People who show less compassion and emotion toward images of environmental disasters are generally less empathetic and emotional overall. People who respond less emotionally to images of damage to the environment are also less emotional and empathic in general, according to a new University of Michigan study.
Differences in political ideology can limit policy adjustments that address climate change. Researchers and practitioners often raise concern by appealing to people’s empathy. However, some people appear less emotionally impacted by environmental destruction—particularly those who are more ideologically conservative and less pro-environmental, the study showed.
In a series of online experiments in the U.S., U-M graduate student Logan Bickel and psychology professor Stephanie Preston examined the emotional responses of more than 600 people in a variety of contexts. People not concerned when viewing pictures of damage to the environment—such as oil spills on fire in a gulf—also did not feel bad about other images including crying babies, officers in distress, injured athletes, wounded soldiers and even moldy food.
Consistent with this lack of contagious distress, more “impassive” people said that they felt less empathy for those in daily life and were less pro-environmental and less awed by nature. This group also responded less to positive images such as happy babies, ice cream and stacks of money, the research showed.
The study’s results suggest that some people’s lack of concern for the environment may not be particularly political or reflect a specific disinterest in the environment. It is instead a characteristic of their broader emotional palette, Preston said. “Given that our sense of risk and decisions are strongly guided by emotions, more impassive people are less inclined to dedicate resources to this slowly building crisis,” she said.
Appeals to help the environment must consider variation in people’s emotional make-up and devise new tactics for those who are unpersuaded by appeals to emotion, Logan said. The average American believes in climate change, worries about it, and supports related policy, but there are still considerable differences—across individuals and with political ideology—that limit the ability to foster change.
Researchers and practitioners often increase concern and action for others through feelings of empathy, which also increases pro-environmentalism. However, some people appear less emotionally impacted by environmental destruction—particularly more ideologically conservative and less pro-environmental individuals.
To determine why some people appear to be impassive to environmental destruction, we conducted 3 online studies to measure beliefs and emotional processes in political liberals versus conservatives. Across 3 studies, we replicated the link between impassivity and conservatism, and found that more impassive people acknowledge our negative impact on the environment but are less concerned about it and more confident in an eventual solution. Impassivity, however, is not specific to the environment.
People who are more impassive about the environment also respond less emotionally to positive and negative images that are unrelated to the environment, including human suffering and hedonic reward. They also report reduced trait empathy, perspective taking, and daily emotional expression and experience. Impassivity is not linked to differences in trait personal distress, anxiety, psychopathy (apart from low empathy), or trouble appreciating consequences.
Impassivity is not associated with deficits in processing others’ facial emotion during early perceptual decoding but is associated with the later suppression of emotion. Everyone will not respond to emotional appeals to help a distressed environment. Other strategies are recommended to reach a broad audience.
By: Morgan Sherburne
Critics by Six Seconds
Empathy has been regarded by environmental thinkers as a key in conservation efforts. Nevertheless, systematic research on empathy toward nature, particularly from the personality perspective, has been lacking in psychology. The present research thus provides this needed investigation by testing four propositions regarding a new construct—dispositional empathy with nature (DEN), which refers to the dispositional tendency to understand and share the emotional experience of the natural world.
In five studies with 817 participants in total (including university students and working adults from two societies), DEN robustly and uniquely predicted conservation behavior (Proposition 1). Females, respondents who felt close to nature, and participants who considered nature to be sentient exhibited stronger DEN (Propositions 2–4). DEN was distinct from empathy with humans and a number of known determinants of conservation behavior (including personality traits, values, emotional involvement with nature, environmental concern, and social desirability bias).
Taken together, these findings highlight the possibility of developing a theory of empathy with nature by referring to the existing understanding about empathy with humans. The construct of DEN has much theoretical utility, as it sheds new light on several under-explored issues in conservation psychology (including the gender gap in environmentalism, the role of connection to nature, and the role of anthropomorphism), and bears practical implications for the promotion of environmentalism.
In addition, the newly developed scale for DEN is potentially useful for assessing the efficacy of environmental education programs. Other research studies have backed up the incredible research on greenery in urban environments. The results are clear: A lack of connection to nature results in crime and social breakdown. And conversely, efforts to greenify urban areas leads to better neighborly relations, more empathy, and less crime.
Police records confirm this anecdotal relationship between green space and social breakdown, providing an even more objective measure than the resident’s memories. Research from Columbia and Penn found that “cleaning and greening” vacant lots led to a 9% reduction in gun assaults. A 9% reduction in gun assaults! Greenery has also been linked to better long-term health outcomes – mentally and physically. Physically, greenery has been linked to less obesity, diabetes and hypertension.
Mentally, research in London found that a neighborhood’s greenery predicted how many medications related to mood disorders that the neighborhood pharmacy prescribed. Taken altogether, the findings suggest that connection to nature, Vitamin N, is an essential component of human health and wellbeing. Humans are incredibly adaptable, but we’re still deeply wired to our original habitat, the natural world. Should these findings change how we build our cities? Or within existing cities, where we choose to eat, work and spend free time?
While this research on making cities green is powerful and thought provoking, I found this research on nature’s effects on the individual level to be equally powerful, and even more actionable. You don’t have to become a farmer to reap the benefits of increased connection to nature. Research has found that even looking at nature through a window changes our brains and bodies on a cellular level.
“When you look out at a green landscape, even from indoors, your heart rate will go down,” explains Kuo, “and you’ll change from sympathetic nervous activity over to parasympathetic nervous activity, which is basically going from what we call ‘fight or flight’ into ‘tend and befriend’ mode. So it has these very systematic physiological impacts on us, which have long-term health outcomes associated with them.”…
- “empathy”. Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Introspection and empath” (PDF). Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences. 7: 25–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2014.
- Regulating the costs of empathy: the price of being human” (PDF). The Journal of Socio-Economics. 30 (5): 437–52. doi:10.1016/S1053-5357(01)00112-3.
- “Attending live theatre improves empathy, changes attitudes, and leads to pro-social behavior”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 95: 104138. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104138. S2CID 233549299.
- “From passivity to competence: a conceptualization of knowledge, skill, tolerance, and empathy”. Psychiatry. 65 (4): 339–45. doi:10.1521/psyc.65.4.338.20239. PMID 12530337. S2CID 35496086.
- “What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 358 (1431): 491–500. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1261. PMC 1351349. PMID 12689375.
- “An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion”. PLOS ONE. 12 (2): e0172471. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1272471G.
- The Social Neuroscience of Empathy. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 3–15. ISBN 9780262012973.
- “Emotional contagion” (PDF). Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2 (3): 96–99. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953. S2CID 220533081. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2012.
- “Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Asperger syndrome” (PDF). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (4): 709–15.
- Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions”. Brain. 132 (Pt 3): 617–27. doi:10.1093/brain/awn279. PMID 18971202.
- “Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy” (PDF). Annual Review of Psychology. 59 (1): 279–300. . “Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 44 (1): 113–126.
- “Response to Smith’s Letter to the Editor “Emotional Empathy in Autism Spectrum Conditions: Weak, Intact, or Heightened?“”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (12): 1749. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0800-x. S2CID 42834991. Pdf. Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- “Emotional empathy in autism spectrum conditions: weak, intact, or heightened?”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (12): 1747–8, author reply 1749–54.
- “The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal”. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19 (1): 42–58.
- Baron-Cohen S (2003)
- The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. Basic Books. ISBN 9780738208442.
- “An exploratory investigation of the process of perspective taking in interpersonal situations”. Journal of Relationships Research. 4: e6, 1–12. doi:10.1017/jrr.2013.6.
- Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Asperger syndrome” (PDF). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (4): 709–15. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0197-8. PMID 16906462. S2CID 13999363. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2015.
- “Evolution of empathetic moral evaluation”. eLife. 8: e44269. doi:10.7554/eLife.44269. PMC 6488294. PMID 30964002
- More Remote Working Apps:
https://givvy-numbers.app.link/qNDZMGGbhsb Givvy Mobile Lottery
https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham Quintex Capital
https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/2535466 Genesis Mining
https://www.bybit.com/en-US/invite?ref=ALEXP Bybit Crypto Trade
https://cashbox.money/r/6ded936cbc264c7e9add5dd5565bb31a Cash Box Money
https://alpariforex.org/fa/registration/?cpa_partner_id=13687690 Alpari Forex Trading
https://dealcheck.io?fp_ref=armin16 Dealcheck Real Estate Evaluator
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/369164 prime stocks
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/296191 gluten free
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/286851 diet fitness diabetes
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/213027 writing job
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049 profile mate
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524 super backdrop
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/184902 gaming jobs
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/343405 PR Rage
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/371547 design beast
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/376879 commission smasher
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376925 MT4Code System
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375959 viral dash
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376877 forex expert
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376381 ada leadz
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/337292 DFY Suite 3.0 Agency+ information
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/291061 VideoRobot Enterprise
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/327447 Klippyo Kreators
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/324615 ChatterPal Commercial
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907 WP GDPR Fix Elite Unltd Sites
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/342585 VidSnatcher Commercial
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/320972 Storymate Luxury Edition
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/320466 iTraffic X – Platinum Edition
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/330783 Content Gorilla One-time
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402 Push Button Traffic 3.0 – Brand New
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/321987 SociCake Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/289944 The Internet Marketing
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/297271 Designa Suite License
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/310335 XFUNNELS FE Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/343635 MediaCloudPro 2.0 – Agency
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353558 MyTrafficJacker 2.0 Pro+
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/365061 AIWA Commercial
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/357201 Toon Video Maker Premium
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/351754 Steven Alvey’s Signature Series
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/344541 Fade To Black
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/290487 Adsense Machine
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/315596 Diddly Pay’s DLCM DFY Club
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/355249 CourseReel Professional
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649 SociJam System
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/263380 360Apps Certification
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377557 Instant Website Bundle
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377194 GMB Magic Content
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376962 PlayerNeos VR
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381812/ BrandElevate Bundle information
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381807/ BrandElevate Ultimate
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/ WowBackgraounds Plus
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381689/ Your3DPal Ultimate
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380877/ BigAudio Club Fast Pass
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/379998/ Podcast Masterclass
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/366537/ VideoGameSuite Exclusive
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381179 YTSuite Advanced
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381749/ Xinemax 2.0 Commercial
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/382455 Living An Intentional Life
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381812 BrandElevate Bundle
https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381935 Ezy MultiStores
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381194/ DFY Suite 4.0 Agency
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381976/ AppOwls Bundle
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381615/ WOW Backgrounds 2.0
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381560 ALL-in-One HD Stock Bundle
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382326/ Viddeyo Bundle
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381617/ The Forex Joustar
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383751/ ADA Web Accessibility Compliance
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383942/ 10 Bold Actions In Positive Life & Work
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383706/ Adtivate Agency
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384099/ My Passive Income Blueprints
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/329145/ Content Tool Kit
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/ QR Verse Bundle
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/ VIADZ Ad Template
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383051/ EngageYard Ad Creator
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383751/ Local Leader Bundle
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383119/ Tonai Voice Content
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/ Vocalic Commercial
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383483/ Dropshiply Store Creator
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384025/ Levidio Royal Podcasting
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383094/ Develop Self Empowerment
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379223/ Hostley Domain Creator
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383447/ Mech Forex Robot
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383177/ Motion Kingdom Studio
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/144577/ Forex Blizz Trading
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383307/ Animaxime V2
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/ Promovidz Promotion Videos
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379051/ CanvaKitz Business Templates
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/383113/ Agencyscale Business Agency
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/347847/ Pitchdeck Professional Presentations
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381179/ YTSuite YouTube Ads Campaigns
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/382455/ Living an International Life
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/188236/ Galactic Dimension backgrounds
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381749/ Xinemax Hollywood Creator
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381194/ DFY Suite 4.0 Agency
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381231/ Appowls Mobile Apps
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381935/ Ezy Multi Stores
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/ WOW Backgrounds
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381685/ Your 3DPal
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381617/ Forex Joustar
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/ Ultrafunnels A.I
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/128215/ DUX Forex Signals
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/ Trendio Keyword Content
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381439/ FX Goldminer
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/ Pixal 2.022
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380087/ Big Audio Club
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379995/ Podcast Advantage
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/380543/ Local Sites
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/369500/ PodKastr Commercial
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/351606/ Insta Keyword
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374505/ 7 Minutes Kit
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383057/ Aweber Crash Course
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/ WP Simulator
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379995/ Podcast Advantage
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380692/ Boost Optimism
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/36517/ PlanB Muscle Growth
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/ TV Boss Fire
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379455/ Webprimo Website Builder
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384619/ Agency Client Finder
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384625/ Power Reviews
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384630/ Appoint B Agency
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/267113/ Sunday Freebie
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384573/ EBook Agency
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/75989/ Ejaculation Total
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/ Quit Smoking
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353694/ Mobi First
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384848/ Heal Your Emptiness
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382333/ Facebook Cash Machin
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/ Video Games
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/358870/ Diabetes Guide
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353334/ Fitness Nutrition Guide
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/366872/ Organic Life Guide
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/367353/ Human Synthesys Studio
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384653/ 9 figure Success
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383809/ Crypto Kit
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385046/ Stackable Picture
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/25069/ Forex Atlatian
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/132677/ Forex Scouts
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378113/ Crypto Rocket
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/377665/ PigMoney Method
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374345/ Crypto Underworld
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372305/ XBrain Forex
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/ Seniors Income
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382796/ Ad Raven
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/324492/ Graphic Alta
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382425/ Art Of Living
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/377815/ Credit Repair
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381337/ DFY Content Club
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381689/ 3D Pal Toons
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380385/ Movid Animation
https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379244/ Extreme Adz
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379020 Live Your Truth
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/47481/ Forex Blue Stark
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/ Forex Mastery
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/ Forex Mastery
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/95037/ Forex Hybrid Scalper
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384759/ CourseAlly eLearning
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385180/ EZ Local Appointment
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380197/ Mat1 Simple Funnel
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/ WordPress Mastery
https://jvz4.com/c/202927/371095/ Next Drive
https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385873/ Linkable DFY
https://jvz1.com/c/202927/216101/ Extreme Coupon
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386305/ High Converting Emails
https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386337/ Email Monetizer
https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386313/ Followup Builder