© Shutterstock.com/Monkey Business Images
The study of empathy is an ongoing area of major interest for psychologists and neuroscientists in many fields, with new research appearing regularly. Empathy is a broad concept that refers to the cognitive and emotional reactions of an individual to the observed experiences of another. Having empathy increases the likelihood of helping others and showing compassion.
“Empathy is a building block of morality—for people to follow the Golden Rule, it helps if they can put themselves in someone else’s shoes,” according to the Greater Good Science Center, a research institute that studies the psychology, sociology, and neuroscience of well-being. “It is also a key ingredient of successful relationships because it helps us understand the perspectives, needs, and intentions of others.”
Though they may seem similar, there is a clear distinction between empathy and sympathy. According to Hodges and Myers in the Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, “Empathy is often defined as understanding another person’s experience by imagining oneself in that other person’s situation:
One understands the other person’s experience as if it were being experienced by the self, but without the self actually experiencing it. A distinction is maintained between self and other. Sympathy, in contrast, involves the experience of being moved by, or responding in tune with, another person.”
Emotional and Cognitive Empathy
Researchers distinguish between two types of empathy. Especially in social psychology, empathy can be categorized as an emotional or cognitive response. Emotional empathy consists of three separate components, Hodges and Myers say. “The first is feeling the same emotion as another person …
The second component, personal distress, refers to one’s own feelings of distress in response to perceiving another’s plight … The third emotional component, feeling compassion for another person, is the one most frequently associated with the study of empathy in psychology,” they explain.
It is important to note that feelings of distress associated with emotional empathy don’t necessarily mirror the emotions of the other person. Hodges and Myers note that, while empathetic people feel distress when someone falls, they aren’t in the same physical pain. This type of empathy is especially relevant when it comes to discussions of compassionate human behavior. There is a positive correlation between feeling empathic concern and being willing to help others.
“Many of the most noble examples of human behavior, including aiding strangers and stigmatized people, are thought to have empathic roots,” according to Hodges and Myers. Debate remains concerning whether the impulse to help is based in altruism or self-interest. The second type of empathy is cognitive empathy. This refers to how well an individual can perceive and understand the emotions of another.
Cognitive empathy, also known as empathic accuracy, involves “having more complete and accurate knowledge about the contents of another person’s mind, including how the person feels,” Hodges and Myers say. Cognitive empathy is more like a skill: Humans learn to recognize and understand others’ emotional state as a way to process emotions and behavior. While it’s not clear exactly how humans experience empathy, there is a growing body of research on the topic.
How Do We Empathize?
Experts in the field of social neuroscience have developed two theories in an attempt to gain a better understanding of empathy. The first, Simulation Theory, “proposes that empathy is possible because when we see another person experiencing an emotion, we ‘simulate’ or represent that same emotion in ourselves so we can know firsthand what it feels like,” according to Psychology Today.
There is a biological component to this theory as well. Scientists have discovered preliminary evidence of “mirror neurons” that fire when humans observe and experience emotion. There are also “parts of the brain in the medial prefrontal cortex (responsible for higher-level kinds of thought) that show overlap of activation for both self-focused and other-focused thoughts and judgments,” the same article explains.
Some experts believe the other scientific explanation of empathy is in complete opposition to Simulation Theory. It’s Theory of Mind, the ability to “understand what another person is thinking and feeling based on rules for how one should think or feel,” Psychology Today says.
This theory suggests that humans can use cognitive thought processes to explain the mental state of others. By developing theories about human behavior, individuals can predict or explain others’ actions, according to this theory.
While there is no clear consensus, it’s likely that empathy involves multiple processes that incorporate both automatic, emotional responses and learned conceptual reasoning. Depending on context and situation, one or both empathetic responses may be triggered.
Empathy seems to arise over time as part of human development, and it also has roots in evolution. In fact, “Elementary forms of empathy have been observed in our primate relatives, in dogs, and even in rats,” the Greater Good Science Center says. From a developmental perspective, humans begin exhibiting signs of empathy in social interactions during the second and third years of life.
According to Jean Decety’s article “The Neurodevelopment of Empathy in Humans,” “There is compelling evidence that prosocial behaviors such as altruistic helping emerge early in childhood. Infants as young as 12 months of age begin to comfort victims of distress, and 14- to 18-month-old children display spontaneous, unrewarded helping behaviors.”
While both environmental and genetic influences shape a person’s ability to empathize, we tend to have the same level of empathy throughout our lives, with no age-related decline. According to “Empathy Across the Adult Lifespan: Longitudinal and Experience-Sampling Findings,” “Independent of age, empathy was associated with a positive well-being and interaction profile.” And it’s true that we likely feel empathy due to evolutionary advantage:
“Empathy probably evolved in the context of the parental care that characterizes all mammals. Signaling their state through smiling and crying, human infants urge their caregiver to take action … females who responded to their offspring’s needs out-reproduced those who were cold and distant,” according to the Greater Good Science Center. This may explain gender differences in human empathy.
This suggests we have a natural predisposition to developing empathy. However, social and cultural factors strongly influence where, how, and to whom it is expressed. Empathy is something we develop over time and in relationship to our social environment, finally becoming “such a complex response that it is hard to recognize its origin in simpler responses, such as body mimicry and emotional contagion,” the same source says.
Psychology and Empathy
In the field of psychology, empathy is a central concept. From a mental health perspective, those who have high levels of empathy are more likely to function well in society, reporting “larger social circles and more satisfying relationships,” according to Good Therapy, an online association of mental health professionals. Empathy is vital in building successful interpersonal relationships of all types, in the family unit, workplace, and beyond.
Lack of empathy, therefore, is one indication of conditions like antisocial personality disorder and narcissistic personality disorder.In addition, for mental health professionals such as therapists, having empathy for clients is an important part of successful treatment. “Therapists who are highly empathetic can help people in treatment face past experiences and obtain a greater understanding of both the experience and feelings surrounding it,” Good Therapy explains.
Empathy plays a crucial role in human, social, and psychological interaction during all stages of life. Consequently, the study of empathy is an ongoing area of major interest for psychologists and neuroscientists in many fields, with new research appearing regularly. Lesley University’s online bachelor’s degree in Psychology gives students the opportunity to study the field of human interaction within the broader spectrum of psychology.
Source: The Psychology of Emotional and Cognitive Empathy | Lesley University
Online Etymology Dictionary.ἐμπάθεια. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.Elizabeth A. Segal, et al. Assessing Empathy (2017), chapter 1Titchener EB (2014).
“Introspection and empath” (PDF). Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences. 7: 25–30. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 26, 2014.Gallese V (2003). “The roots of empathy: the shared manifold hypothesis and the neural basis of intersubjectivity”.
“Regulating the costs of empathy: the price of being human” (PDF). The Journal of Socio-Economics. 30 (5): 437–52. doi:10.1016/S1053-5357(01)00112-3.Rathje, Steve; Hackel, Leor; Zaki, Jamil (July 2021). “
Attending live theatre improves empathy, changes attitudes, and leads to pro-social behavior”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 95: 104138. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104138. S2CID 233549299.Schwartz W (2002). “
From passivity to competence: a conceptualization of knowledge, skill, tolerance, and empathy”. Psychiatry. 65 (4): 339–45. oi:10.1521/psyc.65.4.338.20239. PMID 12530337. S2CID 35496086.SMeltzoff AN, Decety J (March 2003). “
What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences.Gu, Jenny; Cavanagh, Kate; Baer, Ruth; Strauss, Clara (February 17, 2017). “
An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion”. PLOS ONE. 12 (2): e0172471. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1272471G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172471. PMC 5315311. PMID 28212391.Batson CD (2009). “These things called empathy: Eight related but distinct phenomena.”. In Decety J, Ickes W (eds.).
The Social Neuroscience of Empathy. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 3–15. ISBN 9780262012973.Coplan, Amy (September 2011). “Will the real empathy please stand up? A case for a narrow conceptualization”. The Southern Journal of Philosophy. 49: 40–65. doi:10.1111/j.2041-6962.2011.00056.x.Hatfield E, Cacioppo JL, Rapson RL (1993). “
Emotional contagion” (PDF). Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2 (3): 96–99. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.ep10770953. S2CID 220533081. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2012.Rogers K, Dziobek I, Hassenstab J, Wolf OT, Convit A (April 2007). “
Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Asperger syndrome” (PDF). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (4): 709–15. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0197-8. PMID 16906462. S2CID 13999363. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2015.Shamay-Tsoory SG, Aharon-Peretz J, Perry D (March 2009). “
Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions”. Brain. 132 (Pt 3): 617–27. doi:10.1093/brain/awn279. PMID 18971202.de Waal FB (2008). “
Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy” (PDF). Annual Review of Psychology. 59 (1): 279–300. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093625. PMID 17550343. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 17, 2012.Davis M (1983). “
Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 44 (1): 113–126. doi:10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.11. hdl:10983/25968.Minio-Paluello I, Lombardo MV, Chakrabarti B, Wheelwright S, Baron-Cohen S (December 2009). “
Response to Smith’s Letter to the Editor “Emotional Empathy in Autism Spectrum Conditions: Weak, Intact, or Heightened?“”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.mith A (December 2009). “
Emotional empathy in autism spectrum conditions: weak, intact, or heightened?”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (12): 1747–8, author reply 1749–54. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0799-z. PMID 19572192. S2CID 13290717.Lamm C, Batson CD, Decety J (January 2007). “
The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal”. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 19 (1): 42–58. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.511.3950. doi:10.1162/jocn.2007.19.1.42. PMID 17214562. S2CID 2828843.Baron-Cohen S (2003).
The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. Basic Books. ISBN 9780738208442.Gerace A, Day A, Casey S, Mohr P (2013). “
An exploratory investigation of the process of perspective taking in interpersonal situations”. Journal of Relationships Research. 4: e6, 1–12. doi:10.1017/jrr.2013.6.Rogers K, Dziobek I, Hassenstab J, Wolf OT, Convit A (April 2007).
Who cares? Revisiting empathy in Asperger syndrome” (PDF). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (4): 709–15. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0197-8. PMID 16906462. S2CID 13999363. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2015.adzvilavicius AL, Stewart AJ, Plotkin JB (April 2019). “
Evolution of empathetic moral evaluation”. eLife. 8: e44269. doi:10.7554/eLife.44269. PMC 6488294. PMID 30964002.“The Tao of Doing Good (SSIR)”. ssir.org. Archived from the original on February 13, 2017. Retrieved February 13, 2017.Cox CL, Uddin LQ, Di Martino A, Castellanos FX, Milham MP, Kelly C (August 2012). “
The balance between feeling and knowing: affective and cognitive empathy are reflected in the brain’s intrinsic functional dynamics”. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 7 (6): 727–37. doi:10.1093/scan/nsr051. PMC 3427869. PMID 21896497.Schurz, Matthias; Radua, Joaquim; Tholen, Matthias G.; Maliske, Lara;
A neuroimaging meta-analysis and integrative review of empathy and theory of mind”. Psychological Bulletin. 147 (3): 293–327. Kanske P, Böckler A, Trautwein FM, Parianen Lesemann FH, Singer T (September 2016). “Are strong empathizers better mentalizers? Evidence for independence and interaction between the routes of social cognition”.
The age of empathy: nature’s lessons for a kinder society. Harmony Books. ISBN 9780307407764.Ben-Ami Bartal I, Decety J, Mason P (December 2011). “Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats”. Langford DJ, Crager SE, Shehzad Z, Smith SB, Sotocinal SG, Levenstadt JS, et al. (June 2006). “
Social modulation of pain as evidence for empathy in mice”. Science. 312 (5782): 1967–70. Bibcode:2006Sci…312.1967L. doi:10.1126/science.1128322. PMID 16809545. S2CID 26027821.
“Putting together phylogenetic and ontogenetic perspectives on empathy”. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience. 2 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2011.05.003. PMC 6987713. PMID 22682726.Decety J, Meyer M (2008). “
From emotion resonance to empathic understanding: a social developmental neuroscience account”. Development and Psychopathology. 20 (4): 1053–80. doi:10.1017/S0954579408000503. PMID 18838031. S2CID 8508693.Zahn-Waxler C, Radke-Yarrow M (1990). “
The origins of empathic concern”. Motivation and Emotion. 14 (2): 107–130. doi:10.1007/BF00991639. S2CID 143436918.Wimmer H, Perner J (January 1983). “
Beliefs about beliefs: representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children’s understanding of deception”. Cognition. 13 (1): 103–28. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(83)90004-5. PMID 6681741. S2CID 17014009.Baron-Cohen S, Leslie AM, Frith U (October 1985). “
Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”?”. Cognition. 21 (1): 37–46. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(85)90022-8. PMID 2934210. S2CID 14955234.Leslie AM, Frith U (November 1988). “Autistic children’s understanding of seeing, knowing and believing”.
British Journal of Developmental Psychology. “Empathetic maturity: theory of moral point of view in clinical relations”. Advances in Nursing Science. 24 (1): 36–46. doi:10.1097/00012272-200109000-00006. PMID 11554532. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009.
Measuring Individual Differences in Empathy: Evidence for a Multidimensional Approach”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 44 (1): 113–26. doi:10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.168. hdl:10983/25968.Haas BW, Brook M, Remillard L, Ishak A, Anderson IW, Filkowski MM (2015). “I know how you feel: the warm-altruistic personality profile and the empathic brain”.
Marketing Programs You May Like: