCloudPro                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/343635
Megasuite                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383953/
Mobi First                          https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353694/
Motion Kingdom Studio                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383177/
Movid Animation                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380385/
MT4Code System                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376925
My Passive Income                  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384099/
MyMailIt                              https://jvz3.com/c/202927/292919
MyTrafficJacker               https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353558
Next Drive                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/371095/
NichBox               https://jvz2.com/c/202927/370705/
Organic Life Guide                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/366872/
Photokit                           https://jvz4.com/c/202927/373207/
PicsAds                         https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385468/
PigMoney Metho                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/377665/   d
PigMoneyMethod                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377665/
Pitchdeck                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/347847/
Pixal                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/
Pixivid                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385213/
PlanB Muscle Growth              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/36517/
PlayerNeos                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376962
Podcast Advantage                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379995/
Podcast Advantage              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379995/
Podcast Masterclass               https://jvz3.com/c/202927/379998/
PodKastr                 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/369500/
Postradamus                              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/108695
Power Reviews                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384625/
Powrsuite                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376361
PR Rage                        https://jvz4.com/c/202927/343405
prime stocks                              https://jvz8.com/c/202927/369164  prime stocks
Profile mate                           https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049
Promovidz                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/
Push Button Traffic         https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402
QR Verse                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/
Quintex Capital                         https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham
Quit Smoking                           https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/
Reputor                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380159/
ReVideo                     https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381761
ReviewReel                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382663/
Rewriter                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353373/
RSI SEO                              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384381/
Scriptdio                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385387/
Seniors Income                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/
Senuke                                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/279944
ShopABot                           https://jvz2.com/c/202927/291955
ShopFunnels                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384069/
SocialAgency360                 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385357/
SociCake                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/321987
Socifeed                          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375706
SociJam                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649
Soronity                                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/368736
SqribbleEbook                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/283867
Stackable Picture                        https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385046/
Steven Alvey’s                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/351754
Stoodaio                                    https://jvz1.com/c/202927/372094
Storymate                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/320972
StreamPilot                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385431/
Studioninja                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/374965
Sunday Freebie                             https://jvz1.com/c/202927/267113/
Super backdrop                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524
Superbackdrop                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524
Survai                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380933/
Syndranker                          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/378143/
Talkingfaces                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/375358
Talkingfaces                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/375550
The Internet Marketing                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/289944
Tonai Voice Content           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383119/
Toon Video Maker                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/357201
TrafficFor                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381950/
TrafficForU                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381950/
Trendio                       https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/
TubePal                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379863/
Tubeserp                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/370472
TubeTargeter                   https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377211
TV Boss Fire                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/
Ultrafunnels A.I                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/
VIADZ Ad Template                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/
Vidcentric                             https://jvz4.com/c/202927/376095
Viddeyo                                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382326/
Videevolve                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381011/
Video Games                            https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/
VideoEnginePro                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372916
VideoGameSuite                     https://jvz3.com/c/202927/366537/
VideoRobot Enterprise                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/291061
VidKreate                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/386029/
VidMingo                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378359/
VidSnatcher                           https://jvz3.com/c/202927/342585
VidVoicer                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379983/
Vidzura                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385754/
Viral dash                            https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375959
VirtualReel                       https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376849
Vocalic                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/
VoiceBuddy                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/342854
WebCop                         https://jvz4.com/c/202927/378683/
Webinarkit                       https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383937/
Webprimo                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379455/   Website Builder
WordPress Mastery                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/
WOW Backgrounds                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381615/
WowBackgraounds                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/
WP GDPR                                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907
WP Simulator                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/
writing job                                  https://jvz8.com/c/202927/213027
XBrain Forex                           https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372305/
XFUNNELS                         https://jvz2.com/c/202927/310335
Xinemax                    https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381749/
YoDrive                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384700/
Your 3DPal                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381685/
YTSuite                       https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381179

 

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: