Decolonising Study Skills & The Role of Learning Development

At Newcastle this year, we’ve been beyond fortunate to have an incredible Student Union exec, a team of formidable and inspiring Sabs who have not only worked their hardest to support their fellow students through what they couldn’t have known would be one of the hardest academic years ever due to the pandemic, but who have also somewhere found the reserves of energy to engage with another critical and timely issue, decolonizing the curriculum. Their Decolonise NCL campaign has to date included a series of online events attracting a seriously impressive array of speakers, as well as pulling together resources and pushing the University to pledge a commitment to decolonisation and anti-racist work at all levels. It’s simply awe-inspiring.

Their work has got me thinking about the place of decolonisation in what’s commonly called ‘study skills’, and how it impacts on the role of Learning Developers. I wrote a while ago about coming to understand the related and tricky value of emancipatory practice, a related concept, which I feel is the defining Learning Development value, but even at the time felt I was only just beginning to get a handle on it. Since then, my Leeds colleague Sunny Dhillon has written eloquently both about his ambivalent feelings about emancipation in LD as well as questioning whether universities can feasibly decolonise themselves. Working on projects around student induction this year, at the time of the Black Lives Matter protests, I’ve also examined ways in which an uncritical approach to inducting students to our academic community could be oppressive. The Student Union campaign has prompted me to further this thinking and tie these disparate threads together in the context of my own profession.

To this end, I offered to contribute a session to their programme of Decol NCL events, NOT because I have any expertise in this area, but because I wanted to pick up the challenge they had thrown down and explore how this ‘well-meaning middle class white woman’ might begin doing her own anti-racist work within her professional context. I’ve since taken this discussion to a meeting of my own profession of Learning Developers in Scotland (ScotHELD). This post draws together some of the questions and avenues I explored in those sessions. Our NUSU sabs talk about brave spaces as well as safe spaces, about the need to let people take risks to step outside their comfort zone, and I’d like to take that idea up and step out.

“…universities remain white middle-class spaces. They require students to adopt particular ways of being and doing – those which conform to middle-class practices that define success in higher education – ways of writing, speaking and the use of academic language. Universities measure a particular type of success that is possessed by those from white middle-class backgrounds.”

(Bhopal, 2018)

As I’ve written before, my role is often understood as teaching students to write ‘properly’. Implicitly, that means as white, middle class and male. I’d extend this understanding of ‘academic literacy’ also beyond just academic writing to other practices covered by a Learning Developer, from seminar participation to independent study, reading to critical thinking, time management to revision, which are equally situated in socio-cultural expectations of what it means to be a “good” student – the default norm being a white, middle class, male student with all the resources, privilege, cultural capital and opportunities they possess.

“Academic practices are usually presented as neutral, decontextualised sets of technical skills and literacy that students from socially disadvantaged backgrounds are seen to lack”

(Lillis, 2001). 

These practices are not neutral, and those of us who teach them must interrogate what it is that we are doing, and whether it is reinforcing a colonial, oppressive education system rooted in white, middle class, western norms of how we should think, act and communicate at university, thereby positioning Black, Asian, working class etc students in terms of deficits to be remediated. While it may be true as Bourdieu says that ‘academic English is […] no one’s mother tongue’, it’s a language closely related to my own RP middle class English, and one I can learn with greater ease and inhabit more comfortably without challenge to my identity and sense of belonging.

“Through taken- for-granted academic practices, constructions of difference are formed, often in problematic ways. The tendency is to project a pathologist gaze on racialist bodies that have historically been constructed as a problem, and as suffering from a range of deficit disorders (e.g. lack of aspiration, lack of motivation, lack of confidence and so on’)”

(Burke, 2015).

What I’ve learned from the speakers at NUSU’s events so far: Decolonisation is not synonymous with other concepts such as diversity, inclusion, equality or widening participation, laudable as those initiatives may be. They imply an extension of the status quo, an affirmation of it, additive rather than transformational. Decolonisation, while related to these concepts, demands a fundamental change, a dismantling, decentring, disruption, a relinquishing, restitution, restoration. It has a revolutionary quality. “Decolonisation”, we are told, “is not a metaphor” (Tuck and Yang, 2012). Moreover, decolonisation cannot be achieved simply through inclusion or widening participation measures, as the structures and processes of an oppressive system are ill suited to fundamentally dismantling its underlying issues: “the master’s tools will never dismantle the master’s house” (Lorde, 18984). To decolonise the HE curriculum means

an underlying transformation from a culture of denial and exclusion to a consideration of different traditions of knowledge. To diversify our curriculum is to challenge power relations and call for deeper thinking about the content of our courses and how we teach them.

James Muldoon

How does this relate to Learning Development? Well, by extension, to decolonise the curriculum means not only what we teach and how, but also how we expect students to learn. Lea and Street’s tripartite framework of approaches to the teaching of academic writing offers us a lens to examine our practice. The second level, the academic socialisation model, maps onto ideas of inclusion and widening participation: “ [it] is concerned with students’ acculturation into disciplinary and subject-based discourses and genres. Students acquire the ways of talking, writing, thinking, and using literacy that typified members of a disciplinary or subject area community” (Lea and Street, 2006). These ways also typify the ideal or assumed white, middle class, male member of that community, for whom that system was created and in whose interests it operates. This is Academic Literacy as The Thing That We LDers Teach to students.

A Learning Developer whose primary guiding model is an academic socialisation approach is upholding this status quo. No matter how welcoming the gatekeeper, no matter how wide we throw open those doors and how helpful we are in orientating those we admit within the walls, we are still insisting that students enter on the terms of a white, middle class academy. We are also closing our ears to our students’ experiences; what is just a surface feature and linguistic or practice quirk to us is a troubling challenge to their identity or weighty burden to enact, for some students.

Colonialism assimilates or destroys; this is Learning Development as colonial assimilation. Become like us, or fail. We don’t want the bits of you that don’t conform. But not only does a predominantly academic socialisation approach assume that “once students have learned and understood the ground rules of a particular academic discourse, they are able to reproduce it unproblematically”, it also assumes that those ground rules are unproblematic.

‘Inclusion tends to be more about fitting into the dominant culture than about interrogating that culture for the ways that it is complicit in the social and cultural reproduction of exclusion, misrecognition and inequality.’  

(Burke, 2015)

The third model identified by Lea and Street maps more closely onto the decolonisation agenda. It not only notes that academic writing is not homogeneous but a multiplicity of practices or meanings, but also acknowledges that these meanings are bound up with epistemology and identity, that they consist of socio-cultural practices situated within hierarchies of power and authority and are therefore contested on unequal terms. I’d like to raise an observation I’ve frequently made when listening to or reading accounts of Academic Literacies as a model, both in Learning Development and EAP. Very often, these accounts focus on one implication of Academic Literacies, that academic writing is not generic or monolithic and therefore our work needs to differentiate multiple discipline-specific discourses and tailor provision, at the expense of the other: that these discourses are situated in hierarchies of power and authority. That critical, radical observation is right there in the model, and yet is frequently downplayed or overlooked.

Similarly, it positions study skills not as surface tools to be adopted at will, but fundamentally entwined with identity, and therefore belonging. Education is supposed to change you, but not to the extent that you can only learn if you become someone else entirely, or fragment your identity, your self. And if Learning Development’s defining value is its emancipatory practice, then it is these more critical implications that we need to foreground, or what we have is a tailored academic socialisation model (Ivanic’s 2004 four tier model acknowledges this better perhaps than Lea and Street’s, separating out writing as a contextualised event from writing as a sociocultural and political practice).

The principal function of student writing is increasingly that of gatekeeping.

(Lillis, 2001)

Due to the nature of our work, Learning Developers have a special relevance to the project of decolonisation in Higher Education. Decolonisation is often spoken of in terms of adding a more diverse range of authors to a reading list, or including broader topics in a module, mostly applying to Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. Put a few Black authors on the English Literature curriculum, hire a couple of BAME lecturers and be done with it. But decolonisation applies to the whole system of how we teach, the way we expect students to learn, and how we recognise and assess that learning, a system which, if it’s not designed for you, makes everything harder, if it doesn’t exclude you outright. It forces you to learn on someone else’s terms, and ‘Study Skills’, the core remit of Learning Development, cross-cuts and underpins all aspects of the curriculum at every level, in every discipline.

It’s our role to not only to help students better understand their curriculum, institution and discipline better, but also to negotiate it successfully. Negotiate – it’s a wonderful word in this context, meaning both to find your way through obstacles, but also to bring about a desired outcome through discussion between parties. Negotiation demands dialogue and change on both sides to progress. I’m not sure decolonisation is something Learning Developers can really choose to disengage from or remain neutral on.

How should we respond to decolonisation? Do we need to decolonise study skills? I think it’s clear that we must, and that Learning Development has a key role to play in this. I’ll look at how we might do that in my next post…

By: RattusScholasticus Head of Writing Development Service and Learning Developer at Newcastle University. View all posts by RattusScholasticus

Related

Decolonising Learning Development: Doing the WorkIn “LD Values”

Emancipatory practice: the defining LD value?In “LD Values”

A Manifesto for Learning DevelopERs

SOAS University of London

Dr. Meera Sabaratnam and SOAS students talk about the university’s efforts to decolonize the curriculum and provide a more global education. Our blog: https://www.soas.ac.uk/blogs/study/de…​ Study at SOAS: https://www.soas.ac.uk/admissions/

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The Math Behind The 5-Hour Rule: Why You Need To Learn 1 Hour Per Day Just To Stay Relevant – Michael Simmons

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Three years ago, I coined the term The 5-Hour Rule after researching the most successful, busy people in the world and finding that they shared a pattern: They devoted at least 5 hours a week to deliberate learning. Since then, I’ve preached The 5-Hour Rule to more than 10 million readers. The reason I keep writing about it is two-fold..I believe it’s the single most critical practice we all can adopt to ensure our long-term career success, Almost no one takes this rule as seriously as they should…Recently, I’ve realized that The 5-Hour Rule is more than just a pattern. It’s more like a fundamental law in our current age of knowledge. And it’s backed up by basic math and a growing body of research……..

Read more: https://medium.com/the-mission/the-math-behind-the-5-hour-rule-why-you-need-to-learn-1-hour-per-day-just-to-stay-relevant-90007efe6861

 

 

 

 

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A New Approach To Personalized Learning Reveals 3 Valuable Teaching Insights – Thomas Arnett

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Personalized learning’s rationale has strong intuitive appeal: We can all remember feeling bored, confused, frustrated, or lost in school when our classes didn’t spark our interests or address our learning needs. But an intuitive rationale doesn’t clearly translate to effective practice. For personalized learning to actually move the needle on improving student experiences and elevating student outcomes, the question of how schools and teachers personalize is just as important as why.

So how do schools effectively personalize learning? Is it through online learning? mastery-based learning? project-based learning? exploratory learning? Each of these common approaches offers a unique dimension of “personalization.” Yet one of the most important ways to personalize learning may be easily overlooked in the quest for new and novel approaches to instruction.

Across the K–12 education landscape, teachers have by far the biggest impact on student learning and student experiences. Even in classrooms with the latest adaptive learning technology, an expert teachers’ professional intuition is still the best way to understand and address the myriad cognitive, non-cognitive, social, emotional, and academic factors that affect students’ achievement.

Additionally, one of the most valuable forms of personalization is authentic, personal relationships between students and teachers. It therefore makes sense that any school looking to offer personalized learning should not only explore new technologies and instructional practices, but also think carefully about how to increase students’ connections with great educators.

To that end, over the past year, The Clayton Christensen Institute partnered with Public Impact to study the intersection between personalized learning and school staffing. Our aim was to observe how schools might be using new staffing arrangements to better meet the individual learning needs of their students. Initially, we tapped into our knowledge of schools (via the BLU_ school directory and Public Impact’s Opportunity Culture schools) and recommendations from personalized learning thought leaders to identify schools that were working to personalize learning using both blended learning and innovative staffing arrangements.

We then narrowed our list down to eight pioneering schools and school networks—including district, charter, and private schools—whose practices we documented in a series of case studies. Our latest report, “Innovative staffing to personalize learning: How new teaching roles and blended learning help students succeed,” released last week, documents the findings from this research. Below are brief snippets on three of our most interesting insights.

Team teaching increases supportive relationships

The most common theme across the schools we studied was a shift from one teacher per classroom to teams of educators collaborating to support larger-than-normal classes. At one school, classes of 60 students learned together in a large, open learning space with three team teachers at a time for ELA and math. At another school, students spent part of their day with co-teachers and part of their day in seven- to 12-person groups supported by a teaching fellow.

At a third school, students rotated through in-class stations where they worked part of the time with a teacher and part of the time with a small group instructor. With these new staffing arrangements, schools found that having many eyes on each student helped keep students from falling through the cracks; increased students’ chances of forming a strong, positive connection with at least one adult; and decreased the odds that a student risked going through a year with just one “really bad fit” teacher.

Support staff help schools personalize through small group instruction

At the schools we studied, teaching teams included not only teachers, but also other support staff, such as tutors, teaching fellows, or small-group instructors. These support staff members played a critical role in helping the schools offer their students frequent opportunities for personalized learning in small groups. As one teacher explained, “That small group is meant to look at each student and identify their personal needs and assist them.”

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Another teacher at a different school said that, “Sometimes tutors make awesome relationships with students, and the students can’t wait for the tutor to come for that day; so then, I use [the tutors] also to make sure that students know that they’re being watched and that they can always ask for help.” Small groups gave students individualized support and relationships that helped them see success is possible.

Blended learning complements innovative staffing

As schools used new staffing arrangements to personalize their instruction, blended learning gave them increased flexibility in how to best use their educators’ time and talents. By letting online learning provide some instruction, educator teams could focus more on coaching students and addressing their individual needs instead of worrying about covering their course content.

Software also gave educator teams data on student progress that allowed them to make their planning and interventions more targeted to students’ needs. Some schools also used software that recommended student groupings and lesson plans for small group instruction.

All too often, schools may be trying to personalize learning while treating one of their most crucial assets—human capital—as fixed. But as the findings from this report illustrate, many pioneering schools see personalized learning and teacher quality not as separate strategies, but as complementary levers within their broader efforts to better serve their students.

In that light, the findings from this report are a bellwether to the field for showing the alignment between personalized learning and human capital approaches that improve access to quality teaching.

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What Are The Benefits of Blended Learning

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Blended learning, which mixes traditional face-to-face education with technology, has become increasingly popular in educational institutions over the years. This style of learning provides a way for faculty to engage students through visuals and online interaction.

In fact, 77% of academic leaders claim that online education is either the same or superior to face-to-face education and can be executed for a fraction of the cost.

So, how can blended learning benefit faculty and students alike?

Benefits to faculty

Change can be difficult, especially for faculty who have taught using traditional methods for years. But, as blended learning becomes more commonplace in educational institutions, the benefits are becoming more obvious – making the adoption rate higher.

 1. Track and improve engagement 

 

Blended learning provides the opportunity to make a clear roadmap for students, such as what is expected of each student and requirements to reach the final goal — or grade —are. With blended learning, teachers can visualize and track each student’s progress. This process can make it easier to identify signs of a student struggling or educational strengths and act upon them accordingly.

For instance, educators can analyze metrics to see what programs and modules students are engaging with. By understanding where each student’s passion lies, it becomes easier to cater to and adjust to each student’s learning behaviors. If students are falling behind, it becomes easier for an instructor to identify the issue, and step in earlier.

Take the Commonwealth Connections Academy as an example. By pulling reports from their online learning platform instructors could analyze test scores, course activities and portfolio assignments. If a student is falling behind in a particular area, they are advised to attend a drop-in center which gives students extra face-to-face time with their instructor. Teachers and students agree that the center is a useful way to zero in on a student’s learning barriers and provide custom instruction for improvement. Sometimes the solutions are as simple as providing better organizational skills.

2. Enhance communication

Young people today are growing up with more technology than ever. We’ve already seen shifts in communication patterns, starting with millennials. Observing a generation who became saturated in the digital world can show how communication is evolving.

A study from LivePerson, found that in the US and the UK, about 75% of internet users surveyed said rather than communicating in person, they were more likely to communicate digitally via:

  • Email
  • Text message
  • Social media

The findings may be an indicator that blended learning, which has an emphasis on technology, reaches students better than traditional methods.

By catering to a student’s preferred method of communication, online forums can connect lecturers with students more effectively.

3. Enables edtech

 Enables edtech

By combining new technology like AR and VR with traditional education methods, students are getting a more inclusive learning experience.

A study by EdTechReview shows that AR and VR technology has mass appeal, too. Consumers value AR products 33% higher than non-AR offerings.

Google Expeditions and Titans of Space are two great examples of AR and VR in the classroom. Both provide virtual field trips like tours of the solar system to improve science lessons. These adventures are both engaging and valuable ways to teach.

The growth of edtech means that teaching online is becoming more effective and easier.

4. Personalization 

In the U.S. the student-to-teacher ratio has risen to nearly 30 students per teacher. With class sizes this large, it can be difficult to personalize lessons or understand the individual needs of each student.

Blended learning provides the opportunity to change this.

Student-centric, blended learning makes it easier to individualize learning modules based on competency. Students within one classroom can move at different paces, and teachers can see more easily, which students either express more interest in a particular area or show the need for extra attention in a particular subject.

5. Reduces cost 

Blended learning saves educators money in several ways. For instance:

  1. Repurposing content decreasing and money spent for course preparation.
  2. Virtual tutoring can help to eliminate employee and venue costs.

paper by the Fordham Institute found that national average for per-pupil costs for traditional learning in K-12 was about $10,000

Virtual schools costs were $5,500 to $7,100 per student, while blended learning costs started at $7,600. Rates could rise to around $10,200 per student depending on how much face-to-face education is emphasized in the plan.

By implementing blended learning strategically, an institution could reduce costs by nearly 50%.

Benefits to students

Faculty members aren’t the only ones to benefit from blended learning. Perhaps more importantly, students are given a more comprehensive educational experience that can boost retention and engagement.

1. Peer support 

Peer support

In Aspden and Helm’s study ‘Making the connection in a blended learning environment’, they found that online communication, through a blended learning environment, improved social aspects of students. Specifically, they stated that blended learning allowed students to make and maintain connections with other students, and their learning institution, even when off campus.

By offering online discussions in real time, or in an asynchronous model like discussion boards or chat rooms, open dialogue is always accessible. The consistency of conversation enables a 24/7, community-style support system which means continuous peer support.

2. Easy access and flexibility

By having resources online, students can access material with no constraints including schedule conflicts.

Online materials can be found on smartphones, tablets, and desktops which is technology we’re already using, daily. In fact, GlobalWebIndex found that on a typical day, internet users ages 18 to 34 spend 3 hours, 38 minutes surfing the web via their smartphones alone.

Additionally, many students in the United States fail to complete school. As many as 7% of high school students drop out before graduation. Worse still, nearly half of the students who start college don’t finish within six years.

One conclusion is that the majority of students who start college and don’t finish are part-time enrollments, which can suggest that students are juggling study with work and personal commitments. Because blended learning platforms are available at any time, it is convenient for those who are trying to complete schooling while taking on other responsibilities like working or parenting.

3. Enhanced retention 

Blended learning may have the ability to teach students more effectively than traditional face-to-face schooling.

The English department at Long Island University (LIU) Brooklyn is currently testing blended learning as a way to improve retention for their students.

To begin, LIU offered iPads for all its incoming students. The hope is that by incorporating technological components into their lessons, it will help change the way students think about their writing.

The data LIU has collected, though mostly qualitative, is starting to paint the picture that blended learning has a positive impact on retention. Other studies indicate that learning online can increase retention rates from between 25-60% compared to only 8-10% for face-to-face learning.

Students today prefer to have a variety of ways to learn. As digital natives, many young students are familiar with an online environment and actually prefer it. The varied formats of education also serve a purpose outside of student entertainment and satisfaction; it also may be a more effective way for students to learn, too.

Blended learning encourages self-learning, where students are forced to look for information online independently, rather than just sitting in a classroom setting and relying on a lecturer.

In the book  Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education, the authors argue that blended learning is effective because unlike the traditional lecture-based teaching model, blended learning opens classroom time to focus on more active and meaningful activities which can lead to improved effectiveness.

5. Boosts soft skills

Boosts soft skills

Soft skills or skills that are required in the workplace for professional success are naturally fostered in an online learning space.

Specifically, skills like relating well to others, time management, critical thinking and team cooperation are nurtured in a blended model.

A study published by Elsevier tested a group of calculus students to see how a blended learning model impacted soft skills. The conclusion of their study was that the ability to communicate via email or online improved participation. And that because students were actively discussing and vocalizing their understanding of concepts, blended learning helped build confidence and success. It was concluded that communication skills changed favorably with a blended learning course.

It’s clear that blended learning provides new ways for educators to engage and connect with students.

With falling enrollments and the challenge of the digital landscape putting pressure on systems, faculty and syllabus, introducing blended learning could help tap inot a new cohort of students and create a new revenue stream.

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The Benefits Of Using Blended Learning To Improve Learner Engagement – Peter Schroeder

Blended learning offers the flexibility of online learning, with the personalization and real-world application of in-person training. It helps improve engagement with your target audience, increase retention, as well as reduce churn, increase revenue, and contribute to the growth of your company.

Discussing The Benefits Of Using Blended Learning

When appropriately implemented, blended learning can be the key to better-skilled employees, happier customers, and more productive channel partners.

What Is Blended Learning In The Workplace?

Blended learning in business is learner-centric and informal, with a focus on training skills. The learning is conducted using traditional face-to-face methods, as well as online training courses to provide learners with a deep understanding of the material.

Business or training managers oversee the training similar to how a professor would manage the studies and course materials in an academic setting. They are there to fill in the content gaps and supplement the training.

Benefits Of Blended Learning For The Learner

There are many benefits of blended learning. Learners have the flexibility of being able to access training materials on their own time and schedule, regardless of geographical location and time zone. This is a significant advantage, especially for companies with a global workforce. The online side enables learners to learn at their own pace to truly engage in the course activities, absorb the material, and apply the skills and knowledge acquired when working in their role.

While the in-person side of the blended learning enables collaboration between team members to help with brainstorming ideas, sharing feedback, fostering a positive work culture. Face-to-face training can also offer more personalized experiences as trainers can connect with the learners in a physical location to provide hands-on training and foster participation.

A healthy mix of both will ensure your learners are receiving appropriate training that is most effective for their learning style and the topics covered.

Business Benefits Of Blended Learning

The benefits of blended learning are not restricted solely to the learner; there are advantages for the business as well. Blended learning reduces training costs by minimizing the number of time trainers need to spend conducting live training.

As more of the training program are moved to an online setting, content maintenance becomes more natural. For example, instead of having to conduct a new training session each time a process is changed, trainers can merely update the online content in real time. The result–employees are always up-to-date on training materials, and trainers can dedicate more attention to scaling the training program, and focusing more strategically on the initiative.

Blended learning also gives the business the ability to track online course engagement and assessment scores. Correlating these metrics with work performance can provide valuable insights into knowledge transfer and how your training impacted your employees’ skill development.

Another great benefit of blended learning is that it enables trainers and Instructional Designers to create a curriculum using various tools and mediums, such as slide decks, digital guides, videos, interactive modules, and more. This creates a more diversified and comprehensible learning experience that helps learners efficiently absorb and retain information.

Blending Learning Best Practices

There are some ways to optimize your blended learning program. Below are tips and strategies that consolidate best practices in both in-person and online training. Blended learning requires that both areas of your program be adequately woven to create an immersive learning experience that is seamless and meaningful for your learners.

  • Develop your learner personas.
    Conduct research and document who your target audience is, what they care about, and how they like to learn. This is the best and only way to create highly relevant content that captures the attention of your learners.
  • Prepare the learner by setting expectations with course objectives. 
    Ensure your training meets the learning goals you set forth and enables your team to achieve business outcomes. Create a seamless connection between the in-person training and the online training to develop a comprehensive learning experience.
  • Make the best use of each training environment.
    There will be some topics that are best covered during in-person sessions, while others can be included asynchronously in an online setting. Planning your curriculum will help you align your training with each delivery method.
  • Always be improving.
    Analyze your online course metrics, review quiz scores, and read learner feedback on your training program. Creating a training program that is tailor-made for your audience requires that you continually learn from them. Monitor their engagement and feedback and incorporate your takeaways in future iterations of your blended training program.

Next Steps

You likely have an existing in-person training program in place. Take the appropriate steps to incorporate an online component to your initiative and reshape the program accordingly. Consider using a Learning Management System (LMS) that enables you to pull different types of media together to create an entirely integrated online learning experience. The right LMS should allow you to balance your online and offline efforts, and enable you to leverage training to achieve more significant business goals.

It can seem hard to know where to start when it comes to selecting the right LMS for your business. With over 500 LMSs on the market, all with different feature sets and value propositions, it’s never been more important to do your homework before buying software.

Unlike other software categories such as Marketing Automation (HubSpot) or CRM (Salesforce), we have yet to see a clear LMS market leader emerge. The market is highly fragmented, which makes it particularly difficult for you (the buyer), to understand what the “best” options out there are. That’s why we decided to assemble The Complete LMS Buying Guide For SMBs comprehensive guide.

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