10 Secrets of Epidemiologists

A female doctor looks at a test tube

Unless you know an epidemiologist or are one yourself, those “disease detectives” might not have occupied a very large portion of your brain. Before 2020, that is. Now, with the coronavirus pandemic still at the top of mind—and at the top of so many headlines—there’s a good chance you’re at least aware that epidemiologists study diseases.

To be more specific, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines epidemiology as “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems.” So what exactly does this mean? Mental Floss spoke with a few epidemiologists to shed light on what they do, how they do it, and which germ-friendly foods they avoid at the buffet.

1. People often mistake epidemiologists for skin doctors.

Since the word epidemiologist sounds like it might have something to do with epidermis (the outer layer of skin), people often think epidemiology is some offshoot of dermatology. At least, until the coronavirus pandemic.

“Prior to that, no one knew what I did. Everyone was like ‘Oh you’re an epidemiologist—do you work with skin?’” Sarah Perramant, an epidemiologist at the Passaic County Department of Health Services in New Jersey, tells Mental Floss. “I would be rich if I had a dollar for every time I got asked if I work with dermatologists.”

2. Epidemiologists don’t discover a new disease every day.

Though some epidemiologists do look for unknown diseases—certain zoonotic epidemiologists, for example, surveil wildlife for animal pathogens that might jump to humans—most are dealing with diseases that we’re already familiar with. So what do they do every day? It varies … a lot.

Epidemiologists who work at academic or research institutions undertake research projects that help determine how a disease spreads, which behaviors put you at risk for it, and other unknowns about anything from common colds to cancer. But it’s not just about devising experiments and studying patient data.

“I like to tell my friends and family that my job is about four different jobs in one,” Dr. Lauren McCullough, an assistant professor in the department of epidemiology at Emory University’s Rollins School of Public Health, tells Mental Floss.

Writing, she says, is “the most important part.” It includes requesting grants, devising lectures and assignments, grading her students’ work, writing about her research, and more. She also sits on admissions committees, reviews other epidemiologists’ studies, and oversees the many people—project managers, data analysts, technicians, trainees, etc.—working on her own research projects.

Those who work in the public health sphere are often monitoring local outbreaks of diseases like the flu, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, measles, and more. If you test positive for a nationally notifiable disease (any of about 120 diseases that could cause a public health issue), the CDC or your state health department sends your electronic lab report to the epidemiologist in your area, who’s responsible for contacting you, finding out how you got sick, and telling local officials what steps to take in order to prevent it from causing an outbreak.

3. Epidemiologists have to make some uncomfortable phone calls.

Epidemiologists sometimes have to ask pretty personal questions about drug use and sexual activity when trying to figure out how someone got infected, and not everyone is happy to answer them. “I’ve gotten hung up on many a time,” Dr. Krys Johnson, an assistant professor in Temple University’s department of epidemiology and biostatistics, tells Mental Floss.

Some simply aren’t willing to accept that they might have been exposed to a disease without knowing it. After several employees at a certain company tested positive for COVID-19, for example, Perramant started calling the rest of the workers to tell them to go into quarantine; this way, she could prevent sick people who weren’t yet showing symptoms from spreading the disease without knowing it. But not everybody was open to her advice. “They would just swear up and down, ‘I haven’t been in touch with anybody who’s positive, please don’t call me again,’” Perramant says.

But there are plenty of cooperative people, too, especially victims of foodborne or diarrheal illnesses. “They really want to know where they got sick because they’re so miserable that they never, ever want to deal with that again,” Johnson explains. Parents of sick kids are also generally forthcoming, since they want to keep their kids healthy in the future. And then there are those who don’t have any problem spilling their secrets to a stranger.

“There was one woman who was very memorable,” Johnson says. “I called her about her Hepatitis C, and she was like, ‘Oh, honey, I did drugs back in the ’80s. That’s where I got my Hepatitis C. I pop positive every time!’”

4. Epidemiologists deal with a lot of rejection.

Public health epidemiologists have to learn to just shrug off all the rude tones and dial tones, and epidemiologists in academic settings need thick skin for different reasons.

“There’s just a lot of rejection,” McCullough says. “‘That idea isn’t good enough; this paper isn’t good enough; you’re not good enough.’ That is just a resounding thing. There’s a high bar for science; there’s a high bar for federal funding; and it takes a lot to cross that bar. So in the academic setting at these top-tier institutions, you really just have to have a thick skin.”

5. Just because epidemiologists’ guidelines change doesn’t mean they’re wrong.

Sometimes, McCullough explains, the story of a disease can change over the course of one study. When you look at the first 100 people in a 10,000-person study, you’ll see one story emerge. By the time you’ve seen 1000 people, that story looks different. And after you’ve seen the data from all 10,000 people, the original story might not be accurate at all.

Usually, epidemiologists can complete the whole study of a disease and draw conclusions without the world clamoring for half-baked answers. But with a brand-new, highly infectious disease like COVID-19, epidemiologists don’t have that luxury. As they’ve learned more about how the pathogens spread, how long they can survive on surfaces, and other factors, they’ve changed their recommendations for safety precautions. Everyone else in the world of epidemiology expected this to happen, but the general public did not.

“If we say something this week that contradicts what we said last week, it’s not that we were wrong,” Johnson says. “It’s that we learned something between those two time points.”

6. Being an epidemiologist would be easier if people kept better track of their behavior.

Often, people omit vital information about how they got exposed to an illness because they just don’t remember all the details. You could easily recall devouring a few slices of the decadent chocolate cake your mom baked for your birthday last Friday, but you might not be able to name every bite of food you ate on a random Thursday three weeks ago.

“People aren’t telling us the whole truth, but it’s not that they’re being intentionally obtuse,” Johnson explains. “With recall bias, unless there’s a reason for us to really remember, we’re not going to remember everything we actually ate.”

This has made it especially difficult to trace an aerosolized disease like COVID-19.

“All my friends going into the Fourth of July were like, ‘Should we have a get-together?’” Perramant says. “And I said, ‘You can have people over, but you better take an attendance list. You better have a little spreadsheet on Google Drive that has every person’s name and their phone number, so that when one person tests positive and gets sick this week, when I call you, you will be able to give me that information like that.’”

7. Epidemiologists have reason to be wary of buffets, cruise ships, mayonnaise, and cubed ham.

Infectious disease epidemiologists may have accepted that germs are a part of life, but they also know where those germs like to congregate.

“I don’t go to buffets, I have never been on a cruise ship and I don’t intend to, I’m super conscientious when I fly,” Johnson says. “And I’m really aware of whenever mayonnaise-based things are put out at family functions. If you’re ever at a potluck and people come down sick, the first thing people say [they ate] is potato salad or egg salad, because mayonnaise can spoil so quickly.”

“[Cubed ham] is one particular microbe’s very favorite thing to multiply on, so if you’re gonna have ham, make it a whole ham,” she says.

8. Teaching people is a really rewarding part of being an epidemiologist.

In addition to actually leading lectures in the classroom, academic epidemiologists also work extremely closely with their students on research projects; McCullough estimates that she’s in contact with hers at least once a day when they’re collaborating on a study.

“To work with someone so closely, and to watch them progress as a scientist and as a person, and then to have to let them go and send them out into the world, I find that very rewarding,” McCullough says of her trainees. “As a scientist in an academic institution, there’s not a whole lot of immediate gratification. Our papers get rejected, our grants don’t get funded, but the trainees are always a source of immediate gratification for me, so I hold them close to my heart.”

Epidemiologists in other spheres have teaching opportunities, too. When a community experiences a disease outbreak, public health epidemiologists like Perramant are responsible for helping the general public understand what they can do to prevent the spread.

“I like to teach kids about infectious disease and infection prevention for what’s relevant to them. We’ve had a couple of large outbreaks at summer camps, and last summer I put together a training for camp counselors,” Perramant says. “That’s always a part of my job that I really love.”

9. Epidemiologists have a unique understanding of racial disparities.

At this point, it’s exceptionally clear that COVID-19 is disproportionately affecting people of color in the U.S. They’re more likely to be exposed to it, they have less access to testing, and the preexisting conditions that place them at a higher risk can be the result of systemic racism. When these trends started to become apparent, McCullough got flooded with phone calls asking why. Her answer? This isn’t new. As she’s seen in her work as a breast cancer researcher, Black women are more likely to die of that disease than their white counterparts, and similar health disparities exist across the board.

McCullough explains that the general public is finally realizing what epidemiologists already knew: That poor disease outcomes in minority, low-income, and rural populations aren’t because of anything those people are doing on an individual level. Instead, it’s a result of systemic issues that keep them from leading financially comfortable, healthy lifestyles with access to healthcare and other resources.

“It’s not just COVID—it’s almost every single chronic and infection ailment that’s out there,” McCullough explains. “So this is a real opportunity for people to step back and take an assessment of where we are in terms of our healthcare system, and what we’re doing so that everybody has equitable outcomes. Because people shouldn’t die just because they live in a rural area, or just because they’re poor, or just because they’re Black or Hispanic.”

10. They’ve had to deal with a lot of “armchair epidemiologists” lately.

Until this year, epidemiologists had to suffer through people mistaking them for dermatologists. Now, during the coronavirus pandemic, people finally know at least a little about their jobs. In fact, people are so confident in their newfound epidemiological knowledge that many are fancying themselves experts on the subject.

“At the beginning of 2020, there were like 500 epidemiologists, and now there are about 5 million. Everybody thinks they’re an epidemiologist,” McCullough says. “There’s a science to it, and it’s a science that requires training. We went to school for a really long time to be doctorally trained epidemiologists.”

It’s not just about advanced degrees, either. Beyond that, you need years of firsthand experience to grasp all the nuances of understanding methods, interpreting data, translating your findings into recommendations for the general public, and so much more. In short, you can’t just decide you’re an epidemiologist.

Perramant has her own analogy for the recent influx of self-proclaimed epidemiologists: “It’s like armchair psychology. Poolside epidemiology now is a thing.”

By: Ellen Gutoskey

Source: 10 Secrets of Epidemiologists

Related contents:

The virology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prevention strategies… News-Medical.Net

18:31 Tue, 06 Sep
17:14 Tue, 06 Sep
20:30 Mon, 05 Sep
20:19 Mon, 05 Sep
19:59 Mon, 05 Sep
19:49 Mon, 05 Sep
17:51 Mon, 05 Sep
17:49 Mon, 05 Sep
17:38 Fri, 02 Sep
18:25 Thu, 01 Sep
00:04 Thu, 01 Sep
In the last month
22:41 Wed, 31 Aug
20:38 Mon, 29 Aug
20:18 Mon, 29 Aug
14:31 Mon, 29 Aug
15:51 Wed, 24 Aug
16:59 Tue, 23 Aug
17:23 Fri, 19 Aug
17:13 Fri, 19 Aug
17:32 Wed, 17 Aug
15:10 Wed, 17 Aug
00:47 Tue, 16 Aug
18:14 Mon, 15 Aug
15:42 Mon, 15 Aug
15:01 Mon, 15 Aug
00:35 Sat, 13 Aug
20:51 Fri, 12 Aug
More Remote Working Apps:

https://givvy-numbers.app.link/qNDZMGGbhsb  Givvy Mobile Lottery

https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham     Quintex Capital

https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/2535466   Genesis Mining

https://www.bybit.com/en-US/invite?ref=ALEXP  Bybit Crypto Trade

 http://www.bevtraders.com/?ref=arminham   BevTraders

https://www.litefinance.com/?uid=929237543  LiteTrading

https://cashbox.money/r/6ded936cbc264c7e9add5dd5565bb31a   Cash Box Money

https://alpariforex.org/fa/registration/?cpa_partner_id=13687690   Alpari Forex Trading

https://dealcheck.io?fp_ref=armin16   Dealcheck Real Estate Evaluator

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/369164  prime stocks

 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/373449  forrk   

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/194909  keysearch  

 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/296191  gluten free   

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/286851  diet fitness diabetes  

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/213027  writing job  

 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/108695  postradamus

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/372094  stoodaio

 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049  profile mate  

 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/279944  senuke  

 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/54245   asin   

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370227  appimize

 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524  super backdrop

  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/375487  4brandcommercial

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/375358  talkingfaces

 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375706  socifeed

 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/184902  gaming jobs

 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/88118   backlinkindexer

 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376361  powrsuite  

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/370472  tubeserp  

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/343405  PR Rage  

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/371547  design beast  

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/376879  commission smasher

 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376925  MT4Code System

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375959  viral dash

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376527  coursova

 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/144349  fanpage

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376877  forex expert  

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374258  appointomatic

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377003  woocommerce

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377005  domainname

 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376842  maxslides

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376381  ada leadz

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/333637  eyeslick

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376986  creaitecontentcreator

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/376095  vidcentric

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/374965  studioninja

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374934  marketingblocks

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372682  clipsreel  

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372916  VideoEnginePro

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/144577  BarclaysForexExpert

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370806  Clientfinda

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/375550  Talkingfaces

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/370769  IMSyndicator

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/283867  SqribbleEbook

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524  superbackdrop

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376849  VirtualReel

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/369837  MarketPresso

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/342854  voiceBuddy

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377211  tubeTargeter

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377557  InstantWebsiteBundle

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/368736  soronity

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/337292  DFY Suite 3.0 Agency+ information

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/291061  VideoRobot Enterprise

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/327447  Klippyo Kreators

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/324615  ChatterPal Commercial

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907  WP GDPR Fix Elite Unltd Sites

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/328172  EngagerMate

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/342585  VidSnatcher Commercial

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/292919  myMailIt

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/320972  Storymate Luxury Edition

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/320466  iTraffic X – Platinum Edition

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/330783  Content Gorilla One-time

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402  Push Button Traffic 3.0 – Brand New

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/321987  SociCake Commercial

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/289944  The Internet Marketing

 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/297271  Designa Suite License

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/310335  XFUNNELS FE Commercial 

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/291955  ShopABot

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/312692  Inboxr

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/343635  MediaCloudPro 2.0 – Agency

 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353558  MyTrafficJacker 2.0 Pro+

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/365061  AIWA Commercial

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/357201  Toon Video Maker Premium

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/351754  Steven Alvey’s Signature Series

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/344541  Fade To Black

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/290487  Adsense Machine

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/315596  Diddly Pay’s DLCM DFY Club

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/355249  CourseReel Professional

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649  SociJam System

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/263380  360Apps Certification

 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/359468  LocalAgencyBox

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377557  Instant Website Bundle                                        

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377194  GMB Magic Content

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376962  PlayerNeos VR

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381812/  BrandElevate Bundle information

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381807/ BrandElevate Ultimate

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/ WowBackgraounds Plus

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381689/  Your3DPal Ultimate

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380877/  BigAudio Club Fast Pass

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/379998/ Podcast Masterclass

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/366537/  VideoGameSuite Exclusive

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381148/ AffiliateMatic

https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381179  YTSuite Advanced

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381749/  Xinemax 2.0 Commercial

https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/382455  Living An Intentional Life

https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381812  BrandElevate Bundle

https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381935 Ezy MultiStores

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381194/  DFY Suite 4.0 Agency

https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381761  ReVideo

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381976/  AppOwls Bundle

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381950/  TrafficForU

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381615/  WOW Backgrounds 2.0

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381560   ALL-in-One HD Stock Bundle

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382326/   Viddeyo Bundle

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381617/  The Forex Joustar

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383751/ ADA Web Accessibility Compliance 

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383942/  10 Bold Actions In Positive Life & Work

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383706/  Adtivate Agency

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384099/   My Passive Income Blueprints

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/329145/  Content Tool Kit

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382663/    ReviewReel

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/     QR Verse Bundle

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/    VIADZ Ad Template

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383051/    EngageYard Ad Creator

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381011/   Videevolve

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383751/  Local Leader Bundle

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383119/   Tonai Voice Content

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/   Vocalic Commercial

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383483/  Dropshiply Store Creator

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384025/  Levidio Royal Podcasting

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383094/  Develop Self Empowerment

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379223/   Hostley Domain Creator

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383447/   Mech Forex Robot

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383177/   Motion Kingdom Studio

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/144577/   Forex Blizz Trading

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/382851/  AdRaven

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383307/   Animaxime V2

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/  Promovidz Promotion Videos

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381148/  AffiliateMatic

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379051/  CanvaKitz Business Templates

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/383113/  Agencyscale Business Agency

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/347847/  Pitchdeck Professional Presentations

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381179/   YTSuite YouTube Ads Campaigns

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/382455/     Living an International Life

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/188236/    Galactic Dimension backgrounds

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381749/    Xinemax Hollywood Creator

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381194/   DFY Suite 4.0 Agency

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381231/    Appowls Mobile Apps

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381935/   Ezy Multi Stores

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381950/  TrafficForU

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/  WOW Backgrounds

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381685/   Your 3DPal

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381617/   Forex Joustar

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/   Ultrafunnels A.I

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/128215/   DUX Forex Signals

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/   Trendio Keyword Content

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381439/  FX Goldminer

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380937/  Linkomatic

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/  Pixal 2.022

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379983/   VidVoicer

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380087/   Big Audio Club

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379995/  Podcast Advantage

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380159/  Reputor

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379863/  TubePal

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/380543/  Local Sites

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/369500/   PodKastr Commercial

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/351606/ Insta Keyword

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376325/   Facedrip

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374505/  7 Minutes Kit

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383057/  Aweber Crash Course

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/   WP Simulator

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379995/  Podcast Advantage

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380692/  Boost Optimism

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/36517/   PlanB Muscle Growth

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/  TV Boss Fire

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379455/  Webprimo Website Builder

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/379339/  LocalCentric

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/378683/  WebCop

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384619/  Agency Client Finder

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384625/  Power Reviews

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380933/   Survai

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/  Pixal

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383937/  Webinarkit

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384700/  YoDrive

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353373/  Rewriter

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384630/  Appoint B Agency

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/267113/   Sunday Freebie

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384573/  EBook Agency

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/75989/  Ejaculation Total

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/  Quit Smoking

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353694/  Mobi First

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/378143/   Syndranker

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378359/    VidMingo

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384848/     Heal Your Emptiness

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384381/     RSI SEO

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382333/   Facebook Cash Machin

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/   Video Games

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383555/  KoinCart

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/358870/  Diabetes Guide

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353334/  Fitness Nutrition Guide

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/366872/  Organic Life Guide

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/367353/   Human Synthesys Studio

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384653/   9 figure Success

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383809/   Crypto Kit

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/366972/   AdzHero

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385046/   Stackable Picture

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/25069/   Forex Atlatian

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/132677/  Forex Scouts

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378113/   Crypto Rocket

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/377665/   PigMoney Method

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374345/   Crypto Underworld

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372305/  XBrain Forex

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385213/  Pixivid

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/   Seniors Income

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381768/    FaceSwap

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383111/   AgencyScale

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382796/   Ad Raven

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/324492/   Graphic Alta

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382425/  Art Of Living

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/377815/  Credit Repair

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381337/  DFY Content Club

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381689/  3D Pal Toons

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380385/  Movid Animation

https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379244/  Extreme Adz

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379020  Live Your Truth

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/47481/  Forex Blue Stark

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/  Forex Mastery

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/  Forex Mastery

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/95037/  Forex Hybrid Scalper

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384759/  CourseAlly eLearning

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385180/   EZ Local Appointment

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380197/  Mat1 Simple Funnel

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/373207/  Photokit

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384755/   HostLegends

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377907/   AIWA22

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/363237/   ImageX

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385357/     SocialAgency360

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/355256/    CourseReel

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/370705/    NichBox

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/  WordPress Mastery

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385468/  PicsAds

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/371095/   Next Drive

https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385873/   LinkableDFY

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/385580/    Leadvalet

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385754/    Vidzura

https://jvz1.com/c/202927/216101/   Extreme Coupon

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386305/  High Converting Emails

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386337/  Email Monetizer

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385431/   StreamPilot

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377665/  PigMoneyMethod

https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372523/  FusionMT4

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386313/  Followup Builder

https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385387/  Scriptdio

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383953/  Megasuite

https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384069/  ShopFunnels






Teens Moms Say the Pandemic Has Made School a Huge Challenge

Like thousands of high schoolers around the country, 17-year-old Olivia Gehling graduated from high school after almost a year of remote learning. But she also finished her senior year while taking care of her now 18-month-old daughter, Lovelyn.

Olivia plans to attend real estate–license school in-person this fall to obtain her Realtor’s license, something she had been wanting to do even before her pregnancy. Going back to school in-person presents a different set of challenges for teen moms than what other students are facing. For Olivia, Lovelyn is a critical part of her decision-making process, specifically because of childcare. Once classes get started, she will be in school from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Her boyfriend and Lovelyn’s father, Cole Burge, will also be in Realtor school with her, meaning the teen parents will have to figure out their childcare plans for their daughter.

“To be honest, I don’t have a set plan. I know I won’t send her to day care because it’s just so expensive here in Ames, [Iowa], and the wait lists are insane. But I think my mom, my grandma, and maybe Cole’s mom—whoever can help will totally help us,” Olivia tells Teen Vogue.

In Queen Creek, Arizona, Angelise Torres, an 18-year-old mom, has the same concerns. Angelise graduated in her high school’s class of 2021 when her daughter Aria was five months old, and has since applied to college, hoping to study pediatric nursing or dermatology. Like Olivia, Angelise isn’t planning on sending Aria to day care. “Different family members will probably be watching her; maybe my little sister—I don’t know. When she’s old enough for preschool, she’ll be in preschool,” says Angelise.

According to Nicole Lynn Lewis, founder of Generation Hope, childcare is a problem exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Lewis founded Generation Hope in 2010 with the goal of helping more teen parents get a college education. She says that this past year, around 30% of teen parents in the Generation Hope program have been without childcare.

“Sometimes you make the assumption that, hey, online courses means you don’t need childcare. But it’s very hard to concentrate when you have a little one at home,” says Lewis. “They’ve had to be really creative in how [they can] still work and go to school when [they] don’t have childcare in place, whether it’s, ‘I’m bouncing my baby while I’m trying to engage in class’ or ‘I’m going to study all night long while my baby sleeps.’”

Lewis stresses that childcare isn’t the only factor in teen moms’ decisions about returning to in-person school. Many are providing for their family, despite being in school full-time.

While Olivia was pregnant, she worked as a lifeguard to make sure that she was able to financially provide for her future daughter. Currently she works four jobs, which she plans to continue into the fall. She runs a photography and videography business, cleans houses, manages her TikTok and Instagram accounts, and is starting a luxury picnic business. Despite her busy schedule, Olivia remains firm in her decision to go to school in-person next fall.

“I thought it would be difficult to kind of do it online with all these jobs, and then being a mom on top of it. It’s superhard to get anything done when she’s awake, because she just gets into everything. I think it would just be really hard to even focus,” says Olivia.

Angelise agrees. When the pandemic hit in her senior year, her high school went completely virtual, and she was taking four classes online. “It was really hard to study with Aria, because she plays with my paper—she’ll crumble it, she’ll cry when I’m not with her, just stuff like that. By the end of the year, I was doing extra work to catch up and make sure I was ready to graduate,” she says. Because of her experiences with online school, she plans on attending college in a hybrid model, going both in-person and online.

Maddie Lambert, an 18-year-old mom, has opted to get her General Educational Development (GED), or high school equivalency diploma, rather than trying to complete a traditional high school education. Maddie got pregnant with Evelyn in her freshman year and decided to get her GED to devote more time to her daughter. She planned to take the GED test last year, but because of the closure of most in-person test sites, her plans were temporarily pushed back. “The virtual testing just doesn’t really work for me, because since I am a mom, it’s really hard to find that time away to take the test,” says Maddie.

In the fall, Maddie hopes to get her GED and go to college, studying the sciences. But she’s concerned about staying away from her daughter for long periods of time.

“I definitely don’t want to start any in-person education for myself until my daughter is in school,” says Maddie. “When she turns four or five, I plan on putting her in a Montessori program. When she’s there, I’m hoping I’ll be able to do my school so that I don’t have to spend any more time away from her than I already would be.”Lewis says that, ultimately, change has to start from the core of school culture.

“If you are pregnant or if you have a child, you’re often made to feel that [school] is not a safe space for you. And it’s really, really hard to be successful in a space when you don’t feel welcome. We need a culture that’s really embracing of all students, no matter what their experiences are,” she says.

Source: Teens Moms Say the Pandemic Has Made School a Huge Challenge | Teen Vogue


Related Contents:

Work from anywhere’ is here to stay. How will it change our workplaces

Telecommuting has Mostly Positive Consequences for Employees and Employers

Six Key Advantages and Disadvantages of Working from Home in Europe during COVID-19

Federal Computer Week, Telework: Senate gives unanimous thumbs up

Survey: Only 7% of Workers Say They’re Most Productive in the Office

Global, regional, and national burdens of ischemic heart disease and stroke attributable to exposure to long working hours

Advantages and Disadvantages of Telecommuting to Work

Change in remote work trends due to COVID-19

Straight Talk on Telework. Technology

Homeworking: helping businesses cut costs and reduce their carbon footprint

Pros And Cons of Working From Home – Extra Paycheck

Change in remote work trends due to COVID-19

Work from anywhere’ is here to stay. How will it change our workplaces

7 Effective Ways To Get Rid of Age Spots, According to Dermatologists

There’s nothing quite like looking in the mirror—or down at your hands—to discover spots and freckles you could swear weren’t there yesterday. Even though most of us have experienced our share of hyperpigmentation, we’re also fortunate enough to have tons of options at our disposal to, well, remove those annoying age spots before they get any worse.

So what are age spots, anyway? “Also known as sun spots or solar lentigines, age spots are benign pigmented spots typically caused by ultraviolet radiation from the sun,” says Noelani González, MD, board-certified dermatologist and director of cosmetic dermatology at Mount Sinai West in New York. UV rays cause our pigment-producing skin cells to increase melanin production, resulting in those pesky brown spots.

If you have a family history of age spots, you’re more prone to developing them when you’re exposed to the sun (or tanning beds). They usually appear as flat brown spots on the areas of skin that are exposed to the sun most—face, neck, chest, hands, arms, and back—but can also appear as seborrheic keratosis, which are raised, wart-like skin growths.

When It Comes to Age Spots, Prevention is Everything

Even though age spots are usually no biggie, it’s crucial to prevent sun damage not only for aesthetic purposes, but to stay protected against skin cancer, says New York City-based board-certified dermatologist Ariel Ostad, MD, who recommends amping up your sun safety habits—like frequently applying broad spectrum sunscreen, staying out of the sun during its most powerful hours (12 p.m. to 5 p.m.), and covering your body with clothing and hats, as able.

As for the age spots that have already turned up on your skin? Here are the most effective over-the-counter and in-office treatments that dermatologists recommend.

How to Get Rid of Age Spots


“The best OTC option to minimize current (and prevent future) age spots is sunscreen,” says Dr. González. Not only will sunscreen prevent the age spots you already have from getting darker, it will also keep future ones from forming. Experts recommend choosing sunscreen that offers broad-spectrum protection of SPF 30 or higher, such as Neutrogena Sheer Dry-Touch, EltaMD UV Clear, Cotz Flawless Complexion, and CeraVe Hydrating.

Non-prescription lightening creams and serums

OTC lightening creams help to reduce age spots by suppressing the production of melanin, says Anthony Youn, MD, board-certified plastic surgeon and author of The Age Fix. (Just note that they are most effective on age spots that have been caught early and are still on the lighter side.)

If you’d like to give this option a whirl, the active ingredients to look for are hydroquinone, glycolic acid, kojic acid, licorice root extract, and niacinamide. Hydroquinone is considered the gold standard of lightening, but is known for being harsher on skin and may trigger side effects, such as skin irritation and rebound pigmentation if it’s applied for too long, says Dr. Youn.

Dr. González’s top OTC picks include Skin Medica’s Lytera 2.0 Pigment Correcting Serum and SkinCeuticals Discoloration Defense: “Both contain tranexamic acid, an ingredient also known for its lightening capabilities that tends to be less irritating than hydroquinone for some,” she says. She also recommends Murad Age Spot and Pigment Lightening Gel—it contains hydroquinone and glycolic acid, which helps to exfoliate the top layer of your skin.

If you struggle with spots on your face, you could also try incorporating a vitamin C serum into your daily routine. Since vitamin C is an antioxidant, it helps to protect the skin against sun damage, prevents dark spots, and gives an overall brightening effect.

Prescription fade creams

Prescription topical drugs can work slowly to lighten age spots (think: several weeks to months), the two most commonly prescribed being hydroquinone and tretinoin. Hydroquinone works by slowing the production of melanin, says Dr. Ostad, while tretinoin is a retinol cream that can improve skin texture and reduce pigmentation. Side effects are typically minimal, but can include itching, redness, or dryness.


During this in-office procedure, liquid nitrogen (a freezing agent) is applied to the age spots. “This freezes and destroys the pigment-making cells, causing the spots to flake off,” says Dr. González. As the skin heals, it appears lighter. This treatment is best for single age spots or small clusters of them, and can be done a few times a month if necessary.

Chemical peels

Depending on the depth of the peel, this treatment can be helpful in reducing the appearance of age spots, says New Jersey-based board-certified dermatologist Shari Sperling, DO. It involves your dermatologist applying an acid to the area, which burns the outer layer of your skin to where the age spots are camping out. As this layer of skin sloughs off, a new layer replaces it. The number of treatments needed vary based on the severity of the age spots and type of peel—side effects can range from none to a few days of peeling/dryness, says Dr. Sperling.

Intense pulsed light (IPL)

“Hands down, the easiest and most effective option for age spots is IPL,” says Dr. Youn, which uses light to target the color brown. “This destroys the pigment, causing the age spot to turn darker and slough off after about a week,” he explains. Most people require upwards of four treatments for optimal effect. Bonus: There’s no downtime and the treatment is virtually pain-free.

Laser treatments

Depending on your skin color, skin tone, and the location of your age spots, there are several types of laser treatments that can help. This is the preferred method of nixing age spots for dermatologists, thanks to the quicker recovery time and longer-lasting results. “The PicoWay is an especially effective laser to treat age spots, as the advanced laser uses ultra-short picosecond pulses to break up particles of skin pigmentation,” says Dr. Ostad.

Fraxel laser treatments are also a great option for age spots, he says. The technique uses a fractional laser (a focused beam of light that’s broken into a multitude of pinpoints) to deliver heat into the skin. This vaporizes the pigmented skin cells, while encouraging collagen remodeling in deep skin layers—and in addition to a reduction in age spots, results in tighter, smoother skin.

By: Krissy Brady

Source: Pocket


Related Sources:

We wanted to take the time to recognize some of the unsung skincare heroes in the online community, the writers who know their stuff and link to reputable sources so that you know you can trust them. These 17 skincare writers are doctors, aestheticians, scientists, and often acne-sufferers themselves, and they are making scientifically-sound skincare available to all. If you’re looking for trustworthy skincare resources, look no further than this list.

Perry Romanowski and Valerie George of The Beauty Brains

Lisa and Marcia of Beauty Info Zone

Nicki Zevola Benvenuti of FutureDerm

Geri Brin of Fab Over Fifty

Dr. Cynthia Bailey of the Dr. Cynthia Bailey Skin Health and Wellness Blog

Renée Rouleau of Renée Rouleau Skincare

Alicia Yoon of Peach and Lily and Pibuu

Elizabeth Dehn of Beauty Bets

Patricia Bright of Patricia Bright

Ruth Crilly of A Model Recommends

Amber Clark of Barefoot Blonde

Caroline Hirons of Caroline Hirons

Huda Kattan of Huda Beauty

Nikkie de Jager of Nikkie Tutorials

Meg Biram of Meg Biram

Grasie Mercedes of Grasie Mercedes

Mary Helen Leonard of The Natural Beauty Workshop

Hair Loss Is The COVID-19 Side Effect No One Saw Coming

When health experts list the potential long-term side effects of COVID-19, a loss of taste and smell, debilitating headaches, and lethargy seem to be the most common. But nearly six months after the virus first took hold in the west, some survivors are beginning to notice another lingering repercussion: hair loss.

You might have seen actress Alyssa Milano speak openly about her firsthand experience with hair loss following a coronavirus diagnosis. In a video shared to Twitter, Milano brushed her hair and showed the camera just how many strands came loose in a single stroke. She isn’t alone: Head to Reddit and Twitter, and you’ll see countless threads where individuals discuss hair loss as a potential post-COVID side effect.

“I have quite fine hair, but it has never come out in my hands before,” Vanessa, a coronavirus survivor, tells Refinery29. “I would never see a hair at the bottom of the shower or around the house. It just didn’t fall out at all — until now. Initially I put it down to stress, but when a friend messaged me asking if my hair loss experience mirrored hers after contracting coronavirus, I realized it probably wasn’t.”

While symptoms such as exhaustion, sensitivity, and a loss of taste and smell have passed for Vanessa, who is 36, she’s still experiencing hair loss months down the line. “It’s generally all over, rather than in specific areas,” she says of the shedding. “I’m baffled. In quarantine, I bought some really nice hair masks and products. I haven’t colored my hair for months, I’m washing it less, and I haven’t used heat on it since February. I thought my hair would do really well, but it’s shedding more.”

What is stress-induced hair loss and why does it occur?

Dermatologists and hair loss experts have, in fact, noticed an uptick in reported cases since coronavirus. “Typically, temporary hair loss, otherwise known as telogen effluvium or TE, will start two to four months after a triggering event such as stress,” says Simone Thomas, a hair loss specialist. The list of such events includes grief, shock, childbirth, and illness; anything from a major surgical procedure to extreme weight loss can contribute, too.

Dr. Zainab Laftah, consultant dermatologist at HCA The Shard, adds, “A disturbance in the hair cycle causes the hairs to shift from the growing phase to the shedding phase. This results in sudden hair loss, which affects hair thickness all over the scalp.”

Can coronavirus cause hair loss?

We still don’t know exactly how coronavirus might impact our bodies longterm, so the research surrounding its contribution to hair loss is scarce. Dr. Laftah says she’s noticed firsthand a number of patients presenting with hair loss roughly three months after a short-lived coronavirus bout or from quarantine-induced stress.

“A Spanish journal recently …read more

Skin Conditions like “COVID Toes” May Be Signs of Coronavirus

Dermatologists around the world are gathering data on what may be largely overlooked symptoms of COVID-19: skin conditions ranging from rashes to “pseudo-frostbite.”

Many viral illnesses—including chickenpox, measles and mononucleosis—are accompanied by telltale skin rashes, often a result of the body’s heightened inflammatory response while fighting off infection. Though more research is needed, a growing number of case reports and preliminary studies suggest SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can also affect the skin.

In late March, an Italian physician submitted a letter to the editor of the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, describing skin conditions that affected about 20% of 88 COVID-19 patients analyzed in the Lombardy region of Italy. Most of them developed a red rash on their torsos, while a few suffered hives or blisters resembling chickenpox.

Then, in early April, a dermatology organization representing more than 400 French dermatologists issued a statement noting that among probable COVID-19 patients they had seen skin symptoms including hives, red rashes and frostbite-like lesions on the extremities. And finally, in mid-April, in a letter to the editor of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, a group of Italian physicians described a chickenpox-like rash as “a rare but specific COVID-19-associated skin manifestation.”

In the U.S., the “pseudo-frostbite” condition described by French dermatologists in their statement has been nicknamed “COVID toes.” More than 100 cases of the condition—characterized by purple, bruise-like bumps and swelling— have been recorded in a COVID-19 symptom registry kept by the American Academy of Dermatology.

Dr. Alisa Femia, director of inpatient dermatology and a specialist in autoimmune connective tissue disease at NYU Langone, says she’s seen all of the above conditions among suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in New York City, and finds the range of possible symptoms remarkable.

“For a virus to do all of these things that it’s doing within the first five months of existing in humans is pretty striking to me,” she says.

Patients who end up hospitalized often develop a pink, itchy rash across their torso and limbs, she says. Others develop hives or, less commonly, a chickenpox-like rash. It can be tricky to determine whether skin conditions like these are actually caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are a side effect of medications used to treat it, but Femia says the rashes are popping up often enough that they are probably manifestations of the virus itself.

Femia also says she’s seeing “COVID toes” fairly frequently these days, often among people with few other symptoms of COVID-19 calling for telemedicine consults from home—but, despite the nickname, she says it’s not entirely clear that COVID-19 is causing the issue. Many people with the condition have not gotten tested for COVID-19 since they are not sick enough to require intensive medical attention, making it impossible to say for sure whether their ailment is related to the virus.

Others have tested negative for the virus, but have no other clear reason for a skin abnormality. Fermia guesses that some patients who were asymptomatic or had very mild cases of COVID-19 developed “COVID toes” late enough in their illness for tests to come back negative, but says at this point a lot remains unknown.

There are also other viruses that could cause similar issues, she adds. “Everybody’s looking at things through COVID goggles right now,” Femia says. “You have to have a skeptical eye.”

Even among confirmed COVID-19 patients, skin conditions are not usually cause for major concern, Femia says; dermatologists typically just treat them topically to relieve discomfort. But she notes that some preliminary research suggests COVID-19 patients may be developing skin rashes as a result of blood-flow issues, which is more worrisome. Small blood clots in the skin could mean there are blood clots elsewhere, she says, and clotting in the kidneys, liver or other organs could lead to more serious issues.

Other dermatologists in New York City are studying the relationship between COVID-19 and preexisting inflammatory skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. A team led by Dr. Emma Guttman, vice chair of dermatology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, is recruiting patients already in treatment for inflammatory skin conditions, in hopes of learning how their susceptibility to COVID-19 compares to other patients’.

And since many of the drugs prescribed to treat these skin conditions aim to lower inflammation in the body, doctors have a hunch that they could also improve the immune system’s ability to fight off SARS-CoV-2. “If we find that one of the treatments may be protective…maybe it will be protective also in patients that don’t have inflammatory skin disease,” Guttman says.

The research is especially important, she adds, because African Americans—who, for a variety of socioeconomic reasons, make up a large chunk of New York City’s COVID-19 cases and deaths—are also disproportionately likely to have eczema, as well as other inflammation-related conditions like asthma. If there is some relationship between inflammatory conditions and severe COVID-19, understanding it could provide a new avenue for treatment, Guttman says.

Results from Mount Sinai’s research will not be available for some time, and all findings about dermatologic reactions to COVID-19 are preliminary. But Femia says people who develop unusual skin conditions should use telemedicine to consult a dermatologist, who can help them sort out whether those may be related to COVID-19 and reason to self-isolate.

By Jamie Ducharme April 28, 2020 9:30 AM EDT

Source: Skin Conditions like “COVID Toes” May Be Signs of Coronavirus

Please follow my instagram: http://instagram.com/arminhamidian67

There’s a new possible symptom of the coronavirus that’s being reported among some people. Subscribe to WLWT on YouTube now for more: http://bit.ly/1ipUX3c Get more Cincinnati news: http://www.wlwt.com Like us: http://www.facebook.com/wlwt5 Follow us: http://twitter.com/WLWT Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/wlwt5/
%d bloggers like this: