Nakamoto’s Neighbor: My Hunt For Bitcoin’s Creator Led To A Paralyzed Crypto Genius

Hal Finney’s light brown eyes are pointed down. I’ve just asked him if he was involved in the creation of Bitcoin. The 57-year-old man’s almost imperceptible eye movement is his only way of telling me that he was not, and that I’ve spent the last week caught in the same futile windmill-tilting that has ensnared so many other reporters trying to solve the puzzle of Bitcoin’s mysterious creator known only as Satoshi Nakamoto.

Finney is seated in an elaborate wheelchair, flanked by medical equipment and his wife and son, both of whom are wearing blue t-shirts that read “Hal’s Pals: Fight ALS.” ALS, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is the name of the terminal disease that has locked Finney into a body whose muscles no longer obey his mind’s commands. His eyes are among the few parts of his anatomy that his will still controls. He uses them to manipulate voice synthesis software running on a computer attached to his wheelchair with an eye-tracking camera. Until recently, this setup allowed him to speak fluidly in a computerized voice.

But as the disease has progressed, even Finney’s eye movements are deteriorating. He’s often reduced to yes-and-no conversations like the one we’re having now. His engineer’s mind, which has written some of the most important code in the history of cryptography, is unaffected by the disease and remains as lucid as ever. But its last lifelines to the outside world are growing thin.

I ask Finney if he has any connection to Dorian Nakamoto, the man Newsweek has a week earlier named as the creator of Bitcoin, the cryptocurrency that has come to represent an entirely new digital form of money, and whose total value has risen as high as $16 billion at some points over the last year.

His eyes glance downward again, and this time Finney grins. His son Jason explains that involuntary movements are less affected by ALS than voluntary ones; Finney can’t easily smile on command for a photograph, but he can smile when he’s amused, and he’s clearly amused by my questions.

Finally, in a plea that must sound a little desperate, I ask Finney to show me what “yes” looks like, just to be sure I haven’t somehow misinterpreted his denials. He raises his eyes and eyebrows unmistakably, still grinning.

Amazing, I think, how quickly a raised eyebrow can shut down the most elaborate theories.

A week earlier, I was following clues that seemed to point to either Finney’s involvement in the creation of Bitcoin or one of the most improbable coincidences I’d ever encountered. Today, I believe those connections were in fact random, that Finney is telling the truth when he denies helping to invent Bitcoin, and that I am only the most recent of a long string of journalists to succumb to the mirage of a Satoshi Nakamoto-shaped pattern in a collection of meaningless facts.

But in following the clues that led me to Finney, I found something equally significant: a dying man who had been something like a far-more-brilliant Forrest Gump of cryptographic history: a witness to and participant in practically every important moment in the recent history of secret-keeping technologies. From the development of the first widely used strong encryption software known as PGP, to early anonymity systems, to the first Bitcoin transaction, Finney was there.

The rabbit-hole journey that led to my meeting with Finney began on March 6th, the day that Newsweek released its bombshell cover story on the man who it claimed had invented Bitcoin: Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto, a 64-year old ex-engineer and programmer living in the small exurb of Los Angeles known as Temple City. Nakamoto had even seemed to give Newsweek a tacit confirmation of its theory when he told the magazine’s reporter that he was “no longer involved in that,” a quote confirmed in essence by local police who witnessed the interaction.

Just hours after Newsweek‘s story hit the Web, I received an email from an old cryptography community acquaintance of Finney’s who has asked to remain anonymous. The email was titled “What are the odds?” It pointed out that Hal Finney had lived for almost a decade in Temple City, the same 36,000 person town where Newsweek found Dorian Nakamoto. Finney’s address was only a few blocks away from the Nakamoto’s family home.

This was an uncanny link: Finney is known to be the second-ever user of Bitcoin after Satoshi Nakamoto himself. He had been one of the first supporters of the idea when Nakamoto floated it on a cryptography mail list, and even received the first Bitcoin test transaction from Nakamoto in early 2009, as Finney himself wrote in a post to the Bitcointalk forum.

In other words, the possibly-first and confirmed-second ever users of Bitcoin lived just blocks apart.

“What are the odds in a country as large as ours, or as large as California is, or even as large as the general LA area is, that [Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto] and Hal Finney both live(d) in Temple City at the same time, about 1.6 miles from each other?” my contact wrote. “Did they know each other socially, through some club? Did one help the other?”

Already, the theory was percolating through the Texas Bitcoin Conference I was attending that day in Austin, where one Bitcoin podcaster independently rehearsed a more extreme version of the same theory for me over drinks: Had Finney invented Bitcoin himself and simply used his neighbor’s name as a pseudonym? On Reddit, a user traced Finney’s IP address and found that he was in the Los Angeles area. “Dorian [Nakamoto] probably could’ve been a drop,” wrote a user called Ikinoki, using the hacker jargon “drop,” a patsy whose personal information is used to hide online exploits.

I didn’t suspect Finney of anything nearly so malicious. Instead, I began to believe he might have been Bitcoin’s ghostwriter.

At the request of my Forbes colleague Matt Herper, the writing analysis consultancy Juola & Associates had already compared Dorian Nakamoto’s various online comments and postings with Satoshi Nakamoto’s writings on Bitcoin before his total disappearance from the Web in 2011. (Read the details of their analysis in Herper’s post here.) Unsurprisingly, they found a total mismatch: Dorian Nakamoto’s half-broken English hardly matched the elegant technical style of Bitcoin’s creator.

Hal Finney’s writing, on the other hand, was as fluid and precise as the whitepaper that first introduced Bitcoin in late 2008. Maybe, I thought, Finney had served as something like Nakamoto’s amanuensis, crediting Nakamoto for the idea, but using his own superior writing skills to explain Bitcoin to the public. I collected a 20,000 character sample of Finney’s writing from various forums and mailing lists and sent it to Juola & Associates for analysis.

In the mean time, I emailed Finney a few times. When I didn’t hear back–he’s been mostly absent from the Internet as his paralysis deepens–I called his wife, Fran, who now works as Finney’s full-time caregiver. She explained her husband’s medical situation, and patiently relayed my questions to him. Using his eyebrows and eye movements, as she described to me over the phone, he confirmed that he had corresponded with Bitcoin’s creator, but denied any connection to the invention of Bitcoin or the Dorian Nakamoto Newsweek had named, just as he would when I visited a week later. “For all Hal knew, Satoshi Nakamoto could have been next door, or he could have been in Japan,” Fran said.

She also politely invited me to visit her and her husband in Santa Barbara, where the couple now lives. In person, she said, it would be easier to convince me that Finney wasn’t involved in Bitcoin’s invention despite the one-in-a-million geographical connection. She also requested that I include in any story I wrote her plea to the media and the Bitcoin community not to flock to their home and stalk Finney for interviews the way reporters had immediately done at Dorian Nakamoto’s house following Newsweek‘s story.

“He’s very fragile,” she told me. “We have him on ventilator support twenty-four hours a day. He has difficulty communicating. It would be nice if people would not harass him.”

Just hours after that phone conversation, I received the results from the writing analysis from Juola & Associates. The firm, its chief scientist John Noecker explained in a phone call, had previously tried analyzing candidates for Satoshi Nakamoto named by older investigations performed by the New Yorker, Fast Company, and various Bitcoin enthusiasts. None of the results had been promising enough to publish, according to Noecker.

Hal Finney, by contrast, was the best Nakamoto candidate whose writing the firm had ever analyzed and the first who Noecker believed might have actually written the Bitcoin whitepaper.

“So, it seems to me,” he wrote in an email, “that you may have found the real Satoshi Nakamoto.”


Satoshi Nakamoto (left) in a 1967 yearbook photo, and Hal Finney in a 1974 yearbook photo.

Hal Finney grew up in the idyllic Los Angeles suburb of Arcadia, in a two-story cottage-style house just an eight-minute drive away from the Nakamoto family home in Temple City. Dorian Nakamoto, then known by his birth name of Satoshi Nakamoto, was seven years older than Finney, and the two never attended the same school. But Nakamoto’s brother Tokuo Nakamoto tells me that Satoshi commuted from the Temple City address to college at California Polytechnic Institute well into the early 1970s, when Finney was attending Arcadia High School just a few miles away.

None of Finney’s friends at Arcadia High whom I spoke to had any memory of an older friend or acquaintance of Finney’s named Satoshi Nakamoto.

They do remember Finney as an unusually intelligent and thoughtful student, who at times carried around an impressively large copy of Ayn Rand’s Atlas Shrugged and seemed to have adopted its lessons about libertarian free thinking. Friends recall him quietly sitting in the back of a physics class, only to approach the teacher afterwards to correct an error or suggest a better way of articulating a problem. At math team competitions, Finney would ring in with an answer to most questions before they’d been fully asked. In 1974, his senior year, he was voted “most brains” by his peers.

“He had this uncanny feel for numbers,” says Richard Lewis, a friend of Finney’s who is now a Stanford physiology professor. “To him, they seemed like living things that had behavior, that you could learn from.”

Finney enrolled in the California Institute of Technology, and soon switched his focus from mathematics to computers, staying up through the night and often missing class to obsess over his coded creations. When he graduated, he married his college girlfriend Fran and took a job writing video games for Mattel. In 1982, the Finneys moved to a house in Temple City, again less than two miles from the Nakamoto family home. (Dorian Nakamoto wouldn’t return to the Los Angeles area from New Jersey until 1987, according to Newsweek, and then lived in other neighborhoods like Buena Park and Costa Mesa. But Dorian Nakamoto’s mother and then a Nakamoto a family trust maintained ownership of the Temple City house through Finney’s nine years living in the neighborhood.)

It wasn’t until 1991 that Finney discovered the movement of anti-authoritarian encryption gurus who would define much of the rest of his career: the Cypherpunks. Centered around the Cypherpunk email list, the group advocated encryption tools as a means to shift power from the government and to individuals. Like many cypherpunks, Finney was inspired by the work of David Chaum, another Los Angelino cryptographer who had proposed theoretical systems that would use encryption tools to enable anonymous communications and even untraceable financial transactions. Chaum had developed the first-ever virtual currency known as DigiCash, with some of the anonymous and decentralized properties of Bitcoin, though it never gained widespread adoption.

“It seemed so obvious to me,” Finney would write on the Cypherpunks Mailing List in 1992. “Here we are faced with the problems of loss of privacy, creeping computerization, massive databases, more centralization – and Chaum offers a completely different direction to go in, one which puts power into the hands of individuals rather than governments and corporations. The computer can be used as a tool to liberate and protect people, rather than to control them.”

Finney put his programming prowess to work building the tools to enact that cryptoanarchist vision. “Our motto was ‘Cypherpunks write code,'” says Tim May, a co-founder of the group, referring to a line in the Cypherpunk’s Manifesto written by his co-founder Eric Hughes. “Hal was one of those who actually wrote code.”

When word hit the mailing list that privacy activist Phil Zimmermann planned to release PGP or Pretty Good Privacy, the first freely available encryption program strong enough that not even government intelligence agencies could break it, Finney contacted Zimmermann and became one of his earliest collaborators. He worked almost a full-time job’s worth of hours developing PGP 2.0, widely considered to be the first truly secure version of the program, and pioneered its “web of trust” model of key-signing, a method to establish trusted identities through the peer-to-peer vouching of a community of users. “The trust model was a very complex part, and this was of crucial importance to PGP’s success,” says Zimmermann. “Hal made an enormous contribution.”

(When Zimmermann first wrote back to my query about Finney, he also noted Finney’s extraordinary humility and strength of character: “Hal is a rare genius who never had to trade his emotional intelligence to get his intellectual gifts,” Zimmermann wrote. “He is a fine human being, an inspiration for his attitude toward life. I wish I could be like him.”)

In fact, decades before anyone suspected Finney of ghostwriting Bitcoin, Finney ghostwrote much of PGP. Because of the legal controversy around the encryption tool’s distribution on the Internet–Zimmermann was nearly indicted for arms export control violations–Finney’s role was downplayed in Zimmermann’s public discussion of the program. Though Finney told me that he worked closely with Zimmermann to code “the bulk of the changes” from PGP 1.0 to PGP 2.0, he’s rarely been fully credited for that work.

As PGP’s usage spread, Finney was also the first to integrate the encryption software into “remailers”–free services that acted as proxy servers for email, bouncing messages among third parties so that they couldn’t be traced to their source. “Two people could communicate using email, with both of their identities being protected from the other,” Finney explained on the Cypherpunks Mailing List. Those tools would eventually evolve into strong anonymity services like MixMaster and Tor, used by millions around the world today.

Meanwhile, Finney never gave up on Chaum’s ideas of digital, pseudonymous currency. “With digital cash and smart cards, you should be able to engage in…transactions with no organization or institution able to violate your privacy or steal your money,” he wrote on the mail list in 1993. “You can protect yourself, rather than having to trust others. This puts more power into the hands of the consumer.” A few years later, Finney would even develop a “proof-of-work” system that closely resembled the one Bitcoin would later use, requiring that participants of the system solve complex computer problems to create a barrier to entry and keep out those who would corrupt the system.

So when the idea for Bitcoin first appeared on a cryptography mailing in 2008, posted by Satoshi Nakamoto, Finney says he was immediately enthusiastic, and responded with curious questions. Nakamoto’s announcement otherwise got a mostly skeptical reception. “Cryptographers have seen too many grand schemes by clueless noobs,” Finney wrote on the BitcoinTalk forum in 2013. “I was more idealistic; I have always loved crypto, the mystery and the paradox of it.”

Finney downloaded the early Bitcoin code and began running it on an IBM Windows desktop tower machine. He’s widely believed to be the first person other than Nakamoto himself to do so. He kept it running for weeks–just how long, he declined to tell me. With no competition, he was able to mine as much as a hundred coins a day using only his old PC’s off-the-shelf CPU. But sometime after mining a thousand coins, Finney turned the machine off–he and his son were worried the computer was overheating. The stash of bitcoins sat on Finney’s hard drive and were later burned to a DVD, left to gather dust on a desk. “I thought it was just an altruistic thing he was doing for a friend,” says Fran Finney. “And we thought the PGP thing had been enough altruism already.”

During his Bitcoin experimentation, Finney corresponded with Nakamoto, sending him a series of bug reports and suggestions for fixes. He would later write that while he had no idea of Nakamoto’s real identity or location, he imagined Bitcoin’s creator to be “a young man of Japanese ancestry who was very smart and sincere.”

In early 2009, Nakamoto also sent Finney the first ever test transfer of bitcoins. Finney said at the time he’d repay the ten coins back to Nakamoto. He never did, Fran Finney recalls with a laugh. He had other things on his mind by then, she says: Finney inexplicably began to fatigue quickly, slur his words, experience strange tingling, and lose coordination in his right hand. His doctor diagnosed him with ALS in August of 2009.

As Finney’s muscle control declined over the next years, he continued to write code for Bitcoin. At one point he wrote up an improvement to its elliptic-curve cryptography that would speed up its transactions by as much as 20%. Even after he lost the ability to type with both hands, and then to type at all, he continued to use eye-tracking software to write code, including a program called bcflick aimed at better securing Bitcoin wallets. “I am most proud of my work on PGP,” Finney wrote to me in an email, “ Although I would not be surprised if my small contributions to Bitcoin, particularly my optimization of the elliptic curve math, may be the lasting contribution of my work.”

As for the bitcoins Finney mined in those early days, he writes that he was relieved to rediscover them in 2010, still intact, as the currency suddenly began to gain value. He transferred them to the disc, and then later stored it in a safety deposit box at the family’s bank. But as Finney’s medical bills mounted, Finney sold the majority of the coins at an exchange rate of around $100, just a fraction of the more than $500 they’d be valued at today.

“[Our son] Jason is always saying ‘what if, what if,’” Fran says of the decision to sell the coins. “It’s fine with me if it means we have enough money to keep Hal alive, at home and comfortable.”

Fran declines to say just how much the family’s remaining Bitcoin savings are worth, but adds that the family has never had as much cryptocurrency wealth as is often rumored. Last year, she says, an extortion attempt threatened to release private information about the family online if Finney didn’t transfer a large number of bitcoins–more than he even had remaining after his medical expenses.

Finney himself doesn’t seem to dwell on what could have been, as much as his good fortune in becoming Bitcoin’s earliest-ever adopter. “I’m pretty lucky overall. Even with the ALS, my life is very satisfying. But my life expectancy is limited,” he wrote last year. “I’m comfortable with my legacy.”


After my initial phone call with Fran Finney, Hal Finney wrote me an email that I later learned had taken him the better part of a day to produce with his limited eye movement. In the note, he not only denied inventing Bitcoin, but also expressed doubts at Newsweek‘s focus on his old neighbor Dorian Nakamoto.

I must be brief. The reason I was skeptical about Dorian Nakamoto is that he didn’t match the picture in my mind that I had of Satoshi. I pictured him younger, as he was giving the impression of youthful vigor. Then there is the language Bitcoin was written in, C++. Satoshi was a master of the intricacies, and I’ve only seen this in young programmers. It seems hard to master C++ if you didn’t learn it while you’re young. As I have learned more about him, there are details that don’t add up, such as his care for an aging mother, which might cause financial strain.

As for your suspicion that I either am or at least helped Satoshi, I’m flattered but I deny categorically these allegations. I don’t know what more I can say. You have records of how I reacted to the announcement of Bitcoin, and I struggled to understand it. I suppose you could retort that I was able to fake it, but I don’t know what I can say to that. I’ve done some changes to the Bitcoin code, and my style is completely different from Satoshi’s. I program in C, which is compatible with C++, but I don’t understand the tricks that Satoshi used.

As far as your theory that I knew Dorian, that is unlikely because I lived in Temple City more than a decade ago, when Bitcoin hadn’t even been dreamed up. Again, I categorically deny any familiarity with Dorian Nakamoto.

In a written statement of his own a week later, Dorian Nakamoto would also deny any involvement with Bitcoin, arguing that he had never worked in cryptography and was so financially impoverished that he couldn’t even afford an Internet connection—two claims that called into question Newsweek‘s assertion that he had invented Bitcoin, and with it, any connection this Nakamoto might have had to Finney. Through his brother Tokuo, Dorian Nakamoto also told me he had never before heard Hal Finney’s name.

But the most compelling evidence that Finney didn’t invent Bitcoin or ghostwrite the 2008 Bitcoin whitepaper came during my visit to the Finneys’ Santa Barbara home.

I arrived on a Saturday afternoon, 20 minutes late due to traffic between Los Angeles and the Santa Barbara suburb. Fran Finney welcomed me into her home and brought me into the living room, where Finney himself sat in his wheelchair with his son Jason. His ventilator whirred rhythmically and the air smelled faintly of something sweet, like hot milk.

I apologized for being late. Finney’s first words to me, and the longest sentence I heard him speak in his robotic voice, were “Andy, it’s hard to time the drive from LA.” He had spent around ten minutes writing the sentence with his eye movements, just to comfort me about my tardiness. “We’re used to that kind of thing from him,” Fran told me. “He’s a good guy.”

I sat down with Finney and explained again the strange connections that had brought me to his home. Then I rehearsed the questions I’d asked through his wife over the phone. With his eyes, he gave the same friendly denials.


Then Jason Finney brought me over to a computer to show me what he’d prepared: It was Finney’s Gmail account, opened to a January 2009 conversation between Finney and someone named Satoshi Nakamoto—clearly, the Satoshi Nakamoto. They had exchanged about fifteen emails, in which Finney described bugs he’d found in the early Bitcoin code and Nakamoto responded with fixes and notes of thanks.

The Nakamoto on the other end of the conversation wrote in fluent, colloquial English, not at all like Dorian Nakamoto. (I would later forward the emails to the same linguistics analysis firm who had earlier analyzed Nakamoto’s writings, Juola & Associates, and they confirmed that the new emails matched the style of the Bitcoin whitepaper more closely than Finney’s writing, and far more closely than Dorian Nakamoto’s.)

Jason Finney also let me see the transaction record for his father’s Bitcoin wallet from 2009, which clearly showed that Finney had received Nakamoto’s ten-bitcoin test transaction on January 11th, 2009. The wallet evidence, along with the Gmail timestamps, would have been very difficult to forge. And the notion that Finney alone might have set up the two accounts and created a fake conversation with himself to throw off snoops like me, long before Bitcoin had any measurable value, seemed preposterous.

“My father is an honest guy,” Jason said. “He would have loved to have been part of creating Bitcoin, and he wouldn’t have hidden it. But he wasn’t involved.”

At this point, I was convinced I had reached a dead end. All the signs that Finney might have had a secret hand in the creation of Bitcoin had turned out to be nothing more than an illusion of a signal in random noise.

But even as I dropped my theory, I had learned enough to know that Finney was no random red herring. As an open source project, Bitcoin has been built and rebuilt by a community of programmers who have rewritten 70% of its code, like a ship whose crew replaces its hull while at sea. As the very first debugger and contributor to Bitcoin’s code long before a bitcoin was ever worth a thousandth of a penny, there’s no question that Finney did in fact help to create it. And this might be the last chance I or any other journalist might have to meet him in person.

I sat next to Finney again and asked him if, in this sense of open-source contribution, he did consider himself one of the creators of Bitcoin.

He raised his eyes and eyebrows.

Then I asked him if he was proud of that work. Finney raised his eyes again, and he smiled.

With reporting contributed by Matt Herper, Susan Radlauer and Kashmir Hill.

Follow me on Twitter , email me, anonymously send me sensitive documents or tips , and check out the new paperback edition of my book, This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers.

I’m a technology, privacy, and information security reporter and most recently the author of the book This Machine Kills Secrets, a chronicle of the history and future of information leaks, from the Pentagon Papers to WikiLeaks and beyond. I’ve covered the hacker beat for Forbes since 2007, with frequent detours into digital miscellania like switches, servers, supercomputers, search, e-books, online censorship, robots, and China. My favorite stories are the ones where non-fiction resembles science fiction. My favorite sources usually have the word “research” in their titles. Since I joined Forbes, this job has taken me from an autonomous car race in the California desert all the way to Beijing, where I wrote the first English-language cover story on the Chinese search billionaire Robin Li for Forbes Asia. Black hats, white hats, cyborgs, cyberspies, idiot savants and even CEOs are welcome to email me at agreenberg (at) My PGP public key can be found here.

Source: Nakamoto’s Neighbor: My Hunt For Bitcoin’s Creator Led To A Paralyzed Crypto Genius



More Contents:

Legalization of Cryptocurrency – Today
[…] In 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto (a pseudonym), introduced “bitcoin”, the first cryptocurrency based on blockchain and algorithm […]
Reason behind Bitcoin values increasing – – Today
[…] It began in 2009 as the brainchild of a man named Satoshi Nakamoto […]
What are the advanced methods investing bitcoin? – – Today
[…] Satoshi Nakamoto acquainted a progressive idea with the world, which turned into a hit as a result […]
What are the advanced methods investing bitcion? – – Today
[…] Satoshi Nakamoto acquainted a progressive idea with the world, which turned into a hit as a result […]
Bitcoin is the Great Definancialization | Gradually, Then Suddenly | Satoshi Nakamoto Institute – Today
“The market value of the Bloomberg Barclays Global Negative Yielding Debt Index rose to $17.05 trillion [November 2020], the highest level ever recorded and narrowly eclipsing the $17.04 trillion it reached in August 2019.”
Top 10 Companies That Accept Bitcoin | Tech Insider
[…] Bitcoin was invented in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto […]
Bitcoin: What to Know Before Investing – Today
[…] It was created by someone calling himself Satoshi Nakamoto, unveiled in 2008 and launched the following year […]
Bitcoin price above $58,000 – Business & Economy – Today
MOSCOW, February 22. /TASS/. The price of Bitcoin gained 1.97% during the trading session to the level of $58,100, according to CoinDesk portal data. The Bitcoin price set a new all-time high record. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto. It is a decentralized digital currency without a central bank or single administrator that can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without intermediaries.
The Many Theories Of Elon Musk Being Satoshi Nakamoto ⋆ ZyCrypto ⋆ – Today
[…] is Satoshi? For Changpeng Zhao, the head of leading cryptocurrency exchange Binance, Elon Musk and Satoshi Nakamoto may be the same person […] was sent to him by a friend, a lot of crypto enthusiasts are convinced that both Elon Musk and Satoshi Nakamoto may be the same people. The theories surfacing that claim that Elon Musk is the real Satoshi Nakamoto are yet to be backed by objective evidence, especially because Elon Musk has refrained fro […]
5 Major Cryptocurrencies Developed by Blockchain Advances
[…] Bitcoin (BTC) It’s been a decade-plus since Satoshi Nakamoto created BTC, the most widely used crypto in the world […]
Appendix D: Speaker and Moderator Biographies | Data Matters: Ethics, Data, and International Research Collaboration in a Changing World: Proceedings of a Workshop – February 21
[…] His work in cryptographic time stamping was later adopted by Satoshi Nakamoto as the basis for the creation of Bitcoin […]
Inside the Bitcoin Rally
Invented 12 years ago by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto, bitcoin started trading in 2009 as a crypto asset based on a decentralized blockchain-base […]
A collection of Bitcoin resources by BitcoinQnA – February 21
[…] explore the different wallet options Bitcoin Whitepaper A copy of the Bitcoin Whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto Bitcoin Backup Printable bitcoin seed recovery sheets Lightning Network Guide A basic introductio […]
The difference between Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash
[…] didn’t address the central issue of versatility, nor did it follow the guide at first laid out by Satoshi Nakamoto, the unknown party that initially proposed the blockchain innovation behind digital money […] Bitcoin SV was made with an end goal to remain consistent with the first vision for bitcoin that Satoshi Nakamoto depicted in the bitcoin white paper while likewise making alterations to encourage adaptability and […]
What is Bitcoin And Why Is It Largest Cryptocurrency? – February 21
[…] It was introduced by a few hackers under the alias of Satoshi Nakamoto […]
Blockchain Explained – What Is a Blockchain? (Definition & Review) – AdvisoryHQ – February 21
[…] The concept of a blockchain was developed in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto, who published the famous paper describing the bitcoin network […]
No Jargon Answer to What Is Bitcoin? | Tactical Allocation Channel – February 21
[…] and Upgrading Bitcoin Software So, who develops bitcoin software? In the first stage of bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto was the lead developer […]
How Does Cryptocurrency Work? | The Entrepreneur – February 21
[…] Therefore, Satoshi Nakamoto, the unknown inventor of Bitcoin, set a rule where miners are expected to invest their computers in […]
Bitcoin is in a long-term uptrend, says Kraken’s Dan Held
[…] adoption To demonstrate that the above is part of Bitcoin’s design Held quoted Bitcoin inventor Satoshi Nakamoto, who had this to say about the network effect of the cryptocurrency: As the number of users grows […]
Simple Question, Who’s Satoshi Nakamoto? #Bitcoin #Cryptocurrencies #SatoshiNakamoto : Bitcoin – February 21
2.5m members in the Bitcoin community. A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet.Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide ……
Bitcoin Mining Explained | Simplilearn – February 21
Since its introduction in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, bitcoin has excited investors, tech pros and everyday people alike. Even celebrities like Mike Tyson have gotten involved; the former pro boxer has launched both a bitcoin ATM and a bitcoin wallet app. But you don’t have to be any kind of a pro to understand how bitcoin works. Simplilearn’s v…Read More.
Sweden extends central bank digital currency trial for another year – February 21
[…] the ultimate resource guide to learn more about Bitcoin—as originally envisioned by Satoshi Nakamoto—and blockchain […]
Byzantine Generals’ Problem – An Introduction – February 21
[…] When Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin, he mitigated this issue by integrating the protocol with a special class o […] By solving this quandary, both Satoshi Nakamoto and Bitcoin have introduced us to the game-changing phenomenon known as the decentralized economy […]
in-the-eye-of-the-beholder-what-gives-b – February 21
[…] Bitcoin’s history and basic use Pseudonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto published the written framework for Bitcoin in 2008 […]
Tesla makes more money on bitcoin than on cars : technology – February 21
[…] It was launched by a pseudonymous figure known as Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009, at which point its value was roughly zero […]
The thoughtful lunacy of Dogecoin – – February 21
[…] Bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto created this system, with Bitcoin being a monetary incentive for people who mine blockchain […]
No, I will not stop telling people “BCH is Bitcoin.” – February 21
[…] with the original project goals and in fact proposed and planned by the project’s creator, Satoshi Nakamoto […]
Regarding CSW and the Bitcoin Whitepaper – CRYPTO CRYPTO NEWS – February 21
[…] They also claim he is Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of Bitcoin, and the original owner of bitcoin […] be weaponized to make new false claims, like that the Bitcoin Core developers “know” CSW to be Satoshi Nakamoto and this is why they acted in this way […] in the original Bitcoin project files with the project clearly published under the MIT license by Satoshi Nakamoto […]
Bitcoin ATMs Market to See Huge Growth by 2026 | Genesis Coin, Lamassu, Bitaccess – Southern India Reporter
[…] Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and started in 2009 when its implementation was released as open-source software […]
Bitcoin ATMs Market to See Huge Growth by 2026 | Genesis Coin, Lamassu, Bitaccess – Shillong Herald
[…] Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and started in 2009 when its implementation was released as open-source software […]
Bitcoin ATMs Market to See Huge Growth by 2026 | Genesis Coin, Lamassu, Bitaccess – Chhattisgarh Journal
[…] Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and started in 2009 when its implementation was released as open-source software […]
OKCoin plans to suspend Bitcoin Cash (BCH) and Bitcoin SV (BSV) trades • – February 21
[…] Wright has claimed severally that he is Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous Bitcoin creator […]
Can Governments Stop Bitcoin? – – February 21
[…] In January 2009, a mysterious coder going by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto launched Bitcoin, an open-source financial network with big ambitions: to replace central bankin […]
Singapore Mall Sells Bitcoin Mining Hardware Station – February 21
[…] In November that year, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin […] In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block […]
Proof of Insurance on the RiskBlock Blockchain – February 21
[…] In November that year, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin […] In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block […]
The Role of Trading Bots in the Crypto Currency Market – February 21
[…] In November that year, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin […] In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block […]
The EU Clarifies the Anti-Money Laundering Directive – February 21
[…] In November that year, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin […] In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block […]

Paxful Launches Bitcoin Donation Drive for Coronavirus Relief

  • Paxful announces Bitcoin donation drive for Coronavirus relief efforts in Africa.
  • The donation will buy essential items for those in danger and the frontline health workers.

Paxful, the company behind popular stablecoin projects like Paxos Dollar and Paxos Gold have announced a new Bitcoin donation drive to collect donations for the Coronavirus relief efforts in Africa. The company initially launched a #BuiltWithBitcoin initiative to help raise awareness regarding the blockchain industry overall.

Africa was widely touted as the next expected epicenter of the Coronavirus pandemic but various circumstances have slowed down the expectations. While the virus is still growing in numbers, it hasn’t reached the levels being experienced by European countries. So, while the growth has been slow overall, many countries in the continent are ill-equipped to deal with the disaster even if it continues to strike at a slower overall rate.

Paxful has started the donation drive with $15,000 initially and will match the donations made by other individuals and organizations who donate to the fund. The donated money will go buying Personal Protection Equipment (PPEs), food rations and essentials for the vulnerable and high-risk demographics.

Donation drives around the world are increasingly looking at Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies for decentralized donation drives. With regular payment channels having issues especially in lesser developed countries like some in Africa, Bitcoin is a very good direct resource to donate to different missions. is committed to unbiased news and upholding journalistic codes of ethics. For more information please read our Editorial Policy here.

Follow on Twitter: @bitcoinnewscom
Telegram Alerts from

Source: Paxful Launches Bitcoin Donation Drive for Coronavirus Relief –

Please follow my Instagram:

Peer-to-peer ( P2P ) cryptocurrency marketplace Paxful announced on May 4 the expansion of its #BuiltWithBitcoin charitable initiative in Africa with the launch of the “Africa Fund.”The fund will use Bitcoin ( BTC ) donations to purchase essential resources for the fight against the coronavirus pandemic. According to the announcement, COVID-19 cases are increasing in Africa “at exponential rates.” Fundraising aims to acquire Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), food packs, and provide high-risk individuals with groceries and handwashing stations. Paxful will start the fund with $15,000 and match any additional donations submitted up to $15,000 in BTC. Speaking to Cointelegraph, Paxful CEO Ray Youseff said:“We know that the past month has been challenging for everyone. And in Africa, where many Paxful users are from, was also hit by this pandemic. Health systems are underfunded and understaffed and many people are living in unfavorable conditions. In response to that, we are starting a #BuiltWithBitcoin COVID-19 Fund for Africa that aims to directly help communities and showcase crypto as a positive force in times of crisis.”Cryptocurrencies can hurdle major roadblocks in fundraising and charity during the coronavirus crisis. According to Youseff:“The peer-to-peer nature of cryptos passes boundaries of traditional finance, in some cases, it is faster and more convenient when transferring funds. In a pandemic, where time is not on our side and we are restricted to move, we need more reliable alternatives and resources to keep our finances flowing – may it be for money transfers or new revenue streams.”Humanitarian organizations will LAO support the campaign, such as Zam Zam Water, which provides access to clean water supplies and develops schools in villages around the world. Looking ahead, Youseff told Cointelegraph that they remain open to expanding to other regions as long as they find “the right partners as we did in Africa.”The COVID-19 crisis has mobilized the crypto community around the world to join in charitable initiatives. Cointelegraph reported on April 8 that a cryptocurrency fundraising initiative for the Italian Red Cross had tripled its initial campaign goal of roughly $ 10,000 in less than four weeks, allowing them to build COVID-19 medical posts in the country. All data is taken from the source: Article Link:… #africa #etncoin #bitcoinpricegraph #cryptocurrencynews #cryptocurrencyexchange #cryptonews #cryptoexchange Paxful Launches Bitcoin Fundraising Campaign to Combat COVID-19 in Africa:…

Just One Major Cryptocurrency Is Outperforming Bitcoin Right Now And It’s Climbing Fast

Bitcoin has rebounded this week, climbing along with gold and other safe-havens as major stock markets struggle.The bitcoin price is up just over 2% over the last week—making strong gains yesterday as investors search for somewhere to put their cash. However, one major cryptocurrency has outpaced bitcoin’s gains over the last week and is still rocketing higher.

The privacy-focused cryptocurrency monero, currently ranked as the 11th most valuable cryptocurrency on data site CoinMarketCap with a total value of just under $1 billion, has added almost 5% in the past week—beating bitcoin’s gains.

Monero, which masks the identity of users better than the likes of bitcoin, is up by over 6% over the last 24-hour trading period, soaring as the broader cryptocurrency market climbed.

The precise reason for monero’s sudden surge wasn’t immediately clear, though there have been a number of positive developments for the bitcoin rival over recent months.

Monero developers recently rolled out an update to its Carbon Chameleon software, designed to improve transaction execution and how the cryptocurrency works with the privacy networks Tor and I2P.

Monero and privacy coins have also recently gained support from some high profile figures in the tech and crypto industry.

“I think we’ll also see privacy integrated into one of the dominant chains in the 2020s,” Coinbase’s chief executive Brian Armstrong wrote in a blog post back in January.

“Just like how the internet launched with HTTP, and only later introduced HTTPS as a default on many websites, I believe we’ll eventually see a privacy coin or blockchain with built in privacy features get mainstream adoption in the 2020s. It doesn’t make sense in most cases to broadcast every payment you make on a transparent ledger.”

John McAfee, the controversial and outspoken antivirus software developer and curve-ball U.S. presidential candidate, named monero as his cryptocurrency of choice earlier this year.

McAfee, who has reneged on his promise to “eat [his] own dick on national television” if the bitcoin price didn’t hit $500,000 per bitcoin by the end of 2020, praised monero, along with ethereum, the second most valuable cryptocurrency after bitcoin.

McAfee made similar allusions to monero’s technological superiority over bitcoin.”Bitcoin was first. It’s an ancient technology. All know it,” McAfee said via Twitter before recommending monero to cryptocurrency users.

“Newer blockchains have privacy, smart contracts, distributed apps and more. Bitcoin is our future? Was the Model T the future of the automobile?”

Follow me on Twitter.

I am a journalist with significant experience covering technology, finance, economics, and business around the world. As the founding editor of I reported on how technology is changing business, political trends, and the latest culture and lifestyle. I have covered the rise of bitcoin and cryptocurrency since 2012 and have charted its emergence as a niche technology into the greatest threat to the established financial system the world has ever seen and the most important new technology since the internet itself. I have worked and written for CityAM, the Financial Times, and the New Statesman, amongst others. Follow me on Twitter @billybambrough or email me on Disclosure: I occasionally hold some small amount of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Source: Just One Major Cryptocurrency Is Outperforming Bitcoin Right Now And It’s Climbing Fast

Please follow my instagram:

A Major Bitcoin Exchange Has A ‘Massive’ Problem

Bitcoin exchanges and platforms never seem far from scandal, with crypto investors always nervously awaiting the next bitcoin hack or data breach. The bitcoin price has been known to swing wildly following reports of major bitcoin thefts, though sometimes fails to react at all.

Now, Seychelles-based bitcoin futures exchange BitMEX has sparked panic among bitcoin traders and investors after accidentally exposing thousands of its users’ emails–with the exchange’s Twitter account then compromised shortly after.

BitMEX this week sent out thousands of its users’ email addresses along with a weekly newsletter after inadvertently CC’ing recipients instead of BCC’ing them.

Today In: Money

“We are aware that some of our users have received a general user update email earlier today, which contained the email addresses of other users,” BitMEX said in a statement posted to its blog, adding an apology for the leak.

“Our team have acted immediately to contain the issue and we are taking steps to understand the extent of the impact. Rest assured that we are doing everything we can to identify the root cause of the fault and we will be in touch with any users affected by the issue.”

The exchange has blamed a bug for the leak claiming the error has been “identified and fixed.”

BitMEX, known for offering 100-times leverage trading, is currently being investigated by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) for allowing U.S. traders to use its platform without a licence.

“This kind of thing is a massive privacy breach with potentially serious consequences,” Jake Chervinsky, general counsel at Compound Finance, said via Twitter, adding: “[It’s] the last thing a derivatives exchange needs to deal with during a CFTC investigation.”

BitMEX has requested its users add BitMEX’s support email to their contact lists to decrease phishing emails along with adding 2-factor authentication.

Shortly after BitMEX warned users about the email leak, the exchange’s Twitter account @BitMEXdotcom posted two tweets that were promptly deleted.

The first read “Hacked” and the second advised followers to: “Take Your [bitcoin] and run. Last day for withdrawals.”

The bitcoin price, which is still choppy after a roller-coaster October, barely reacted to news of the leak, remaining steady at a little over $9,000 per bitcoin.

Last month, the bitcoin price was suddenly heavily sold off before rebounding sharply just a couple of days later.

Meanwhile, Malta-based bitcoin exchange Binance, the world’s largest bitcoin and cryptocurrency exchange by volume, warned its users to change their Binance-registered email accounts following BitMEX’s blunder.

BitMEX, known for offering 100-times leverage trading, has been criticised previously for potentially exposing traders to too much risk, with economist and bitcoin skeptic Nouriel Roubini attacking the exchange and claiming it “may be openly involved in systematic illegality.”

Follow me on Twitter.

I am a journalist with significant experience covering technology, finance, economics, and business around the world. As the founding editor of I reported on how technology is changing business, political trends, and the latest culture and lifestyle. I have covered the rise of bitcoin and cryptocurrency since 2012 and have charted its emergence as a niche technology into the greatest threat to the established financial system the world has ever seen and the most important new technology since the internet itself. I have worked and written for CityAM, the Financial Times, and the New Statesman, amongst others. Follow me on Twitter @billybambrough or email me on Disclosure: I occasionally hold some small amount of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.

Source: A Major Bitcoin Exchange Has A ‘Massive’ Problem

137K subscribers
Happy Halloween! Bitcoin just hit a major milestone. Right now this is news. At some point it will turn into history. Like. Comment. Subscribe. Follow us on Twitter: Canadian Markets Regulator Gives 3iQ Green Light to Offer Bitcoin Fund… Bitfinex adds native SegWit support for bitcoin withdrawals… The milestones just keep coming this week!… For our next speaker announcement, we wanted a Bitcoiner who has taken a counterculture mainstream… Super stoked to announce Tony Hawk as that featured speaker!… Chinese Communist Party Launches Very Own “Xitcoin,” Thanks Zuckerberg for the Idea… Local government in China offers $150 million to fund blockchain projects… Ripple CEO Confirms Rumor on MoneyGram’s Use of XRP, Says Bitcoin and Crypto Activity Remains Largely Speculative… Excited to integrate our Ledger Hardware Wallets with @Samsung… *********************************************************************** 🏺Support The Channel!!🏺 Protect and store your crypto with a Ledger Nano: Sign up for Coinbase & get $10 in free Bitcoin:… Earn Bitcoin For everyday online purchases: 🏺Buy Me A Beer 🏺 ►BTC: 3DYCrB2RCrREM6y3Ahxxuv9JjSVd6yrbz4 ►BTC: 3DYCrB2RCrREM6y3Ahxxuv9JjSVd6yrbz4 *********************************************************************** #bitcoin #like #cryptocurrency #news #btc #ethereum #eth #cryptocurrency #litecoin #altcoin #altcoins #eos #forex #money #best #trading #bitcoinmining #invest #trader #cryptocurrencies #top #investing #entrepreneur #business #success #investment #finance #bitcoins #motivation #coinbase #stocks #wallstreet #investor #ico #wealth #bullish #bearish #cryptolive #altcoindaily #cardano #xrp #ripple ***NOT FINANCIAL, LEGAL, OR TAX ADVICE! JUST OPINION! I AM NOT AN EXPERT! I DO NOT GUARANTEE A PARTICULAR OUTCOME I HAVE NO INSIDE KNOWLEDGE! YOU NEED TO DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH AND MAKE YOUR OWN DECISIONS! THIS IS JUST EDUCATION & ENTERTAINMENT! USE ALTCOIN DAILY AS A STARTING OFF POINT! This information is what was found publicly on the internet. This information could’ve been doctored or misrepresented by the internet. All information is meant for public awareness and is public domain. This information is not intended to slander harm or defame any of the actors involved but to show what was said through their social media accounts. Please take this information and do your own research. bitcoin, cryptocurrency, crypto, altcoin, altcoin daily, blockchain, decentralized, news, best investment, top altcoins, ripple, ethereum, tron, stellar, binance, cardano, xrp, litecoin, 2019, 2020, crash, bull run, bottom, crash, tether, bitfinex, rally, tone vays, ivan on tech, chico, video, youtube, macro, price, prediction, podcast, interview, halloween, china, depth, buy, trade, bitfinex, canada, ontario, approved, 31Q, milesone, tony hawk, brad garlinghouse,

The Bitcoin Halvening Is Coming

One of the controversial things about bitcoin (BTC) is that it pays the people that keep the bitcoin blockchain running and secure. These folks are called miners, purely because the process seems slightly similar to mining. The process of mining is to run software that executes the search for the solution to a puzzle that acts as the password to creating the next record on the bitcoin blockchain. Success in cracking this puzzle and then creating the next block of records is rewarded in bitcoin. At the moment the reward is 12.5 BTC, which at the rate of $8,000 a BTC is exactly $100,000.

That sounds like a lot of money to solve a lil’ ole puzzle. The trouble is the puzzle is to mash numbers to create a result with say 23 zeros, which, because of the math involved, means you have to do literally zillions of trillions of calculations to find one password code. Miners run these bazillions of calculations, sifting through the wrong answers to get to a single right one. This takes perhaps three years for a specialist machine running flat out at 50 trillion calculations a second, burning a few thousand dollars of electricity as it goes.

That doesn’t sound like a bad business model but as new mining machines enter the game, so the game gets harder, which means that the amount of time taken by any given machine to get a result goes up and so does the cost. Bitcoins difficulty has over the years gone truly exponential, so that the money a machine can make when put into a team of machines halves every six months or so as time passes. That makes making money mining tricky because while you may make great money to start with, after about 18 months it may have fallen to nothing.

Apart from increasing difficulty, mining also gets harder because every so often the blockchain will halve the reward. This last happened in July 2016. The reward is currently 12.5 bitcoin but soon enough the reward will be only 6.175 BTC. The price should rise to pay the miners more for their smaller haul of new bitcoin. If it doesn’t, unprofitable miners must stop work so the difficulty can fall and the job can get easier for those that remain or certain miners must get way more efficient and push the less efficient miners off the pitch.

Today In: Money

The general consensus is that the bitcoin price will rise.

The reason for this is that the inflation of the BTC money supply by 12.5 BTC every ten minutes, means that there is a new supply of 1,800 coins a day, let’s call it $14 million a day. This $14 million of new supply, which is currently absorbed by buyers, will suddenly be cut in half to $7 million. The demand, however, will remain roughly constant. Unchanged demand coupled with lower supply, equals price up.

This is how it has worked in the past and this is what I’m putting my money on. There are skeptics who suggest that if the price doesn’t move up then miners will wither away, block times will slow dramatically, bitcoin will be less useful, people will panic and dump and so on. However, there are a lot of people like me who would love that and would buy a lot into such a panic. Less supply, same demand, high price, wins the simple proven logical outcome of the next halvening.

But of course people are going to preempt.

To add to the price pressure, bitcoin gets lost. That happens to gold too and was also a problem for gold when it was money. That enables bitcoin to get ever more expensive overtime.

If a Satoshi was 1 cent, bitcoin’s market cap would be 21 trillion dollars, but when you think about it, if a Satoshi was $1 or $100, then it would become a currency much like gold, which in the past was used foremostly as a store of wealth, expressed in the usage for silver coins which acted as a store of wealth for the general usage of copper coins. This is the dream of all crypto fans, bitcoin as the reserve currency of crypto, an incredibly valuable blockchain fungibly linked on top of a hierarchy of other ‘lesser’ currencies.

It could happen.

The upcoming halvening speaks to this dream and it’s coming to the BTC blockchain in May. As a hodl’er I can wait.

Be among the first to get important crypto and blockchain news and information with Forbes Crypto Confidential. It’s free, sign up now.

Clem Chambers is the CEO of private investors website and author of Be Rich, The Game in Wall Street and Trading Cryptocurrencies: A Beginner’s Guide. In 2018, Chambers won Journalist of the Year in the Business Market Commentary category in the State Street U.K. Institutional Press Awards.

Follow me on Twitter. Check out my website.

I am the CEO of stocks and investment website ADVFN . As well as running Europe and South America’s leading financial market website I am a prolific financial writer. I wrote a stock column for WIRED – which described me as a ‘Market Maven’ – and am a regular columnist for numerous financial publications around the world. I have written for titles including: Working Money, Active Trader, SFO and Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities in the US and have written for pretty much every UK national newspaper. In the last few years I have become a financial thriller writer and have just had my first non-fiction title published: 101 ways to pick stock market winners. Find me here on US Amazon. You’ll also see me regularly on CNBC, CNN, SKY, Business News Network and the BBC giving my take on the markets.

Source: The Bitcoin Halvening Is Coming

94.5K subscribers
With the next Bitcoin ‘halvening’ event taking place on May 22nd 2020, we are now officially less than a year away from this event occurring. In this video, I’m going to explain why I believe that this is a HUGE deal for cryptocurrency investors. DISCLAIMER: This is NOT financial advice. I am just offering my opinions. I am not responsible for any investment decisions that you choose to make. ►►►Looking to get started with cryptocurrencies? Check out my crash course here (HUGE 80% OFF LINK):… DONATIONS ♥ ETH: 0xc12f59c4e23dccd369437bbdb09470879d8c0825 ♥ BTC: 1L2LswVmTobmEK8dy6Yw9nWx93Z1zZ1jb3 ESSENTIAL CRYPTO RESOURCES ♦ Recommended place to buy Bitcoin/Ethereum: COINBASE – Sign up here:… ♦ Recommended Wallet: LEDGER NANO S – Available here: ♦ Recommended VPN provider: Nord VPN Available here: ♦ Learn to code with Ivan on Tech’s Academy. EXCLUSIVE offer – just $9 for first month: SOCIAL MEDIA LINKS ● Website: ● Facebook:… ● Twitter: ● Instagram:… ● Steemit: ● Snapchat: louisxthomas
%d bloggers like this: