Unvaccinated People Increase Risk Of Covid Infection Among Vaccinated, Study Finds

Unvaccinated people threaten the safety of vaccinated people even with high levels of immunization against Covid-19, according to a new study published in Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), countering a popular narrative that vaccination is purely is a matter of individual choice and supporting policies requiring the shots.

Unvaccinated people pose a “disproportionate” risk of Covid-19 infection to vaccinated people, according to the peer reviewed study from University of Toronto researchers, which examined the interactions between unvaccinated and vaccinated groups using a computer model.

The model simulated the spread of Covid-19 under a variety of different parameters and mixing between unvaccinated and vaccinated people, including vaccine effectiveness and uptake, baseline levels of immunity among the unvaccinated and the rate of recovery from infection.

The model revealed a “markedly higher” risk of infection in all scenarios where unvaccinated and vaccinated people mixed, even the ones where immunization rates were high.

The findings counter the common argument that the decision to get vaccinated is a personal one, the researchers said, as the unvaccinated are ”likely to affect the health and safety of vaccinated people in a manner disproportionate to the fraction of unvaccinated people in the population.”

While the risks of forgoing vaccination are greatest for the unvaccinated—they are more likely to be infected, hospitalized and die from Covid-19 than vaccinated people—the findings dent a commonly-used argument that it is the refuser alone who bears the consequences of this decision.

Given the disproportionate levels of risk the unvaccinated pose to the vaccinated, vaccination cannot be framed as an entirely “self-regarding” choice, explained study author Dr. David Fisman, a professor of epidemiology at the University of Toronto. In light of this, Fisman said policies like vaccine mandates or vaccine passports that restrict access to non-essential services such as restaurant dining or public transport seem “reasonable.”

Such policies are also in line with other regulations designed to protect public health, he said, pointing to compulsory treatment for tuberculosis and restrictions on driving while intoxicated. There is a strong history of law and policy supporting vaccine mandates for the sake of public health in the U.S. as well, with a Supreme Court precedent favoring mandatory smallpox vaccination dating back over a 100 years.

“Vaccinated individuals have a right not to have their efforts to protect themselves undermined,” Fisman said, stressing that the findings are “very supportive” of vaccine mandates for flights and trains.

The paper does not capture another series of health risks the unvaccinated impose upon the vaccinated, Fisman said. As the unvaccinated are more likely to end up in hospital with Covid-19, Fisman said they take up more resources and deprive the “vaccinated of access to care for other conditions” such as cancer or heart disease.

I am a London-based reporter for Forbes covering breaking news. Previously, I have worked as a reporter for a specialist legal publication covering big data and

Source: Unvaccinated People Increase Risk Of Covid Infection Among Vaccinated, Study Finds

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Critics:

By: Morgan Lowrie 

While remaining unvaccinated against COVID-19 is often framed as a personal choice, those who spurn the vaccines raise the risk of infection for those around them, a new study suggests.

The research published Monday in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that vaccinated people who mix with those who are not vaccinated have a significantly greater chance of being infected than those who stick with people who have received the shot.

In contrast, unvaccinated people’s risk of contracting COVID-19 drops when they spend time with people who are vaccinated, because they serve as a buffer to transmission, according to the mathematical model used in the study.

Co-author David Fisman, of the University of Toronto’s Dalla Lana school of public health, said the message of the study is that the choice to get vaccinated can’t be thought of as merely personal.

“You may like to drive your car 200 kilometres an hour and think that’s fun, but we don’t allow you to do that on a highway partly because you can kill and injure yourself, but also because you’re creating risk for those around you,” he said in a recent interview.

More contents:

By The Numbers: Who’s Refusing Covid Vaccinations—And Why

Unvaccinated More Likely To Get Long Covid—And Suffer Symptoms For Longer—Studies Find

Tracking every case of COVID-19 in Canada

Coronavirus vaccination tracker: How many people in Canada have received shots?

Experts advise Canadians to consider personal risk before getting 4th COVID vaccine dose

Canada’s updated border restrictions: What you need to know

Less than a third of hospitalized COVID patients feel fully recovered a year later, U.K. study finds

Being with unvaccinated people increases COVID-19 risk for those who are vaccinated: modelling study

Another COVID-19 wave ‘almost baked in’ for the fall: top Ont. science adviser

COVID-19 shots still work, but researchers hunt new improvements

How well is our immunity holding up against COVID-19?

Coronavirus stats worldwide: Compare Canada and other key nations

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UK Inflation Rises at Fastest Pace In 30 Years on Soaring Energy Costs

British consumer prices rose at the fastest pace in 30 years last month, fueled by soaring costs for household energy and motor fuels the latest grim figures as inflation surges around the world.

Inflation in the United Kingdom accelerated to 7% in the 12 months through March, the highest annual rate since March 1992, the Office for National Statistics said Wednesday.

The UK faces what economists say will be the biggest drop in living standards since the mid-1950s as rocketing energy costs, rising food prices and tax increases overshadow higher wages.

People around the world are feeling the squeeze of inflation as demand rapidly bounced back from the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia’s war in Ukraine further drove up energy costs and squeezed supply chains.

In the United States, consumer prices last month jumped 8.5% from a year earlier, the fastest pace in more than 40 years, the Labor Department said Tuesday. In the 19 European countries using the euro, inflation surged to 7.5% last month, the fifth consecutive month that it has hit a record high.

In the UK, the toll of rising rising means disposable household incomes, adjusted for inflation, are expected to drop by 2.2% this year, according to the government’s independent budget adviser.

Household natural gas prices jumped 28.3% over the last year, and electricity prices rose 19.2% as the global recovered from the COVID-19 pandemic, increasing worldwide demand for energy.

Prices will continue to rise after Britain’s energy regulator authorized a 54% increase in gas and electricity bills for millions of households that took effect in April.

Transportation costs are also rising, with the cost of gasoline and diesel fuel rising by an average of 30.7% over the past year, the biggest increase since current records began in January 1989, the Office for National Statistics said.

Countries are moving to ease the pain from rising food, fuel and other costs by raising interest rates. The has raised raised its key interest rate three times since December, and the U.S. Federal Reserve hiked its benchmark short-term rate last month and is expected to keep raising it, possibly aggressively.

The European Central Bank, meanwhile, has sped up its exit from economic stimulus efforts to combat inflation but has not taken more drastic steps. It meets again Thursday.

(Only the headline and picture of this report may have been reworked by the Business Standard staff; the rest of the content is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)

Source: UK inflation rises at fastest pace in 30 years on soaring energy costs | Business Standard News

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Critics:

By:  

According to the ONS, part of the increase in inflation as measured by the consumer prices index was caused by the bounceback in prices after they were depressed during lockdown. There were also sharp rises in the cost of secondhand cars (up 5.6%) because the supply of new vehicles has been affected by a global shortage of computer chips.

Rising oil prices led to a sharp increase in motoring costs. The annual inflation rate for motor fuels stood at 20.3% in June, the highest since 2010, after an increase in average petrol prices from 106.5 pence a litre to 129.7 pence a litre over the past 12 months. Other contributors to rising inflation included furniture (up 6.6%), women’s clothes (4.3%), bicycles (13%), books (8%) and vet bills (4.2%).

Jonathan Athow, the deputy national statistician for economic statistics at the ONS, said: “The rise was widespread, for example coming from price increases for food and for secondhand cars where there are reports of increased demand. “Some of the increase is from temporary effects, for example rising fuel prices which continue to increase inflation, but much of this is due to prices recovering from lows earlier in the pandemic.

An increase in prices for clothing and footwear, compared with the normal seasonal pattern of summer sales, also added to the upward pressure this month.” Samuel Tombs, the chief UK economist at the consultancy Pantheon Macroeconomics, said businesses were seeking to take advantage of strong consumer demand after the relaxation of Covid-19 restrictions.

“The rise in the core rate in June was driven by increases in clothing inflation to 3.0%, from 2.1% in May, and catering services inflation to 2.2%, from 1.4%. In addition, a jump in secondhand cars inflation to 5.5%, from 0.9%, boosted the headline rate by 0.08 percentage points.”

Britain is not alone in experiencing stronger price pressures during a period marked by strong post-lockdown growth. Earlier this week the US reported that its inflation rate had hit a 13-year high of 5.4%. Analysts expect further increases over the coming months before it starts to come down again.

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Why Some People Get COVID More Than Once


Although the federal government does not collect data on COVID reinfections, and nor do health authorities in WA and Queensland, Victoria recorded almost 10,000 reinfections between late December 2021 and late March 2022. This compares with just 108 known reinfections in Victoria during the previous two years. NSW plans to release state reinfection data soon.

As the Omicron sub-variant BA.2 continues to fuel more infections, the spectre of repeat infections is well and truly upon us. Current vaccines were designed to protect against the original strain of SARS-CoV-2, and while the shots are crucial in shielding us from severe illness and death, they are less effective in preventing infection by newer variants.

 Unfortunately, natural immunity gained from a Delta infection also won’t stop us getting infected with Omicron. We learnt this with the rise of Omicron in South Africa late last year, when a population with relatively high natural immunity from previous coronavirus infections still fell victim to the merciless Omicron wave.

Reinfections have become something of a hallmark of Omicron. Since the rise of this highly transmissible strain, the number of people reinfected with coronavirus has spiked, in a pattern that is unique to the strain. Imperial College London researchers estimate a reinfection with Omicron is 5.4 times greater than with the Delta variant.

A letter published in The New England Journal of Medicine indicated that a previous COVID-19 infection was 90 per cent effective at preventing an infection with the Alpha, Beta or Delta variants, but only 56 per cent effective against Omicron.

In England, where Omicron has driven a spike in reinfections, provisional data from the UK Health Security Agency shows 10.7 per cent of all positive COVID-19 cases were reinfections in the last week of March.

The data shows that the number of weekly reinfections jumped from 20,000 to 50,000 in just one month, with reinfections occurring across all age groups, despite high vaccination levels. (A reinfection was counted when someone tested positive on two tests taken more than 90 days apart.)

Waning immunity is playing a part, along with the easing of restrictions. But the potent variable here is the rise of the BA.2 variant of Omicron, which is rapidly becoming the dominant strain globally.

A non-peer reviewed Swedish study suggests Omicron BA.2 could be more contagious than the original BA.1 strain due to its higher viral loads in the nose and throat. (The first case of a new recombinant variant combining BA.1 and BA.2, known as XE, was detected in New South Wales on April 9. Watch this space.)

The good news as far as reinfections go, is that catching the same variant twice is fairly unlikely. So if you got sick with Omicron BA.1, you’re probably in the clear when it comes to catching BA.2.

A more likely scenario is being reinfected after having Delta or an earlier strain. You’re more likely again to get infected if you’ve had no prior COVID infection at all, and that likelihood increases further if you’re unvaccinated.

While reinfection is no fun, the plus side is that it gives you excellent immunity when coupled with vaccination. The combination triggers a broader range of antibody and white cell responses in your system, meaning you are less likely to suffer serious illness on reinfection.

A preprint study from Qatar confirms that the best defence against Omicron BA.1 or BA.2 infections is a prior infection plus two vaccinations and a booster shot. This reduces the risk of infection by 77 per cent, compared with 52 per cent if you got three doses but had no prior infection, the study found.

Senior research fellow at the Kirby Institute’s infection analytics program Dr Deborah Cromer says COVID-19 may follow the trajectory of other respiratory viruses, such as the flu, when it comes to reinfection.

“People will get the flu once, but that doesn’t mean they won’t get the flu again,” she says. “They probably won’t get the flu twice in one season, but obviously, there are people who do. And if you’ve had the flu vaccine, it doesn’t mean you won’t get the flu, but your symptoms will probably be less severe.

“I think what we’re talking about is a respiratory virus that will keep changing, but if people’s immunity levels keep being maintained at a high level, then it should hopefully not be too severe.”

That’s pretty much how the 1918 Spanish flu petered out. The first couple of years of that pandemic were the worst in terms of severe sickness and death, but as the virus changed and spread over the following decades, it continued to infect people but was far less dangerous.

The key problem in Australia, though, is a lack of good data. As more people rely on rapid-antigen tests, there are fewer samples available for sequencing. ANU infectious diseases physician Peter Collignon says we need systematic surveillance to monitor infections and genomic sequencing to better understand how reinfections will impact us.

“Instead of having a one in 1000 chance of dying, is there one in 10,000 if you’re reinfected? What’s your chance of getting into hospital? And how is it proportionate to your socio-economic condition and your age? We need that sort of data to be able to plan for the future.”

Timna Jacks

By: Timna Jacks

Source: Why some people get COVID more than once

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Covid Infection More Than Doubles Risk Of Severe Pregnancy Complications Including Sepsis, Blood Clots And Preterm Birth

A coronavirus infection during pregnancy more than doubles the risk of serious complications or poor outcomes like preterm birth, sepsis and blood clots compared to those who weren’t infected, according to a new peer reviewed study published in JAMA Internal Medicine, adding to a growing body of research highlighting the potentially lethal consequences of Covid-19 during pregnancy that can be easily prevented through vaccination.

Pregnant people testing positive for Covid-19 were 2.5 times more likely to experience severe complications during pregnancy or delivery—at least one of 21 conditions including sepsis, kidney failure, heart attack and acute respiratory distress syndrome—compared to those without Covid, according to an analysis of health records for nearly 44,000 pregnant individuals at Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the first year of the pandemic.

More than 1,300 people in the study had Covid and were three times more likely to have blood clots and twice as likely to give birth prematurely as a result, the researchers found.

The Covid patients were more likely to have a medically indicated preterm birth than a spontaneous one, the researchers noted, and the risk for both types was higher during early, middle and late terms of pregnancy.

In contrast with results from other studies, the researchers did not find an increased risk for preeclampsia—a potentially serious problem that can cause high blood pressure or organ problems during pregnancy—after accounting for other possible explanations in the group or stillbirth, which they said could be down to the small sample size in the study and differences in the way each study was conducted.

Dr. Mara Greenberg, one of the study’s co-authors and a maternal-fetal medicine specialist with The Permanente Medical Group, said the findings, which come from a large and diverse study group, highlight the importance of vaccination as the “the most important thing people can do to protect themselves and their baby.”

The research adds to an overwhelming amount of evidence that shows pregnant people infected with Covid are at much higher risk of serious disease and death and far more likely to give birth early and face serious complications during pregnancy.

Despite the risks, many pregnant people are not vaccinated, something that can be at least partially attributed to false and misleading information about the vaccines’ impact on fertility or safety during pregnancy. Regulators and public health officials, including the CDC, strongly encourage pregnant people to get the shots and studies have consistently demonstrated their safety to parent and child.

The long-term impact of Covid exposure on children during pregnancy. The long-term health implications for a child’s growth and development after exposure to Covid during pregnancy are not known, the researchers said.

These children should be evaluated “during childhood and beyond,” the researchers noted. The increased risk for preterm birth is also a concern, the researchers noted, as this is associated with a wide array of possible short- and long-term issues including impaired brain development and metabolic complications.

I am a London-based reporter for Forbes covering breaking news. Previously, I have worked as a reporter for a specialist legal publication covering big data and

Source: Covid Infection More Than Doubles Risk Of Severe Pregnancy Complications—Including Sepsis, Blood Clots And Preterm Birth—Study Finds

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Critics:

Pregnant women seen in hospitals with covid-19 are less likely to show symptoms, and seem to be at increased risk of needing admission to an intensive care unit than non-pregnant women of similar age, finds a study published by The BMJ today. They are also more likely to experience preterm birth and their newborns are more likely to be admitted to a neonatal unit.

Being older, overweight, and having pre-existing medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes also seem to increase the risk of having severe covid-19 in these women, the findings show.

Pregnant women are thought to be a high-risk group for covid-19 infection, and there are concerns about potential adverse effects of the virus on both mother and baby. But published reviews on covid-19 in pregnancy quickly become outdated as new evidence emerges.

So an international team of researchers began a living systematic review to compare the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of covid-19 in pregnant and recently pregnant women with non-pregnant women of similar age.

Living systematic reviews are useful in fast moving research areas such as covid-19 because they can be updated regularly as new information becomes available.

Their findings are based on 77 studies reporting rates, clinical features (symptoms, laboratory and x-ray findings), risk factors, and outcomes for 11,432 pregnant and recently pregnant women admitted to hospital and diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19.

The studies were designed differently, and were of varying quality, but the researchers were able to allow for that in their analysis.

Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, they found that pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever and muscle pain (myalgia), but were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit and need ventilation.

Maternal risk factors associated with severe covid-19 were increasing age, high body mass index, chronic high blood pressure, and pre-existing diabetes. The odds of giving birth prematurely was also higher in pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 compared to those without the disease. 

A quarter of all babies born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to a neonatal unit and were at increased risk of admission than those born to mothers without the disease. However, stillbirth and newborn death rates were low.

The researchers point to some study limitations that may have affected their results, including differences in study size, design, and definitions of symptoms, tests, and outcomes. However, strengths include the large sample size and robust search methods to minimise the risk of missing studies and duplicate data. 

Pregnant women seen in hospitals with covid-19 are less likely to show symptoms, and seem to be at increased risk of needing admission to an intensive care unit than non-pregnant women of similar age, finds a study published by The BMJ today.

They are also more likely to experience preterm birth and their newborns are more likely to be admitted to a neonatal unit.

Being older, overweight, and having pre-existing medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes also seem to increase the risk of having severe covid-19 in these women, the findings show.

Pregnant women are thought to be a high-risk group for covid-19 infection, and there are concerns about potential adverse effects of the virus on both mother and baby. But published reviews on covid-19 in pregnancy quickly become outdated as new evidence emerges.

So an international team of researchers began a living systematic review to compare the clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of covid-19 in pregnant and recently pregnant women with non-pregnant women of similar age.

Living systematic reviews are useful in fast moving research areas such as covid-19 because they can be updated regularly as new information becomes available.

Their findings are based on 77 studies reporting rates, clinical features (symptoms, laboratory and x-ray findings), risk factors, and outcomes for 11,432 pregnant and recently pregnant women admitted to hospital and diagnosed as having suspected or confirmed covid-19.

The studies were designed differently, and were of varying quality, but the researchers were able to allow for that in their analysis.

Compared with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, they found that pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 were less likely to report symptoms of fever and muscle pain (myalgia), but were more likely to need admission to an intensive care unit and need ventilation.

Maternal risk factors associated with severe covid-19 were increasing age, high body mass index, chronic high blood pressure, and pre-existing diabetes.

The odds of giving birth prematurely was also higher in pregnant and recently pregnant women with covid-19 compared to those without the disease.

A quarter of all babies born to mothers with covid-19 were admitted to a neonatal unit and were at increased risk of admission than those born to mothers without the disease. However, stillbirth and newborn death rates were low.

The researchers point to some study limitations that may have affected their results, including differences in study size, design, and definitions of symptoms, tests, and outcomes. However, strengths include the large sample size and robust search methods to minimise the risk of missing studies and duplicate data.

More contents:

Covid-19 Raises Risk Of Pregnancy Complications—Including Death Around Birth, Preterm Delivery And Postpartum Hemorrhage—Study Finds (Forbes)

COVID vaccines safely protect pregnant people: the data are in

Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis

The effort is part of NIH’s Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Initiative

AstraZeneca Sees $4B In COVID-19 Vaccine Sales

AstraZeneca recorded a big jump in revenue on Thursday as it begins to take a profit from its coronavirus vaccine for the first time.

The company recorded full-year revenues of $37.4 billion, an increase of 38% from the year before at constant exchange rates. Part of the boost came from $4 billion in sales of its COVID-19 vaccine, developed with the University of Oxford.

Despite rising revenue, AstraZeneca reported a pre-tax loss of $265 million due to costs from its purchase of U.S. drug company Alexion Pharmaceuticals and new drug research.

The Anglo-Swedish drugmaker said in November it would begin to take a “modest” profit from the COVID-19 shot, which it had been providing “at cost” — around $2 to $3 —following an agreement with Oxford. Other COVID-19 vaccine producers, such as Pfizer and Moderna, have been booking hefty profits on their shots all along.

Dr Tamara Joffe administer a dose of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine to Mustafa Field of the Faiths Forum, during a pilot project of pop up vaccination drive called Vaxi Taxi in Kilburn, London, Sunday, Feb. 28, 2021.  (AP Photo/Alastair Grant)

In the three months to September, the company said revenue jumped by about 50%, to a record $9.9 billion. The increase was due to sales of more than $1 billion in COVID-19 vaccines and the inclusion for the first time of some $1.3 billion worth of revenue from its rare disease business unit following the recent acquisition of Alexion.

Ticker Security Last Change Change %
AZN ASTRAZENECA PLC 59.24 +2.04 +3.58%

AstraZeneca forecast total group sales to rise by a “high teens percentage” in 2022, but said COVID-19 revenues would decline by a “a low-to-mid twenties percentage.”

Chief executive Pascal Soriot said AstraZeneca had “delivered on our promise of broad and equitable access to our COVID-19 vaccine with 2.5 billion doses released for supply around the world.”

“AstraZeneca continued on its strong growth trajectory in 2021, with industry-leading R&D (research and development) productivity, five of our medicines crossing new blockbuster thresholds, and the acquisition and integration of Alexion,” he said.

Soriot said the company would raise the dividend to shareholders by 10 cents to $2.90, the first increase in a decade.

AstraZeneca shares were trading about 3% higher at 8.62 pounds ($11.68) on the London Stock Exchange on Thursday morning.

Source: AstraZeneca sees $4B in COVID-19 vaccine sales | Fox Business

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Critics:

AstraZeneca (AZN.L) said it would begin to earn a modest profit from its coronavirus vaccine as the world learns to live with the virus and the drugmaker is in talks with several countries about new orders for delivery next year.

AstraZeneca made a commitment to sell the shot developed with Oxford University at cost during the pandemic and in a press conference on Friday said low-income nations would continue to receive the vaccine on a no-profit basis, while a post-pandemic commercial approach would apply to other new orders even as infections in Europe rise again. read more

The Anglo-Swedish company’s third-quarter results showed the vaccine contributed one cent to core earnings per share of $1.08, a rise of 14%. Total product sales jumped 49% to $9.74 billion, as its vaccine sales topped $1 billion.

“We started this project to help … but we also said that at some stage in the future, we will transition to commercial orders,” Chief Executive Pascal Soriot told journalists.”It will never be high priced. Because we want the vaccine to remain affordable to everybody around the world,” he added.

Soriot, a French national, said the virus was becoming endemic, a term for a background level of infections that is part of everyday life.Talks about new orders with undisclosed countries were underway, mainly for delivery next year, with some prospective customers focusing on booster shots, Soriot said.

AstraZeneca unveiled plans this week to set up a separate unit to focus on its coronavirus efforts and other respiratory infections. It said on Friday the unit would independently manage production and distribution. read more

Shares of the FTSE 100 (.FTSE) drugmaker were down 3.4% at about 91.22 pounds at 1209 GMT as overall third-quarter profit fell short of analysts’ expectations.

There were strong performances of core products like kidney disease treatment Farxiga and established asthma drug Symbicort, and from the addition of rare-disease specialist Alexion from July 21, thanks to last year’s $39 billion takeover deal.

However, integration costs related to that deal ate into profits, as did a $1.2 billion writedown for an experimental kidney disease drug AstraZeneca acquired in 2012, with overall expenses also rising on investments into the drug pipeline.

Top selling drug Tagrisso for lung cancer also posted lower-than-expected growth in sales due to price cuts in China. AstraZeneca said a profit boost from the vaccine in the fourth quarter would make up for costs related to its antibody cocktail for preventing and treating COVID-19, as it stuck with its earnings forecast for the year.

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“Registered office and corporate headquarters”. AstraZeneca. Retrieved 27 February 2020.

“A history of AstraZeneca”. pharmaphorum.com. 18 September 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2021.

“Global 500 – Pharmaceuticals”. Fortune. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.

“Key facts”. AstraZeneca. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.

 AstraZeneca to ax 1,600, relocate thousands in global R&D reshuffle”. fiercebiotech.com. FierceBiotech.

“Organizational Portraits – AstraZeneca”. The Pharmaceutical Century: Ten Decades of Drug Discovery. Washington, D.C.: ACS Publications. 17 November 2000. Retrieved 14 July 2008.

“Our History – AstraZeneca Careers”. AstraZeneca Careers.

“AstraZeneca Selects Wilmington, Del. for New US Headquarters”.

“AstraZeneca’s Iressa FDA committee judgement expected tomorrow”. 23 September 2002. Retrieved 7 July 2013.

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AstraZeneca buys biotech company for £120m The Telegraph, 23 December 2005

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“Pennsylvania Bio – Member Listings”. Pennsylvania Bio web site. Archived from the original on 14 December 2005. Retrieved 8 October 2005.

AstraZeneca agrees to buy Arrow Therapeutics for US$150M Marketwatch, 1 February 2007

AstraZeneca seeks a remedy for its patent pain The Telegraph, 21 April 2012

“AstraZeneca to pay $15.2B to purchase rival MedImmune; Deal sees London-based drugmaker take on debt for the first time in order to fill product line”. Bloomberg.

AstraZeneca Buys MedImmune for US$ 15.6 Billion The New York Times, 24 April 2007

“AstraZeneca To Acquire Infection Research Company Novexel And Expand Collaboration With Forest Laboratories”. 23 December 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2015.

“Novexel to be Acquired by AstraZeneca”. Retrieved 20 February 2015.

AstraZeneca to buy Chinese generics firm Healthcare News, 8 December 2011

AstraZeneca and Amgen collaborate on treatments for inflammatory diseases Medcity News, 4 February 2012

AstraZeneca Reaches $1.26 Billion Deal for Ardea Biosciences The New York Times, 23 April 2012

Peacock, Louisa (30 June 2012). “AstraZeneca to pay £2.2bn towards ‘joint venture’ diabetes deal”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.

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