Why Do Antibodies Fade After a COVID-19 Infection & Will The Same Thing Happen With Vaccines

Plasma cells secreting antibodies

The goal of the COVID-19 vaccines being rolled out worldwide is to stimulate our immune systems into creating a protective response against the coronavirus, particularly by generating antibodies. These antibodies then circulate in our blood until needed in the future, attacking and removing the coronavirus quickly from our bodies if we become infected.

The speed with which the scientific and medical communities have developed and tested these new vaccines has been extraordinary. However, this short timescale leaves us with some outstanding questions.

Key among these is how long the protection we receive from vaccination, or indeed from infection with the virus itself, will last. We know, for example, that antibody levels drop quite quickly following a COVID-19 infection.

How the immune system remembers

Our body’s remarkable ability to remember past encounters with infectious microorganisms and retain robust defences against them is due to the phenomenon of immunological memory. This memory resides in white blood cells known as lymphocytes, of which there are two main types: T cells and B cells.

When the body faces a new challenge – either a new infection or vaccine – specific T cells and B cells are recruited to deal with it. “Memory” versions of these specific cells are then kept on standby in case the same issue is encountered again in the future.

It is these B cells that are responsible for releasing antibodies into the blood. When an infection or vaccination occurs, some of them will metamorphose into specialised antibody-production factories, known as plasma cells.

Antibodies are proteins, and like any other protein will be naturally broken down and removed from the body within a few months at most. This is the reason why protection from antibodies that we receive passively, for example from our mothers in the womb or through breast milk, does not last very long. For longer-term protection, we need to produce antibodies for ourselves.

Our body’s ability to maintain antibody levels following infection or vaccination is a result of two mechanisms. In the early stages, if memory B cells detect any persistent infection or vaccine, some will continue to turn into new antibody-producing plasma cells.

Once the infection or vaccine has been completely removed, memory B cells no longer replenish the plasma cell population, which declines. However, some may persist as long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs), which can live for many years in our bone marrow, continually manufacturing and releasing large quantities of antibodies. LLPCs aren’t always created after an infection, but if they are, antibodies against a specific infection can be found in the blood for a long time after the infection has cleared.

Although we don’t yet fully understand which immunisation conditions are best for generating LLPCs, their presence has been linked to certain locations. For example, a US group discovered that LLPCs appear to prefer the marrow of certain bones above others. Ten years after tetanus vaccination, LLPCs were found in femur, humerus and tibia bone marrow much more commonly than that of the ribs, radius, vertebrae or iliac crest.

Quite why LLPCs prefer the marrow of these bones is not yet clear. One interesting possibility is differences in the bone marrow fat level. LLPCs were found to be surrounded by large numbers of fat cells in these bones. This suggests that it may be bone marrow fat content that affects the ability of LLPCs to move to – and reside long term in – certain bones.

But if LLPCs aren’t created, that doesn’t mean someone cannot generate more antibodies against a threat if it is encountered again in the future. Providing the person has generated memory B cells, these will recognise the familiar threat, and once again some will start transforming into new plasma cells, to begin antibody production once more.

Vaccine type affects durability too

There are many reasons why vaccination or infection do not always provide protection that is long lasting. Some of this is due to individual variation in our response to a given vaccine. However, the features of vaccines themselves determine the nature of the antibody response too.

One study found that although a greater proportion of individuals who received tetanus and diphtheria vaccines developed protective antibodies, these antibodies faded more rapidly than those generated by measles, mumps or smallpox vaccines. The key difference between these vaccines is that those against tetanus and diphtheria contain only isolated proteins (modified versions of the toxins that tetanus and diphtheria bacteria make), whereas the measles, mumps and smallpox vaccines contain live, weakened versions of these viruses.

Some people may not produce good responses to live vaccines due to pre-existing immunity to the vaccine itself, having already had a natural infection. However, those that do respond well tend to keep their responses for longer. This is partly due to persistence of the live vaccine in the body, which encourages the short-term replenishment of plasma cells. It is also likely that live vaccines are better at producing LLPCs.

We have already seen that the rate at which antibodies decay following COVID-19 can differ, for example between men and women. Many of the new COVID-19 vaccines are based on novel delivery methods, such as viral vectors or messenger RNA molecules. Clearly these are very effective in their delivery of rapid protection. But quite how well they will activate memory B cells and LLPCs, imparting long-lived immunity, remains to be seen.

 

By: Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences, Brunel University London

Source: Why do antibodies fade after a COVID-19 infection, and will the same thing happen with vaccines?

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New data suggest it may be vaccine or bust. Get more medical news analysis at https://www.methodsman.com or https://www.medscape.com -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- You might be interested in my latest video: “Thanksgiving in the Coronavirus Era – Just Don’t Do It” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNuvw…
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This College Professor Became An Overnight Billionaire Fighting Covid

Every time you’re infected by bacteria or a virus, your immune system works to create treatments to defeat it. Molecularly unique to each person, these tiny cells, or antibodies, either destroy these invaders or mark them for other killer cells to track down.

Carl Hansen, 46, is geeking out as he describes the process over Zoom. “We can make 100 trillion different antibodies,” he exclaims. “The immune system is spectacular beyond description.”

If that sounds more like a college professor than the CEO of a $13 billion (market cap) biotech company, there’s a reason: Hansen was one—until 2019, when he left to focus on Vancouver-based AbCellera Biologics, cofounded with fellow researchers from the University of British Columbia in 2012. “Universities are very good at testing new ideas and looking for which road might be effective,” he says.

The team’s academic bent has played out in an even more important way. Nearly all biotech startups develop a handful of treatment targets, then spend the next 8 to 12 years developing those drugs, hoping to bring at least one of them to market. It’s not a sure thing—fewer than 10% of new drugs make it all the way. But when they do, they tend to be blockbusters: Seven of the ten top-selling drugs in 2018 were antibody treatments, including AbbVie’s $19 billion (net revenue) immunosuppressive drug Humira and Merck’s cancer drug Keytruda, which generated $11.1 billion in 2019.

AbCellera takes a vastly different approach. Instead of trying to build a vertically integrated drug company, it is focused solely on the discovery process. That’s the portion of drug development that is earliest and most essential: It’s there that the most promising treatment prospects are selected, subjected to early laboratory tests and then moved through the pipeline.

But AbCellera, which raised $105 million from investors including Peter Thiel, the University of Minnesota and OrbiMed in May—at a valuation of $4.8 billion, according to PitchBook, just six months before going public—is not interested in seeing it through from beginning to end. Instead it offers what might be described as “drug discovery as a service.” It works with 90 outside businesses, including pharma giants Pfizer, Gilead and Novartis. Those companies ask the biotech to find antibodies that meet certain criteria. AbCellera then uses its proprietary technology to find prospects.

In its highest-profile success to date, AbCellera examined thousands of antibodies derived from the blood of people who had recovered from Covid-19 in order to identify the antibodies that did the best job fighting the virus. It then turned over the most promising antibodies to drug company Eli Lilly. Clinical trials of one of those antibodies, bamlanivimab, began in May—just 90 days after the partnership started. Tests found patients with mild or moderate cases had good results, and in November, the antibody received emergency-use authorization from the FDA.

The federal government has contracted to purchase 950,000 doses of the drug for $1.2 billion. Eli Lilly issued guidance in mid-December expecting up to $2 billion in revenue from Covid-19 therapeutics in 2021, the bulk of which will come from bamlanivimab; AbCellera, which booked $25 million through the end of September 2020, will earn estimated royalties of $270 million on those sales, according to Credit Suisse.

AbCellera is also looking to speed up the time it takes to develop its antibody therapies. The shorter time frame saves millions in development costs while enabling revenues to come in sooner than expected. “From a financial perspective, every year that you save is a huge opportunity cost for investors,” says Gal Munda, an analyst at Berenberg Capital Markets.

Hansen is now worth $3 billion, thanks to the company’s white-hot December IPO. Asked about his meteoric rise into the three-comma club, Hansen is low-key: “It feels just a little bit surreal.” He’s more articulate about the biotech’s success: “If this example of Covid shows one thing, to me, it’s the proof point of the business model and the technology.”Follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out my website. Send me a secure tip

Alex Knapp

Alex Knapp

I’m a senior editor at Forbes covering healthcare, science, and cutting edge technology. 

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Why Scientists & Public Health Officials Need To Address Vaccine Mistrust Instead of Dismissing it

Recent polls indicate that more than a third of the country has concerns about a vaccine that in all likelihood will be the only reliable way to end to the COVID-19 pandemic.

These results reflect a similar public sentiment in the U.S. in the 1950s when a polio vaccine was introduced. There are likely multiple reasons for this suspicion, including safety concerns, lack of transparency from the scientific community, lack of trust in the government and the desire to wait until a longer track record of safety can be established.

We are experts in media literacy, health and political communication and biostatistics and biomedical research for future health care providers, from Washington State University’s Edward R. Murrow Center for Media & Health Promotion Research and the Elson S. Floyd College of Medicine. We also live in the communities we hope to serve with our science.

Based on our research, we believe that officials need to use this testing period to build trust, not to create reasons for diminishing it. Respect and forthrightness can turn the tone from adversarial to collaborative, and from a provider-directed practice to a shared decision-making process. Scientists and public health officials must anticipate and address people’s concerns and not brush aside concerns, a process that has become commonplace across other areas of the provider-patient relationship, but vaccine decisions remain a notable exception.

Vaccines and complications

Vaccines are among the safest, most transformative drugs on Earth, with adverse events so low that very nearly universal vaccination is a reasonable expectation. With such a safety record, and with so much at risk with diseases like COVID-19, measles and influenza, vaccine advocates have good reason to stress the overwhelmingly positive safety record.

History has included some vaccines of questionable quality as well as vaccination tactics of even more concern. Certain minority groups have been targeted with egregious coercion. This included cases of forced vaccination for smallpox of African Americans at gunpoint in the southern United States in the early 1900s. At a tenement house in Manhattan’s Little Italy, over 200 men in 1901 in essence performed a smallpox vaccination raid in the middle of the night, trying to vaccinate as many people as they could.

When the miracle vaccine for polio was widely distributed in 1955, speed took precedent over safety, and many doses were distributed that contained live polio virus. As a result, 70,000 children developed muscle weakness, 164 were paralyzed permanently and 10 children died. This led to direct government intervention that has led to thousands of required tests in order to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Why can’t vaccines bounce back from mistakes?

As medical and public health researchers, we have found it interesting that corporations that have been lax and dishonest have bounced back without lasting damage to their reputations. For example, Volkswagen was caught in 2014 for outright lying to the public about their emissions. By 2019, the company topped its prescandal sales record of 2014.

We accept these occasionally fatal flaws and ethical missteps because cars are essential to our lives. The documented safety record of vaccines is staggering, not unlike the impressive safety record boasted by most automobiles on the road today.

Why do vaccines get special scrutiny? Have scientists and health care providers engaged in scientific snobbery by assuming people should do what we advise, without question or any decision-making process? Can scientists and health care providers communicate the good and positive (and bad) background of vaccines better? Has social media sown doubt in an authority that can be perceived to be overconfident? Personal health care decisions have a lasting impact on our kids and our families, so let’s rise to the occasion and utilize this unique opportunity to reframe the conversation about vaccines.

Embrace shared decision-making

The existence of a little-known but critical government office both acknowledges past problems with some vaccines and also provides a method of recourse for those injured by vaccines. The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, launched in the 1980s, is a powerful tool for transparency and accountability that should help shape this important, shared decision-making process. For example, between 2006 and 2018 over 3.7 billion doses of covered vaccines were distributed in the U.S. During this same period, 5,233 filed petitions to this office were compensated out of a total of 7,482 petitions. This means that for every 1 million vaccine doses distributed, one individual received compensation.

Rather than brushing off concerns among parents and others who are concerned about safety, experts should listen. When they do talk, they should explain safety issues and should use metaphors such as the safety of vehicles and other medical breakthroughs (e.g., insulin, heart valve surgery) so often relied upon in an effort to work toward the same goal together as a country, and as health care provider and patient.

Experts should acknowledge that the practice of medicine and public health research is a relatively new field of science to drive public health, medical practice advancement and policies when compared to other, far more established scientific disciplines such as physics or chemistry. Building public support requires more than citing solid evidence in the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Owning up to setbacks in vaccine development that the current administration may be on the brink of repeating – and then making the necessary repairs to move forward again, as the auto manufacturers do – also builds confidence. AstraZeneca’s public announcement about a serious adverse event in one of their trials, which led to a pause of participant enrollment, was a great first step.

Let’s begin by acknowledging that all parties want to achieve the same end goal of a healthy, safe return to daily life. Despite the explosion of misinformation about COVID-19, a clear, consistent and respectful approach can reset the vaccine conversation.

[Deep knowledge, daily. Sign up for The Conversation’s newsletter.]

Next, let’s acknowledge that vaccines are not now and have not been 100% perfect (nor is any medicine or car). We should also note that the same science that produces vaccines also produces myriad breakthroughs in specialties such as cardiology and oncology, along with over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen that mitigate minor ailments but also have limitations and warning labels.

Finally, invite skeptics to a conversation and acknowledge up front that, like any other scientific advancement of things that now work, there was a time when they didn’t work as well, or at all.

Instances like these undoubtedly fuel people’s concerns. Such occurrences should give us all pause, scientist or not, to do better next time and strive to never repeat such notable grievances.

By: Sterling M. McPherson/ Associate Professor, Director and Assistant Dean for Research, Washington State University

Erica Weintraub Austin/ Professor and Director, Edward R. Murrow Center for Media & Health Promotion Research, Washington State University

Porismita Borah/Associate Professor, health communication, Washington State University

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CBC News: The National

Misinformation about vaccines have public health officials in Canada looking for guidance on how to combat medical mistrust. As CBC’s Katie Nicholson reports, the answers they are looking for might be half a world away. »»» Subscribe to The National to watch more videos here: https://www.youtube.com/user/CBCTheNa… Voice Your Opinion & Connect With Us Online: The National Updates on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thenational The National Updates on Twitter: https://twitter.com/CBCTheNational »»» »»» »»» »»» »»» The National is CBC Television’s flagship news program. Airing six days a week, the show delivers news, feature documentaries and analysis from some of Canada’s leading journalists.

The Covid Vaccine Will Require Billions of Tiny Glass Vials & This Italian Billionaire Family Is Making Them

At the height of Italy’s lockdown in April factories were shuttered across the country. But in Piombino Dese, a small town about20 miles outside of Venice, the hulking glass-cutting machines at the Stevanato Group kept whirring along, spitting out millions of ampoules and syringes. Hundreds of employees donned face masks to work around the clock in three daily shifts, seven days a week – making everything from insulin pen cartridges to miniature glass barrelsand — most pressingly — millions of tiny sterile vials, each one smaller than a single fluid ounce, that one day will house doses of a Covid-19 vaccine.

“Every Saturday and Sunday, even on Easter, I went to work alongside my employees to show that we were in the trenches as well,” says Franco Stevanato, the 46-year-old CEO of the group and grandson of its founder, Giovanni.

Vaccines, like most injectable drugs, need to be packaged in sterile glass. Glass is essentially impermeable to corrupting gases like oxygen while even high-grade plastic lets some air inside. Making these vials was a big business even before Covid-19 appeared in January. Last year, the global pharmaceutical industry purchased some 12 billion vials. The Stevanato Group, a 71-year-old family-owned firm, provided more than 2 billion of those (The company is also the world’s largest manufacturer of cartridges for insulin pens). A Covid-19 vaccine, which likely will have to be administered in two separate injections, will require billions of additional vials. Stevanato expects the pandemic to drive up demand for its glass vials by 20% over the next two years.

“We proactively started to supply our customers with everything they wanted [to fight] Covid-19,” says Franco. “There was no magic strategy. We tried to move quickly and took enormous risks by anticipating some investments, because it was the right time to do it.”

Other than making the actual glass, which they buy from big outfits like Corning and Schott, Stevanato does it all. They design the vials. They make the machines that craft and sterilize the containers. They work with medical regulators in 150 different markets around the world. And then many of their customers use Stevanato-made machines to package the drugs before shipping them to pharmacies and hospitals.

Those machines are a key differentiator. In 2007, when French pharma giant Sanofi needed a supply of sterile syringes that could quickly hit the market, Stevanato developed a ready-to-use syringe that didn’t require any additional sterilization. Stevanato built its own machines to wash and sterilize the syringes and patented the whole process, creating a product line that is now one of the company’s top earners.

“They really value quality and they really value customers and connecting the customer needs to their products,” says Ron Verkleeren, who manages the life sciences division at Corning and has worked with Stevanato since 2011. “That really sets them apart from the competition.”

It’s a solid, if unspectacular, business. In 2019, Stevanato netted $47 million on $675 million sales. Forbes estimates that Sergio Stevanato, the 77-year old company president and son of the founder, owns a 68% stake worth $1.8 billion. Sergio’s sons, Franco (the CEO) and Marco, the 47-year-old vice chairman, run the place now. Each own 16%, worth more than $400 million apiece.

Big changes are afoot. In June, the group raised $59 million in a private debt placement, the first time the company had ever sought outside funding. They plan to use the money to develop wearable medical devices and machines to automatically assemble them. And the family has plans to take the company public within the next three years.

“The banks we’re working with want us to go public earlier, but I want to do it when I feel sure, regardless of Covid-19,” says Franco.


Stevanato has been ramping up for a Covid-19 vaccine for months. The firm hired more than 580 new workers in the first six months of 2020. In late June, Stevanato signed a deal with Norway’s Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness and Innovations (CEPI), a Gates Foundation-backed group that is assisting with scalingnine different Covid-19 vaccine projects — including efforts by Boston-based biotech Moderna and Oxford University — to supply 100 million borosilicate glass vials for up to 2 billion doses of vaccine.

Borosilicate glass can withstand much higher temperatures than other types of glass and is more resistant to external chemicals, making it the glass of choice for sensitive medicines like vaccines. Stevanato is also supplying several other significant vaccine efforts it can’t currently disclose, along with 30 more in early stages of development. Altogether, that’s more than a fifthof the 176 vaccines in the works around the world.

“We talked with every glass producer and the Stevanato Group was the only group that still had uncommitted glass [vial production] capacity,” says Jim Robinson, deputy chair of CEPI’s scientific advisory committee. “They had the prize that everyone wanted.”

Vaccines face much tougher regulatory barriers than most other medicines and need to be stored in sterile glass vials and syringes, says Verkleeren of Corning. “A lot of drugs degrade in the presence of oxygen. It would take millions of years for one molecule of oxygen to permeate glass, and it would take minutes for it to go through plastic,” he says. “Quality and sterility are really, really important, because if it’s not sterile, or there’s a quality problem, and you’re injecting something into the body, it can be very, very serious.”


The Stevanato Group was founded on the outskirts of Venice, a city with a long tradition of glassblowing, in 1949 to make bottles for wine and perfume. The firm, originally called Soffieria Stella, grew as the postwar Italian economy boomed. By 1959, they needed more space so they relocated to Piombino Dese, an industrial town situated on the confluence of five rivers.

As food producers began to switch to plastic in the 1960s, Giovanni Stevanato took a risk and doubled down on glass, developing a machine capable of rapidly producing containers from glass tubing at scale. The 3BS machine, named after Stevanato and his three co-inventors — Bormioli, Bottaro and Bardelli — enabled the firm to double production and target a new market: the growing pharmaceutical industry. In the early 1970s, the family shut down Soffieria Stella entirely, cementing its pivot to medical glass packaging.

“The first decades were very difficult,” says Franco, particularly because the family shunned outside investment. But they made headway. “By making our own machines, we could produce 50% to 60% more than our competitors. Because my father reinvested all our profits into the company, we could advance our technology faster than the others. [They] would buy their technology in Germany, but we could double their production with the same number of employees.”

Franco and Marco entered the family business in 1998 in their mid-twenties, two years after the death of Giovanni. The first order of business: rebuffing a series of acquisition offers from larger competitors. The second order: Expanding the company abroad. In 2008, the family opened its first overseas plant — in Monterrey, Mexico — to target the North American market. Stevanato now has a network of 12 factories on four continents. In 2016 the group entered the U.S. for the first time, via its acquisition of German plastic packaging firm Balda for $112 million, which has two facilities in southern California.

One advantage of providing complex, specially designed packages is that they are patented and included in the regulatory approval process for new drugs, meaning that pharmaceutical firms must use the company’s packaging for the duration of the product’s lifespan. According to Aaron DeGagne, healthcare analyst at Morningstar, this effectively locks in business for decades, because drug producers often continue to use the same packaging—even after the medicine’s patent expires and it becomes a generic drug.

Spinning a sleek, Stevanato-made insulin pen between his fingers during an interview via video, Franco spells out a future in which his family firm expands into more complex products. “Now we have [insulin] pens, and tomorrow the devices will be more self-medicating, analyzing…and much more evolved,” he explains. For example, a cancer patient may be able to self-administer drug infusions at home. “This is the big challenge we want to dive into over the next 10 to 20 years.”

Giacomo Tognini

Giacomo Tognini

I cover billionaires and their wealth for Forbes. In the past, I’ve covered everything from oil & gas for Bloomberg News to the 2014 Indonesian presidential election for the Jakarta Globe. I’m a graduate of Columbia Journalism School and UC Berkeley, and my work has also appeared in the Houston Chronicle, the Calgary Herald, and more…

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Scientists Raise Questions About Moderna Vaccine In Market-Shaking Report

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Vaccine experts expressed skepticism about the Covid-19 vaccine trial results announced by biotech company Moderna on Monday, telling the medical publication Stat News that the company has yet to release significant data to support its claim that its drug successfully produced antibodies in human trials.

KEY FACTS

On Monday Moderna announced in a press release that “positive” data was collected from an early-stage human trial of a coronavirus vaccine, sending its stock valuation and the Dow Jones surging.

But two vaccine experts interviewed by Stat noted that Moderna has yet to publish its studies in scientific journals, and pointed out that the company disclosed results from only eight of the 45 subjects, meaning the majority of the outcomes remains unknown.

The Stat report sent the Dow Jones Industrial Average tumbling in its final hour of trading Tuesday afternoon as skepticism over the vaccine’s readiness hit the market.

The experts also noted the silence from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease, Moderna’s partner in developing the vaccine, which declined to comment on the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based company’s Monday announcement, which is abnormal for the institute that usually tauts its success, according to Stat.

“When a company like Moderna with such incredibly vast resources says they have generated SARS-2 neutralizing antibodies in a human trial, I would really like to see numbers from whatever assay they are using,” John “Jack” Rose, a vaccine researcher from Yale University, told Stat.

It remains unclear whether the Covid-19 antibodies produced by the body as a result of vaccination are as good as antibodies produced by the body from surviving coronavirus.

When Stat asked Moderna about this, they said antibody level information “will be disclosed in an eventual journal article from NIAID.”

Chief Critic

“It’s a bit of a concern that they haven’t published the results of any of their ongoing trials that they mention in their press release. They have not published any of that,” Johns Hopkins University vaccine researcher Anna Durbin told Stat.

Key Background

On Monday, Moderna announced “positive” results from an early-stage human trial of their preventative COVID-19 vaccine, driving stock market gains, which boosted Moderna’s market cap to a $29 billion valuation—without a single product on the market— according to Stat.

Moderna is expected to launch a phase 2 trial of the vaccine in the coming weeks, with phase three expected to occur in July. Moderna has yet to mention when the vaccine will be available to consumers. Though the company received $500 million in federal cash to bring the vaccine to market, and do so fast, according to Forbes. And the new co-chair of the White House vaccine project is Moncef Slaoui, a former Moderna executive, who reportedly divested his $12.4 million in Moderna stock options on Monday.

Moderna’s vaccine works by using mRNA (“messenger RNA”) that when injected, signals the body to produce Covid-19 antibodies without actually making the person sick from Covid-19. But there are over 100 other companies working to develop a coronavirus vaccine, with eight (including Moderna) at the human trial phase, according to the World Health Organization.

Further Reading

Vaccine experts say Moderna didn’t produce data critical to assessing Covid-19 vaccine (Stat)

Moderna Reveals ‘Positive’ Data In Coronavirus Vaccine Trial, Markets Spike (Forbes)

FDA ‘Fast Tracks’ First Coronavirus Vaccine From Moderna (Forbes)

Fueled By $500 Million In Federal Cash, Moderna Races To Make A Billion Doses Of An Unproven Cure (Forbes)

Full coverage and live updates on the Coronavirus

Send me a secure tip.

I’m the Under 30 Editorial Community Lead at Forbes. Previously, I directed marketing at a mobile app startup. I’ve also worked at The New York Times and New York Observer. I attended the University of Pennsylvania where I studied English and creative writing. Follow me on Instagram and Twitter at @iamsternlicht.

Source: https://www.forbes.com

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The results of one small study on a possible coronavirus vaccine with humans are in, and they appear to show encouraging results. Reporting for TODAY, NBC News medical correspondent Dr. John Torres says “we’re keeping our fingers crossed.” » Subscribe to TODAY: http://on.today.com/SubscribeToTODAY » Watch the latest from TODAY: http://bit.ly/LatestTODAY About: TODAY brings you the latest headlines and expert tips on money, health and parenting. We wake up every morning to give you and your family all you need to start your day. If it matters to you, it matters to us. We are in the people business. Subscribe to our channel for exclusive TODAY archival footage & our original web series. Connect with TODAY Online! Visit TODAY’s Website: http://on.today.com/ReadTODAY Find TODAY on Facebook: http://on.today.com/LikeTODAY Follow TODAY on Twitter: http://on.today.com/FollowTODAY Follow TODAY on Instagram: http://on.today.com/InstaTODAY Follow TODAY on Pinterest: http://on.today.com/PinTODAY #Vaccine #Coronavirus #TodayShow
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