How Bots Corrupted Advertising

An illustration of robots holding up a sign that reads buy more new stuffILLUSTRATION: ABBR. PROJECT

Botmasters have created a Kafkaesque system where companies are paying huge sums to show their ads to bots. And everyone is fine with this. When Aleksandr Zhukov went on trial last year, he stood accused of defrauding US companies, including The New York Times and pet care brand Purina, out of millions of dollars. According to the court, the then 41-year-old set up a company that promised to show online adverts to humans, but he instead placed those adverts on an elaborate network of fake websites where they were seen only by bots.

Yet Zhukov’s defense did not center around his innocence or his remorse. Rather, he said he was giving the online economy exactly what it wanted: cheap traffic, whatever the source. “There was nothing to conceal,” he said on the stand in May 2021. “We were making business. We are not making scam or fraud.” The federal courthouse in Brooklyn disagreed and, in November 2021, Zhukov was sentenced to 10 years in prison.

By extraditing the Russian cybercriminal from Bulgaria, the US justice system sent a message that this type of crime has consequences. Yet Zhukov’s testimony hints at an uncomfortable truth: The online economy is willing to look the other way while bots distort it and line the pockets of cybercriminals. The Elon Musk v. Twitter trial is set to resurrect such concerns.

Musk, who claims that Twitter has undercounted millions of fake accounts on its platform, was handed extra ammunition when Twitter’s former head of security Peiter Zatko, known as Mudge, turned whistleblower in August. Mudge claimed that executives’ bonuses were tied to increases in daily users, meaning they had no incentive to crack down on bots—an allegation Twitter’s CEO, Parag Agrawal, has denied.

Bots are polluting the internet. Fake online users make up as much as 40 percent of all web traffic, according to some estimates. Researchers specializing in advertising fraud describe a Kafkaesque system where businesses pay millions to advertise to bots and research their “opinions.” Yet the digital advertising industry has grown so accustomed to working with inflated numbers that few are willing to unmask the fake clicks powering large swathes of the online economy.

In June, the Association of National Advertisers (ANA), a US industry group, published a blog post that estimated that ad fraud is costing US advertisers $120 billion each year. Hours after it was published, those statements were removed. John Wolfe, the ANA’s director of communications, tells WIRED that the figures were removed because they were out of date, but declines to provide any new figures.

Zhukov’s trial established how the trade in fake clicks works. Between 2014 and 2016, the so-called King of Fraud—a name he gave himself in a text message, revealed in court—ran an advertising network called Media Methane, which received payments from other advertising networks in return for placing brand’s adverts on websites. But the company did not place those adverts on real websites. Instead it created fake ones, spoofing more than 6,000 domains.

It then rented 2,000 computer servers in Texas and Amsterdam and programmed them to simulate the way a human would act on a website—using a fake mouse to scroll the fake website and falsely appearing to be signed in to Facebook. “As a result of this elaborate scheme, the defendant falsified billions of ad views and caused businesses to pay more than $7 million for ads that were never actually viewed by real human internet users,” the Department of Justice said.

Although The New York Times was named as a “victim” by the Justice Department, the publication declined to clarify whether it paid for fake ad views or whether its website was spoofed by one of Zhukov’s fake sites. Nestlé, the parent company of Purina, did not respond to a request for comment. Some companies have taken matters into their own hands. In 2017 Uber sued one of its advertising agencies for charging it for ads that were not seen by real people or placed on real websites.

The case started when Uber pulled all online advertising and discovered barely any drop in app installs or sales. Why? Some claim online ads target people who already plan on buying that product or service. Others argue that ads often target bots. But it’s hard to get a straight answer. Companies paying for advertising have an incentive to play down the number of bots to conceal how much cash they’re wasting. And cybersecurity companies have an incentive to exaggerate numbers to sell anti-bot products.

The technology to detect and block bots already exists, says Sandy Carielli, a principal analyst specializing in cybersecurity at the consultancy firm Forrester. But companies can be unwilling to investigate traffic that, on-the-surface, makes their website look popular, she says. “Keep in mind if you cut off the bots and it turns out that a large amount of traffic on your site is generated by bots, that’s going to influence your performance numbers.”

Advertising didn’t always used to be like this. Augustine Fou, who has been a digital marketer for 25 years, says that in the past decade there’s been an explosion in fake traffic. Fou believes the industry was corrupted around a decade ago, when a series of opaque middlemen entered the scene. “Prior to that, advertisers would buy ads from publishers like The New York Times,” he says. But now it’s typical for brands to approach a digital ad exchange—which facilitates the buying and selling of advertising from different ad networks—to place their adverts on huge numbers of websites and apps. And it is this part of the system that has become vulnerable to bots, claims Fou.

The exchanges have deliberately looked the other way when there are fraudulent sites and mobile apps that become part of that exchange,” he claims. Google and Facebook are among the companies that run these exchanges alongside other listed US companies such as Pubmatic and Magnite. “The ad exchanges don’t want to solve fraud because fraud generates so much volume,” Fou claims.

“And the exchanges essentially make more money when more volume passes through their platforms.” None of the exchanges responded to requests for comment. And it’s not just the exchanges seemingly dodging the fraud issue. Advertisers are also reluctant, says Fou. “It’s too embarrassing for them to admit that they purchased fraudulent inventory.” He cites one rare attempt to sue by Uber, after it discovered Austin-based advertising company Phunware was selling fake app installs using bots.

“Most of the Uber app installations that Phunware claimed to have delivered were generated by a fraudulent process known as ‘click flooding,’ which reports a higher number of clicks than those occurring,” Uber’s law firm Reed Smith said after winning the fraud suit.

“Many still think ad fraud is a victimless crime,” says Fou. “After all, who cares if big brands waste their money showing ads to bots?” But the industry is letting ad dollars flow into the pockets of cybercriminals, he adds, who can then use it to fund other illicit activities. It’s a major problem, he argues. “One that no one talks about, no one writes about, everyone thinks it’s someone else’s problem.”

By:Morgan Meaker

Morgan Meaker is a senior writer at WIRED covering European business. Before that, she was a technology reporter at The Telegraph and also worked for Dutch magazine De Correspondent. In 2019 she won Technology Journalist of the Year at the Words by Women Awards.

Source: How Bots Corrupted Advertising | WIRED

Related contents:

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“What is a bot: types and functions”. IONOS Digitalguide. Retrieved 2022-01-28.“Twitter Followers Guide”. 20 November 2019Howard, Philip N (18 October 2018). “How Political Campaigns Weaponize Social Media Bots”. IEEE Spectrum.

Ferrara, Emilio; Varol, Onur; Davis, Clayton; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro (2016). “The Rise of Social Bots”. Communications of the ACM. 59 (7): 96–104. arXiv:1407.5225. doi:10.1145/2818717. S2CID 1914124. Alessandro, Bessi; Emilio, Ferrara (2016-11-07). “Social Bots Distort the 2016 US Presidential Election Online Discussion”. SSRN 2982233.

“Touch Arcade Forum Discussion on fraud in the Top 25 Free Ranking”.“App Store fake reviews: Here’s how they encourage your favourite developers to cheat”. Electricpig. Archived from the original on 2017-10-18. Retrieved 2014-06-11.“Facebook Messenger Hits 100,000 bots”. 2017-04-18. Retrieved 2017-09-22.

Murray Newlands. “These Chatbot Usage Metrics Will Change Your Customer Service Strategy”. Forbes. Retrieved 2018-03-08.“How companies are using chatbots for marketing: Use cases and inspiration – MarTech Today”. MarTech Today. 2018-01-22. Retrieved 2018-04-10.Dima Bekerman: How Registration Bots Concealed the Hacking of My Amazon Account, Application Security, Industry Perspective, December 1st, 2016, In: http://www.Imperva.com/blog

Carr, Sam (July 15, 2019). “What Is Viewbotting: How Twitch Are Taking On The Ad Fraudsters”. PPC Protect. Retrieved 19 September 2020.Lewis, Richard (March 17, 2015). “Leading StarCraft streamer embroiled in viewbot controversy”. Dot Esports. Retrieved 19 September 2020.

Safruti, Ido (June 19, 2017). “Why Detecting Bot Attacks Is Becoming More Difficult”. DARKReading.Kang, Ah Reum; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Mohaisen, Aziz; Kim, Huy Kang (2016-04-26). “Multimodal game bot detection using user behavioral characteristics”. SpringerPlus. 5 (1): 523. arXiv:1606.01426. doi:10.1186/s40064-016-2122-8. ISSN 2193-1801. PMC 4844581. PMID 27186487.

Holiday, Ryan (January 16, 2014). “Fake Traffic Means Real Paydays”. BetaBeat. Archived from the original on 2015-01-03. Retrieved 2014-04-28. von Lipinski, Percy (28 May 2013). “CNN’s iReport hit hard by pay-per-view scandal”. PulsePoint. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.

Sebastian Telle: zum Urteil des OLG Dresden vom 20. Januar 2015, Az.: 14 U 1127/14 Telemedicus. Sebastian Telle: zum Urteil des OLG Hamburg vom 6. November 2014, Az.: 3 U 86/13 Telemedicus. Social Bots – die Technik hinter Fake-News. 1und1.de/digitalguide. 25. April 2018. Abgerufen am 27. April 2018.

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Netzangriff: Bots feuern gegen Themen. In: ndr.de. NDR, abgerufen am 22. April 2016.Social bots distort the 2016 U.S. Presidential election online discussion. In: First Monday. Alessandro Bessi und Emilio Ferrara, abgerufen am 24. Januar 2019.Wahlkampf: Nur die AfD will Social Bots einsetzen. In: tagesschau.de. ARD, abgerufen am 22. Oktober 2016.

Revealed: quarter of all tweets about climate crisis produced by bots. In: The Guardian, 21. Februar 2020. Abgerufen am 21. Februar 2020.Gefährden Meinungsroboter die Demokratie? In: spektrum.de. Abgerufen am 16. Oktober 2016.Fachgespräch im Bundestag: Experten halten Einfluss von Social Bots für überschätzt. In: netzpolitik.org. Abgerufen am 6. März 2017.AfD lehnt Einsatz von sogenannten social bots ab. In: alternativefuer.de. Abgerufen am 16. Januar 2017.

Jens Schneider, Wie eine US-Agentur der AfD im Wahlkampf hilft Süddeutsche Zeitung vom 14. September 2017.Social Bots in Election Campaigns: Theoretical, Empirical, and Methodological Implications. In: Political Communication. Tobias R. Keller und Ulrike Klinger, abgerufen am 25. Januar 2019.Andreas Weck: Chatbots im Facebook-Messenger. In: t3n.de. 14. April 2016, abgerufen am 15. November 2016.

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How To Become a Killer Negotiator In Nine Steps

Negotiating is something we do on a daily basis, be it at work or at home, and is key to ensuring that you always get the best outcome. According to the late soul singer Marvin Gaye, “Negotiation means getting the best of your opponent”. But negotiation is an art form that is hard to learn and even harder to master.

We’ve cherry-picked the most powerful tips for becoming a killer negotiator from Quora, the global question and answer network, to find the secret to getting what you want, every time.

1. Always be prepared

“You need to know as much as you can about the other party/topic/project”, explains Sebastian Amieva, a Quora poster who studied negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Fellow Quora poster Margaret Weiss agrees: “Negotiation is about the other party. It’s not about you. You can be the best orator in the world – concise, convincing, eloquent – but if the other party cannot relate to you, regardless of your skills, all of those efforts will be in vain.

“The first thing that negotiators do is research their target audience – and based on the information gathered they adjust their pitch to the exact expectations of the other party. This research is what makes a person a good negotiator: the ability to connect to the needs of the other party, and the ability to speak on the same level.”

2. Remain objective

“A mediator must remain objective in discussing issues, even if they dislike some or all of the parties to the negotiation,” says Shane Dempsey, a professional mediator.

Even if you don’t like the other parties involved, they should still receive professionalism and courtesy, Ms Dempsey added.

3. Use open-ended questions

According to behavioural science expert Craig Dos Santos, asking open-ended questions is key to negotiating, as it gets the other party talking, “so you can learn more, listen more, and figure out what is driving their thought process”.

“Don’t ask questions that start with verbs. ‘Is that okay?’ or ‘Is the budget proposal correct?’ Instead try, ‘How can we improve this?’ or ‘What changes are needed in the budget proposal?’”

4. Don’t talk too much

By listening more and talking less, negotiators are able to develop a detailed understanding of the needs of the other person.

“The best negotiator that I’ve known really didn’t talk much,” says Yishan Wong, a former chief executive of Reddit whose Quora post on this topic received almost 2,000 upvotes (or “likes”). “He would just ask you questions about what you wanted and listen really carefully.

“People like to talk about what they want and how they feel about it, so they will tend to go on about things if you let them, and he would just let them do that, all the while listening really carefully.

“He would then go away and figure out how to structure the right deal given the resources/abilities at his (or his company’s) disposal, and then present them with a deal,” adds Mr Wong. “He didn’t need to talk them into it very much, the key seemed to be all about getting into their heads to find out what kind of deal would be most appealing to them.”

5. Force a ‘no’ out of your opponent

Mr Dos Santos has a contrarian approach to negotiation. “When you get a ‘no’ you have a real answer,” he says. “Being open to (or even inviting) ‘no’ is respecting the other side’s ability to make a choice. Often yes answers are actually maybes, and they also don’t give you information about the boundaries.

“A simple example: someone offers you £95,000, and you ask for £100,000. They say yes. What did you learn? Could you have asked for more? Should you have asked for something else instead?”

Mr Dos Santos claims that the key to asking the harder questions is being able to bring the person back after ‘no’. “Hard questions introduce tension, and your ability to ask them is gated by your ability to reduce that tension by making the other party feel okay/better,” he says. “Notice the focus on emotion.”

6. Give them options

“Humans have a basic need for autonomy. If our ability to choose is restricted, we rebel,” claims Quora poster Brandon Villano.

“Come up with a few options that are favorable to you, and give them the opportunity to select which one they want. This is very powerful because it makes them feel much more in control (while still satisfying your requirements).

“All in all remember it’s a win/win situation you are looking to achieve. You want the other party to feel good about the decision they made and happy that they got what they wanted. If you always come out on top with others feeling cheated, you build a bad reputation and this will make others wary of attempting a transaction with you.”

7. Fake empathy

“The other day a friend pinged me because he wanted a discount on an Airbnb rental,” writes Mr Dos Santos. “It was £2,700 and he wanted it for £2,000. Instead of just offering £2,000, which would mean the owner would have to fight an internal battle over what the place was actually worth, I helped him over-empathise with her.”

The friend drafted an email that read: “The place is gorgeous. I loved the photos and I would love to stay there. It’s probably worth more than £2,700 and your price is a steal. However, I’m on a company budget, and I can only pay £2,000.”

This is a counter-intuitive approach: this individual has admitted that the asking price is fair and even said that it might be worth more. However, by using emotional manipulation, he got his deal. “He didn’t fight her on valuation, and he made her feel good about the place,” says Mr Dos Santos. “He got the discount. £700 in 10 minutes with one email.”

8. Fix a deadline for negotiations to end

Rather than allowing negotiations to go on interminably, fix a reasonable deadline to get the deal done.

“It is very helpful to have some deadline/expiration date to create a forcing function for the negotiators,” says entrepreneur Kacy Qua. “If you are negotiating on behalf of an organisation and you come out of the negotiation too quickly, your side will think you didn’t put up a strong enough fight.

“Having a deadline also provides a point from which you can work backward, so that you can time the flow of agreements/proposal rejections.”

9. Volunteer for The Samaritans

“The FBI often trains hostage negotiators by sending them to crisis/suicide hotlines for a year,” says Mr Dos Santos. “This is a process I’m currently going through myself. Why? Because it’s the ultimate training ground for focusing on someone’s emotions, and moving them from A to B. And it’s hugely rewarding work.”

Source: How to Become a Killer Negotiator in Nine Steps

Critics by Barbara Thomas:

If you’re new to negotiation and The Black Swan Method™, the first step to becoming a skilled negotiator is enrolling in our online class, Negotiation 9™ (N9™). This class teaches the nine core skills that are foundational to becoming a world-class negotiator. Are you brand new to the N9? Here’s a brief primer on each skill:

Labels: It is a communication technique in which you identify emotions, dynamics, and motivations that exist in the conversation but have not yet been verbalized. For example, if your counterpart seems rattled and distracted, Label the emotions, and or the dynamics behind the behavior,  “It seems like you’ve got a lot on your mind.” “It seems like something of importance is distracting you.”

Mirrors: This is a technique in which you reflect the last 1-3 words the other side says with either an inquisitive tone or a declarative tone. If your counterpart says, You won’t be able to beat this price, you can Mirror™ the last 1-3 words, “beat this price?”, or even the last word, “price?” Your tone should reflect if you are Mirroring as a question or as a statement.

Dynamic Silence: You can use silence to create awkward tension that your counterpart fills with additional information. Dynamic Silence™ is best used in conjunction with other N9 skills. Simply count one one thousand, two one thousand in your head, and your counterpart will fill the air before you get to 10. If you go past 12 seconds, you’ve missed something important that your counterpart was trying to convey to you. Label this dynamic. 

Paraphrasing: Paraphrasing occurs when you take the other side’s words and repackage them so they know you’re listening

Summary: A Summary™ is a thorough synopsis of what your counterpart said. It’s so comprehensive that your counterpart has no choice but to respond with these two magical words: “That’s Right”™. 

Calibrated Questions : These questions begin with what, how, and sometimes why and are used to shape the way your counterpart thinks. For example, you might ask: “What is this going to look like moving forward?”? This is a thought-shaping question That directs your counterpart to a thoughtful response. Here, one-word answers won’t suffice.

I Messages: These messages are designed to help you draw a line in the proverbial sand with persistent, counterproductive behavior.. Here’s the formula: When you [do this counterproductive thing], I feel [like this] because [the reason the behavior is bad]. Here’s an example: When you consistently blow off our meetings, I feel like we’re wasting our time because it seems you’re not taking this deal seriously.

Encouragers: Encouragers are simple acknowledgments that prove you’re in the moment, such as nodding your head and saying mm-hmm. Encouragers keep your counterpart engaged in the conversation and lets them know you are listening.

Tone of Voice: They are playing an important role in negotiations. People are six times more likely to do business with people they like. An Accommodating tone, light and friendly, should be used for the majority of the negotiation. Shift to the Analyst, “Late-Night DJ Voice,” when you need to get a serious point across and when you make an ask. The Assertive tone should not be used during negotiations. An Assertive tone will come across as challenging and accusatory, not a good tone for negotiations.  

Related contents:

Using Integrative Negotiation Techniques to Close the Deal Program on Negotiation – Harvard Law School

Dear Negotiation Coach: Which Negotiation Closing Techniques Will Get Me To The Finish Line? Program on Negotiation – Harvard Law School

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Twitter Facing Dual Threats – How Will The Platform Respond To Musk And Zatko?

Elon Musk’s legal team has continued to seek ways to allow the tech entrepreneur to back out of his $44 billion deal to buy social media platform Twitter. On Tuesday, Musk’s lawyers filed an additional notice, disclosed to the SEC, which cited allegations made last month by the company’s former security chief Peiter “Mudge” Zatko as additional reasons to terminate the deal.

Twitter must now deal with the threat from Musk, as well as the accusations contained in Zatko’s complaint. Though the accusations made by the two men are not exactly the same, neither are their motives. The social media platform, however, is still facing two separate challenges – and will be forced to respond to each.

The notice filed on Tuesday followed a July 8 that alleged the social media company had failed to comply with its contractual obligations. Musk is now citing claims made by Zatko – who has become known as the “Twitter Whistleblower” – as a justification for backing out of the deal.

“Allegations regarding certain facts, known to Twitter prior to and as of July 8, 2022, but undisclosed to the Musk Parties prior to and at that time, have since come to light that provide additional and distinct bases to terminate the Merger Agreement,” Mike Ringler, Musk’s legal representative, wrote in a letter to Twitter’s legal chief, Vijaya Gadde, CNBC reported.

Twitter’s legal team quickly responded, stating that Musk’s termination case was “invalid and wrongful under” the acquisition agreement.

“It is based solely on statements made by a third party that, as Twitter has previously stated, are riddled with inconsistencies and inaccuracies and lack important context,” the letter written by lawyer William Savitt said. “Contrary to the assertions in your letter, Twitter has breached none of its representations or obligations under the Agreement, and Twitter has not suffered and is not likely to suffer a Company Material Adverse Effect.”

Dual Challenges For Twitter

“It’s hard to say whether either Musk or the whistleblower pose any substantial threat to Twitter at this point,” suggested technology industry analyst Charles King of Pund-IT. That could certainly change in the coming months.

“Heading into Delaware Chancery Court in October the Twitter vs. Elon Musk case is around the corner with both legal teams getting ready for this unprecedented battle around the $44 billion Twitter deal,” explained Dan Ives, managing director of Equity Research at Wedbush Securities, via an email.

“A potentially major development… has been whistleblower case from former security chief and Twitter executive Peiter ‘Mudge’ Zatko which could give Musk a much-needed small victory,” Ives continued.

Musk’s legal team has now subpoenaed Zatko to appear for a deposition in its legal fight against Twitter on September 9th. Zatko alleged in his 200-page whistleblower disclosure that Twitter has serious privacy and security vulnerabilities that could put users at risk, and pose national security risk given the data issues.

“Importantly, Zatko claims that Twitter does not have an accurate count of the number of spam and fake bot accounts on its platform, which will be front and center for the Musk team when they speak to Zatko as this could significantly beef up its claims vs. Twitter,” said Ives.

“There are also a number of other legal back and forths going on in this Twitter case,” Ives noted. “But ultimately the Zatko development and timing is a huge potential win for Musk, which could complicate the Twitter case.”

What Does It Mean For Twitter

Twitter’s board of directors now seems intent on holding Musk to his original agreement – but whether the deal is forced through or not, changes are likely coming to the platform.

“Despite his various protestations, their case looks pretty strong,” King told this reporter. “If Musk is forced to purchase the company, it is probably that he’ll make substantial changes to Twitter’s leadership and management corps but that assumes that the people he’d likely target would still be around. Overall, I believe that many Twitter employees would bail out rather than work for Musk.”

Even if Musk is able to get out of the deal to purchase the platform, Twitter could face future challenges.

“The whistleblower is a different situation,” King continued. “Depending on how his (Zatko’s) testimony to Congress proceeds, Twitter could be required to make substantial changes to the way it manages security and access to users’ accounts.”

That could be seen as a good thing for both the company and its users. “However, that assumes that there is substance to the whistleblower’s complaints,” King also noted, adding, “It isn’t entirely clear at this point.”

Source: Twitter Facing Dual Threats – How Will The Platform Respond To Musk And Zatko?

Critics by By , ,

Twitter has major security problems that pose a threat to its own users’ personal information, to company shareholders, to national security, and to democracy, according to an explosive whistleblower disclosure obtained exclusively by CNN and The Washington Post. The disclosure, sent last month to Congress and federal agencies, paints a picture of a chaotic and reckless environment at a mismanaged company that allows too many of its staff access to the platform’s central controls and most sensitive information without adequate oversight.

It also alleges that some of the company’s senior-most executives have been trying to cover up Twitter’s serious vulnerabilities, and that one or more current employees may be working for a foreign intelligence service. The whistleblower, who has agreed to be publicly identified, is Peiter “Mudge” Zatko, who was previously the company’s head of security, reporting directly to the CEO. Zatko further alleges that Twitter’s leadership has misled its own board and government regulators about its security vulnerabilities, including some that could allegedly open the door to foreign spying or manipulation, hacking and disinformation campaigns.

The whistleblower also alleges Twitter does not reliably delete users’ data after they cancel their accounts, in some cases because the company has lost track of the information, and that it has misled regulators about whether it deletes the data as it is required to do. The whistleblower also says Twitter executives don’t have the resources to fully understand the true number of bots on the platform, and were not motivated to. Bots have recently become central to Elon Musk’s attempts to back out of a $44 billion deal to buy the company (although Twitter denies Musk’s claims).

Zatko was fired by Twitter (TWTR) in January for what the company claims was poor performance. According to Zatko, his public whistleblowing comes after he attempted to flag the security lapses to Twitter (TWTR)’s board and to help Twitter (TWTR) fix years of technical shortcomings and alleged non-compliance with an earlier privacy agreement with the Federal Trade Commission. Zatko is being represented by Whistleblower Aid, the same group that represented Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen.

John Tye, founder of Whistleblower Aid and Zatko’s lawyer, told CNN that Zatko has not been in contact with Musk, and said Zatko began the whistleblower process before there was any indication of Musk’s involvement with Twitter. After this article was initially published, Alex Spiro, an attorney for Musk, told CNN, “We have already issued a subpoena for Mr. Zatko, and we found his exit and that of other key employees curious in light of what we have been finding.”

CNN sought comment from Twitter on more than 50 specific questions regarding the disclosure. In a statement, a Twitter spokesperson told CNN that security and privacy are both longtime priorities for the company. Twitter also said the company provides clear tools for users to control privacy, ad targeting and data sharing, and added that it has created internal workflows to ensure users know that when they cancel their accounts, Twitter will deactivate the accounts and start a deletion process. Twitter declined to say whether it typically completes the process.

“Mr. Zatko was fired from his senior executive role at Twitter in January 2022 for ineffective leadership and poor performance,” the Twitter spokesperson said. “What we’ve seen so far is a false narrative about Twitter and our privacy and data security practices that is riddled with inconsistencies and inaccuracies and lacks important context. Mr. Zatko’s allegations and opportunistic timing appear designed to capture attention and inflict harm on Twitter, its customers and its shareholders. Security and privacy have long been company-wide priorities at Twitter and will continue to be.”

Some of Zatko’s most damning claims spring from his apparently tense relationship with Parag Agrawal, the company’s former chief technology officer who was made CEO after Jack Dorsey stepped down last November. According to the disclosure, Agrawal and his lieutenants repeatedly discouraged Zatko from providing a full accounting of Twitter’s security problems to the company’s board of directors.

The company’s executive team allegedly instructed Zatko to provide an oral report of his initial findings on the company’s security condition to the board rather than a detailed written account, ordered Zatko to knowingly present cherry-picked and misrepresented data to create the false perception of progress on urgent cybersecurity issues, and went behind Zatko’s back to have a third-party consulting firm’s report scrubbed to hide the true extent of the company’s problems.

The disclosure is generally much kinder to Dorsey, who hired Zatko and whom Zatko believes wanted to see the problems within the company fixed. But it does depict him as extremely disengaged in his final months leading Twitter – so much so that some senior staff even considered the possibility he was sick.

CNN has reached out to Dorsey for comment. A person familiar with Zatko’s tenure at Twitter told CNN the company investigated several claims he brought forward around the time he was fired, and ultimately found them unpersuasive; the person added that Zatko at times lacked understanding of Twitter’s FTC obligations. Zatko believes his firing was in retaliation for his sounding the alarm about the company’s security problems.

The scathing disclosure, which totals around 200 pages, including supporting exhibits – was sent last month to a number of US government agencies and congressional committees, including the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice. The existence and details of the disclosure have not previously been reported. CNN obtained a copy of the disclosure from a senior Democratic aide on Capitol Hill.

The SEC, DOJ and FTC declined to comment; the Senate Intelligence Committee, which received a copy of the report, is taking the disclosure seriously and is setting a meeting to discuss the allegations, according to Rachel Cohen, a committee spokesperson. Sen. Dick Durbin, who chairs the Senate Judiciary Committee and also received the report, vowed to investigate “and take further steps as needed to get to the bottom of these alarming allegations.”

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More Than Half Of All Bitcoin Trades Are Fake


Within the emerging and turbulent market for cryptocurrencies, where there are no fewer than 10,000 tokens, bitcoin, is the great granddaddy, the blue-chip, representing 40% of the $1 trillion in crypto assets outstanding. Bitcoin is crypto’s gateway drug.

An estimated 46 million adult Americans already own it according to New York Digital Investment Group, and an increasing number of institutional investors and corporations are warming to the nascent alternative asset. But can you trust what your crypto exchange or e-brokerage reports about trading in the most important digital currency?

One of the most common criticisms of bitcoin is pervasive wash trading (a form of fake volume) and poor surveillance across exchanges. The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission defines wash trading as “entering into, or purporting to enter into, transactions to give the appearance that purchases and sales have been made, without incurring market risk or changing the trader’s market position.”

The reason why some traders engage in wash trading is to inflate the trading volume of an asset to give the appearance of rising popularity. In some cases trading bots execute these wash trades in tokens, increasing volume, while at the same time insiders reinforce the activity with bullish remarks, driving up the price in what is effectively a pump and dump scheme.

Wash trading also benefits exchanges because it allows them to appear to have more volume than they actually do, potentially encouraging more legitimate trading.

There is no universally accepted method of calculating bitcoin daily volume, even among the industry’s most reputable research firms. For instance, as of this writing, CoinMarketCap puts the latest 24-hour trading of bitcoin at $32 billion, CoinGecko at $27 billion, Nomics at $57 billion and Messari at $5 billion.

Adding to the challenges are persistent fears about the solvency of crypto exchanges, underscored by the public collapses of Voyager and Celsius. In an exclusive interview with Forbes in late June, FTX CEO Sam Bankman-Fried commented that there are many exchange bankruptcies yet to come.

A significant repercussion of this lack of faith in its underlying markets is the Security and Exchange Commission’s refusal to approve a spot bitcoin ETF.

Unfortunately for the bitcoin ETF hopefuls, many of these fears and criticisms are valid. As part of Forbes research into the crypto ecosystem using 2021 data, we ranked the 60 best exchanges in March. More recently we conducted a deeper-dive into the bitcoin trading markets to answer a few pressing questions:

  1. Where is bitcoin traded?
  2. How much bitcoin gets traded every day?
  3. How is bitcoin traded?

Our study evaluated 157 crypto exchanges across the world. Here are our main findings:

  1. More than half of all reported trading volume is likely to be fake or non-economic. Forbes estimates the global daily bitcoin volume for the industry was $128 billion on June 14. That is 51% less than the $262 billion one would get by taking the sum of self-reported volume from multiple sources.
  2. Tether, the world’s largest stablecoin, continues to be a dominant player in the crypto trading economy, especially when it comes to trades against bitcoin. Its current market capitalization is $68 billion, despite questions about its reserves.
  3. In terms of how much bitcoin activity takes place at these firms, 21 crypto exchanges generate $1 billion or more in daily trading activity, while the next 33 exchanges had volume between $200 million and $999 million across all contract types, spot, futures and perpetuals. Perpetual futures, or perpetual swaps as they are also known, are futures contracts that don’t require investors to roll over their positions. Binance is the clear leader, with a 27% market share, followed by FTX. Looking only at spot bitcoin, the top position is shared by Binance, FTX, and OKX. Chicago-based CME Group is the market leader in bitcoin futures trading.
  4. The biggest problem areas regarding fake volume are firms that tout big volume but operate with little or no regulatory oversight that would make their figures more credible, notably Binance, MEXC Global and Bybit. Altogether, the lesser regulated exchanges in our study account for approximately $89 billion of the true volume (they claim $217 billion).
  5. The creation of new trading assets and products such as stablecoins and perpetual futures adds complications for national authorities seeking to regulate crypto markets. Major U.S. exchanges hardly utilize these instruments or contracts in any of their trading. However, offshore exchanges make significant use of them as ways to synthetically create U.S. dollar liquidity on their platforms (they cannot get U.S. bank accounts).
  6. In the Western world and particularly in the U.S., it is tempting to think of bitcoin only trading against either the U.S. dollar or the euro and British pound. But some of the largest trading pair activity occurs against fiat currencies like the Japanese yen and Korean won and against major stablecoins like Binance U.S. dollar and the USD coin.
  7. 573 million people visit crypto exchange websites on a monthly basis.

We hope that this report builds on top of the important work done by other digital asset researchers such as Bitwise, which estimated in a March 2019 white paper that 95% of CoinMarketCap’s bitcoin trading volume was fake and/or non-economic.

Our Approach

Forbes uses quantitative and qualitative analyses to adjust trading volume reported by the exchanges. Unlike other methods that carry out tests on transactional data (and can also be duped), Forbes grades a firm’s credibility by evaluating no fewer than five datasets that together inspire or diminish confidence in a firm’s self-reported data. Data comes from four crypto media firms, CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko, Nomics and Messari, as well as multiple exchanges and two other third-party data providers.

We apply volume discounts based on a proprietary methodology that relies on 10 factors such as an exchange’s home regulator if any and volume metrics based on an exchange’s web traffic and estimated workforce size. We also use the number and quality of crypto licenses as proxy to gauge the sophistication of each crypto exchange in matters pertaining to regulation and trade surveillance.

If a firm shows a commitment to transparency by conducting token proofs of reserve or by participating in Forbes crypto exchange surveys, it qualifies for a “transparency credit” that lowers any discount that may otherwise apply.

Many of these factors were also present in Forbes’ crypto exchange ranking formula. We divided them into three categories:

Group 1: 48 crypto exchanges that were assigned discounts of 0-25% generated $39 billion of real bitcoin trading activity across all markets–spot, derivatives and futures–on June 14.

Group 2: 73 exchanges with volume discounts of 26% to 79% generated $81 billion in transactional activity (vs. $158 billion claimed)

Group 3: The remaining 36 firms were penalized with a high discount rate (80-99%) and traded $7.7 billion out of $59 billion claimed.

Despite crypto’s global nature, spot bitcoin trading activity is centered around relatively few currency pairs and stablecoins. Stablecoin USDT is the biggest, followed by the U.S. dollar. The next biggest fiat assets are the yen and won.

BTC-US DOLLAR Daily Volume

Group 1 exchanges, many of which are based in the U.S., provide $24.3 billion in daily USD-BTC liquidity, and Group 2 exchanges add $17.3 billion. The prominence of Group 1 exchanges as the main source of BTC-USD occurs across spot, perpetuals, and futures contracts. CME Group is the leading provider of bitcoin futures globally, with $2.1 billion of USD-BTC futures changing hands daily. There are at least 27 crypto exchanges–12 in Group 1–that have daily BTC-USD liquidity greater than $5 million.

BTC – U.S. TETHER Daily Volume

At $71.4 billion daily volume, bitcoin-tether (BTC-USDT) activity exceeds that of BTC-USD by 57%, with 79% generated by Group 2 crypto exchanges and 5% by those in Group 3. There are 77 exchanges–44 in Group 2, 12 in Group 1–with daily bitcoin-tether volume above $5 million. Tether is prominent across spot and perpetual futures markets, less so among the regulated futures industry, which is largely absent outside of the U.S.

BTC – U.S. DOLLAR COIN Daily Volume

U.S. dollar coin (USDC) is gaining adoption in the stablecoin arena. Daily liquidity for bitcoin-USDC was $2.15 billion, with Groups 1 and 2 splitting that total 39% and 60%, respectively. An interesting observation is that Group 2 exchanges use USDC actively in the spot bitcoin market whereas Group 1 exchanges do so with perpetuals. This different use could suggest that Group 2 exchanges may be open to the idea of supporting an alternative to tether’s dominance in the stablecoin market.

USDT and Binance USD (BUSD) each generate more volume than USDC, but the latter now has 26 crypto exchanges (17 in Group 2) with daily trading volume of $5 million or more, versus 77 exchanges for USDT and five with BUSD. If tether’s prominence begins to wane, USDC could be the stablecoin most likely to pick up its crown.

Bitcoin Trading Volume by Exchange Group

The top-10 Group 1 crypto exchanges by volume originate from across the world, with three from the U.S. (CME Group, Coinbase, Kraken), one from Singapore (Crypto.com), one from Europe (LMAX Digital), four from financial offshore centers (FTX, OKX, Gate.io, BitMEX), and one from Central America (Deribit).

Among Group 1 firms, FTX is the largest and growing at a fast clip. It wasn’t until mid 2021 when institutional funding fueled a transformation of FTX operations from a midsized unregulated exchange focused on offshore crypto derivatives to a global group of exchanges today regulated in the U.S., Japan, Europe and elsewhere. In addition to derivatives, FTX trades in crypto spot, tokenized stocks and has recently added equities.

Group 2 crypto exchanges tend to be large and possess wide product offerings. They primarily focus on growth and tend to have much less interest in being regulated where they operate. They also generally lack robust ways to track and deter wash trading. Binance is by far the largest crypto exchange in Group 2, with $34.2 billion of daily trading activity followed by Bybit with $8.9 billion. The majority of these exchanges are based in offshore havens such as the Seychelles and British Virgin Islands.

Group 3 consists of 36 crypto exchanges which, with few exceptions, are unregulated and small. Their huge self reported volume and tiny visitor number cast doubt on the possibility that a limited audience could indeed generate that much trading activity. A case in point is BitCoke, which CoinMarketCap identifies as a Hong Kong-based, Cayman Island-domiciled exchange that purportedly generated $14 billion daily–mostly from BTC-USDT perpetuals.

SimilarWeb, however, indicates that the exchange’s domain receives less than 10,000 monthly visitors–with 53% coming from Argentina alone. The discrepancies in volume versus traffic plus lack of regulatory credentials result in Forbes discounting this firm’s volume by 95% to $702 million.

As discussed above, BTC/USD and BTC/USDT are by far the biggest spot pairs for bitcoin, but there are a few other pairs worth mentioning. The next largest are BTC-KWR, BTC-JPY, BTC-USDC, and BTC-EUR. An exchange’s decision to offer base assets across bitcoin, especially when it comes to fiat, usually comes down to the local fiat currency used by an exchange’s client base. Each of the companies trading bitcoin against the won or yen are based in South Korea or Japan respectively.

USDC, by nature of its blockchain-based DNA, is easier to cross national-boundaries. Readers may notice that Kraken, Binance or Coinbase are not based in Europe, though they each have a series of licenses to operate in certain countries. They each offer euro trading as a way to onboard new users, but unlike the South Korea or Japan-based exchanges, the euro is not their most dominant base asset for trading.

However, while eight pairs by volume garner the majority of bitcoin volume, there are dozens of other varieties trading at obscure exchanges uncounted even in our present study. For example, it is difficult to find the amount of BTC-NGN (Nigerian naira) volume traded in Nigeria because crypto data firms like Nomics, CoinMarketCap and CoinGecko generally do not track it.

One can safely assume that local crypto exchanges not widely known outside of Nigeria capture most BTC-NGN liquidity, which is likely true for many other exchanges operating in emerging markets.

These observations are largely true when it comes to perpetual futures as well. However, the won and the yen do not appear to have gained significant market share in this area.Finally, when it comes to the traditional futures markets, such as those that offer regular monthly expirations, the only two pairs that seem to matter are BTC-USD and BTC-USDT.

Bitcoin may just be the beginning of the problem. If reported trading volumes for bitcoin, the most regulated and closely-watched crypto asset around the world, are untrustworthy, then metrics for even smaller assets should be taken with even greater grains of salt. At its best, trading volume is one of the most measurable signs of investor interest, but it can be easily manipulated to convince novice investors that it has much more demand than it actually does.

Binance remains the 800-lb elephant in the room. Even after a 45% discount on its volume, Binance still generates the equivalent of 27.3% of all “real” trading volume. There is no other crypto exchange that can match its market power, and it’s been that way for the past two years. That said, while Binance has been saying all of the right things about cooperating with regulators – it has started getting licenses around the world and is promising to announce a global headquarters – questions remain about its operational controls. Unless regulators can get comfortable with Binance’s legitimacy, it may be difficult to envision a spot ETF getting approved anytime soon.

Tether remains “Too Big To Fail” – for now: This study invites more questions about the true use and value of two of the largest stablecoins – USDT and BUSD. Say what you will about Tether, and people have, it has found product-market fit in a big way. But that is the exact problem in the minds of many so-called Tether Truthers, who do not believe that the $68 billion is actually backed by reserves. It is hard to imagine what would happen to markets if traders stopped trusting tether – and to be fair there is little evidence that this is happening – and none of its competitors were willing to take its place.

Areas For Future Study

The role of stablecoins in market manipulation. We did not see any evidence that tether-based trading pairs were any more prone to fraud than other assets. However, this area is worth looking into further, especially if tether begins to deviate again from its $1 peg or other algorithmic stablecoins begin to gain traction in large spot-market trading. An ostensibly stable base asset that has higher-than-expected volatility can always lead to both legitimate arbitrage opportunities as well as openings for fraud.

The potential of perpetual futures to be manipulated. Through our research, including first-person interviews with direct market participants, we did not see any evidence that perpetual futures are more prone to wash trading and other forms of manipulation than conventional futures or spot contracts. However, given the relatively novel nature of this product (it was created in 2016), as well as its dominance in crypto trading, it is well worth deeper study.

The future of DEXS in market manipulation. This report did not focus on decentralized exchanges (DEXs), in large part due to the fact that they are not major players in bitcoin trading. To the contrary, when it comes to spot markets most of the major players have separated themselves from the major centralized exchanges by specializing in novel ways to provide liquidity in long-tail assets that are not financially worthwhile for many traditional exchanges to offer.

That said, the market share of DEXs has slowly been creeping up to that of spot–there are even days where Uniswap, the largest DEX, has more trading volume than Coinbase.The Forbes methodology for discounting bitcoin trading volume follows a series of steps.

Regulation. We identify crypto licenses and from what regulatory body that each exchange possesses and use that as proxy to gauge their level of sophistication and intent to deter wash trades and publishing fake volume.

Third-party input. We considered the work of select third parties such as volume data from CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko, Nomics and Messari. Messari’s volume statistics are less extensive by pairs, and it has fewer exchanges than its peers, but it has its own real-volume calculations. Forbes tracked in recent months how Messari applied a volume discount ranging from 40% to 65% to Binance volume, compared with the averages reported by CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko and Nomics at the time.

Messari also discounts the trading volume of FTX by a lesser percentage (less than 20%) and that of Kraken by 99%. With regards to this latter, Forbes doesn’t share the view of applying a heavy discount to a firm that is among the most regulated crypto exchanges in the world. Most exchanges going through the Messari real volume analysis, however, lack any type of volume discount.

Web traffic. Forbes employs third-party data from web analytics firm SimilarWeb to heavily discount the volume of firms claiming a high trading volume without having sufficient crypto licenses and web traffic to generate such volume.

Forbes interviews. Forbes has conducted dozens of interviews of senior executives at major crypto exchanges to supplement quantitative information on a firm’s profile.

I write about digital assets trends and am a leading creator of the Forbes Digital Assets tools and functionality our viewers require. I support the generation of relevant, curated investor

Source: More Than Half Of All Bitcoin Trades Are Fake

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Over 50% of all Bitcoin trades on exchanges are fake, new analysis reveals Finance in Bold

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How Social Media Has Changed How We Consume News

It’s the age of “fake news” and gone are the days of waiting for the morning news for breaking stories or reading gossip magazines for the latest celebrity dirt. We now have all the information we need at the touch of an app and most people now get their news information online, specifically from social media.

Social media has become the main source of news online with more than 2.4 billion internet users, nearly 64.5 percent receive breaking news from Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Snapchat and Instagram instead of traditional media.

In a recent survey, 50 percent of Internet users surveyed said that they hear about the latest news via social media before ever hearing about it on a news station. Many internet users will see the breaking stories on their feed and go to the news sites to learn more. The survey found 57 percent increase in traffic to news sites referred from social media.

However, there has been a decrease in how much of an article that people read. Most people will just scroll through their newsfeed and stumble upon relevant news content but just read the headlines or a short video clip of the piece. An average visitor will only read an article for 15 seconds or less and the average video watch time online is 10 seconds.

However, social platforms have a control over what news and information we see. Our social media friends have become the “managing editors” deciding what we see. An article needs to be “liked” and shared multiple times before many people see it in their feed. Therefore social media and your social friends have control over what news pieces you see and what you do not.

There are also many “fake news” websites that compete for attention with sensational headlines and ridiculous storylines that tend to get shared more often due to the lack of readers fact checking or reading more than the headline. That means that authentic content is hard to come by now. In fact, fake news is actually more likely to spread than the truth.

Also, timely and sensational news does better like Buzzfeed who has 17.2 million subscribers. Content needs to be shareable and likable so often times it is overly exaggerated for social. Brands can pay more to appear in news feeds and get noticed. While syndication is nothing new, it is more prevalent in social media with so much information allowed to be given at once and 24/7.News happens fast now.

Today’s story will be tomorrow’s forgotten story. It is easy to miss things now because of how quick stories can get turned around and shared. While having so much information at our fingertips is great, it is worth always checking sources and not taking headlines as truth. With social media as our new news managers, it is up to us to be the new fact checkers for media.

Source: How Social Media Has Changed How We Consume News

Critics by MailChimp

When looking at what constitutes “fake news” and how it gets shared on social media, there are two kinds of false information to be aware of—misinformation and disinformation. Researchers at Indiana University found these two types of information often go viral because “information overload and users’ finite attention span limit the capacity of social media to discriminate information on the basis of quality.”

Because social media is a public platform, anyone—including news outlets—can post anything without being accountable for fact-checking. It’s left to users to distinguish misinformation vs. disinformation in their feeds.

What differentiates misinformation from disinformation is the intent of the person or outlet sharing it. In the previously cited study from Indiana University, misinformation is classified as “false or misleading content including hoaxes, conspiracy theories, fabricated reports, click-bait headlines, and even satire.” Misinformation is not deliberately intended to deceive. Instead, it aims to shape or change public opinion on a given topic.

Disinformation can be spread using many of the same tactics as misinformation—hoaxes, click-bait, fabricated reports. Disinformation is created to deceive. Chadwick and Vaccari’s study found that 24.8% of their respondents shared a news story they either thought was made up when they saw it or knew was exaggerated.

There are a variety of reasons that individuals’ social media accounts or even business accounts might spread disinformation. It could be to increase their social media marketing effectiveness, boost their online traffic, build more followers for their page or business, incite an emotional response, or create a distraction.

Disinformation can be dangerous on social media because, as previously mentioned, the sheer amount of information there and the length of readers’ attention spans can allow it to go unchecked.

Combating fake news on social media comes down to understanding the goals of fellow posters and of the platform itself. Social media platforms make money by selling user datato ad companies, which is why you’ll often see ads tailored to your interests or search history.

This is important to know for context. As an individual, being aware that the news you see on your feed is filtered based on previously collected data can help you be more conscious of your own inherent bias. If you represent a business using social media as a marketing platform, it’s important to keep your posts consistent with your brand, and share things on your timeline that build customer relationships, line up with your values, or showcase original content.

Fake news on social media may be unavoidable. But you can help stop the spread by thinking critically. Maintain a healthy level of curiosity for what you read on your feed, understand how social media platforms curate what you see, and use investigative practices often. Social media is a powerful tool, for both businesses and individuals, when approached with appropriate intent and consideration.

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