Apple And Google Are Hosting Fake Crypto Apps Designed To Defraud Investors


In recent years, apps that enable cryptocurrency fraud have popped up on Apple’s App Store and on Google Play. In some cases, they’re meant to spoof legitimate apps and trick users into giving up their login credentials, while others provide a medium to false exchange platforms. In either case, real people are getting their crypto stolen.

On Thursday, the chairman of the Senate Banking Committee sent nearly identical letters to Apple and Google, seeking explanations as to how these tech giants are evaluating and ultimately allowing these types of trading apps that seemingly enable cryptocurrency fraud. The letters came hours before the committee held a hearing on “scams and risks in crypto and securities markets.”

Neither Apple nor Google immediately responded to a request for comment, but both companies do not allow apps to impersonate bona fide apps or to engage in illegal or fraudulent activity. However, last month, Apple said it stopped nearly $1.5 billion in fraudulent transactions in 2021, and noted that its App Store is the “safest place to find and download apps.”

Chairman Sen. Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio), who authored the letters, noted that it is “imperative” that app stores have “proper safeguards” to mitigate fraud. The companies have until August 10 to respond.One such app, known as Metatrader 5, which is still available on both companies’ app stores, has been linked to alleged cryptocurrency scams.

Often, a scammer will begin to lure a victim through an unsolicited text message or a message on LinkedIn. Sometimes they start messaging a victim on a dating app. After engaging the person in conversation for a time, the scammer will usually direct their victim to buy cryptocurrency from a legitimate company, like Coinbase, and then instruct the victim to send it to a purported exchange mediated through an app like Metatrader.

There, the attacker can lure the victim into believing that they have made profits. However, when the victim tries to withdraw their money, they will ultimately find that they cannot do so. One California-based victim, whose identity Forbes is withholding at his request, said that after he lost $1.2 million late last year via a scam and purported trades made on Metatrader, he had suicidal thoughts.

“On my way to my parents’ house in San Francisco, I had this thought of ramming the car into a barrier and just let that be and let God decide whether I would live through this or I would die,” he told Forbes. Metatrader’s website lists no phone number for any of its offices around the globe. Forbes left a message on what appears to be its Cypriot headquarters voicemail and sent emails to multiple email addresses linked to the company. The company did not immediately respond.

Earlier this month, the FBI issued a formal warning to the public, noting that at least 244 victims had collectively lost $42.7 million through such fake apps. According to the Federal Trade Commission, related losses from romance scams, many carried out using online dating sites, have “skyrocketed” recently. Last year, reported losses reached an all-time high of $547 million. A subset of these romance scams involve cryptocurrency, and are sometimes known as “pig butchering” scams, in which victims are enticed to put in more and more money into a fraudulent crypto app—fattening them up—before the scammers abscond with vast sums of cryptocurrency.

The FTC also reported that in 2021, crypto payments to scammers jumped five-fold—reaching $139 million—between 2020 and 2021. Last month, the Global Anti-Scam Organization, an advocacy group, told Forbes that it is extremely rare for victims to be able to recover their lost funds. “I’ve talked to 50 people in the last six months,” said Arlo Kipfer, a Seattle attorney who has also consulted with scam victims on how to move forward. “The most heartbreaking thing is they bleed the victims dry—the odds of recovery are still low.”

I cover Silicon Valley — in particular surveillance technology and artificial intelligence — from beautiful Oakland,

Source: Apple And Google Are Hosting Fake Crypto Apps Designed To ‘Defraud Investors,’ Senator Says

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The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has issued a public warning about fraudulent cryptocurrency applications, which have swindled U.S. investors out of an estimated $42.7 million so far. According to an advisory published on Monday by the securities and intelligence agency, cybercriminals have created apps using the same logos and identifying information as legitimate crypto companies to defraud investors. The FBI noted that 244 people had already fallen victim to these fake apps.

One case saw cyber criminals convincing victims to download an app that used the same logo as an actual U.S. financial institution, encouraging them to deposit cryptocurrency into wallets purportedly related to their accounts. When victims attempted to withdraw from the app, they would be asked to pay taxes on their withdrawals. However, this was just another ruse to part more funds from victims, as even if they made the payments, the withdrawals would continue to be unavailable.

Around $3.7 million was defrauded from 28 victims between December 2021 and May 2022, said the FBI. Another similar operation saw cybercriminals operating under the company name “YiBit,” defrauding at least four victims of around $5.5 million between October 2021 and May 2022, using a similar method of deceit. A third case involved criminals operating under the name “Supay” in November 2021. They defrauded two victims by encouraging them to deposit cryptocurrency into their wallets on the app, which would then be frozen unless more funds were deposited.

Warnings about fraudulent apps have also made the rounds on Crypto Twitter. One user said a friend recently fell victim to a scam that started on the online messenger service WhatsApp, which encouraged the victim to download a fake crypto app and load funds into the app’s wallet. A week later, the crypto app vanished.

Another user says they have fallen victim to a fake Ledger Live crypto wallet app, reportedly called “Ledger Live Plus,” in the Microsoft app store. The user claims the fraudulent app has already stolen $20,000 from him.  Earlier this year, cybersecurity firm ESET uncovered a “sophisticated scheme” that would distribute Trojan applications disguised as popular cryptocurrency wallets. These applications would then attempt to steal crypto assets from their victims. 

Last year, a scam cryptocurrency app dressed up as a mobile Trezor app on Apple’s App Store reportedly led to one user losing $600,000 in Bitcoin (BTC) at the time. A report from the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in June 2022 found that as much as $1 billion in crypto has been lost to scammers since 2021, with nearly half of all crypto-related scams originating from social media platforms.

The FBI has recommended crypto investors be wary of unsolicited requests to download investment apps, verify an app (and the company) is legitimate, and treat apps with limited and/or broken functionality “with skepticism.”

Related contents:

Apple And Google Under U.S. Senate Scrutiny For Crypto App Fraud Bitcoinist.com

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Binance Disputes Claim Its Exchange Hosted $2.35 Billion In Laundered Illicit Funds

Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange, has processed transactions totaling at least $2.35 billion stemming from hacks, investment frauds and illegal drug sales, according to a Reuters investigation, published Monday. The data provided by Amsterdam-based analysis firm Crystal Blockchain showed that from 2017 to 2022 buyers and sellers on the world’s largest darknet drugs market, a Russian-language site called Hydra, used the exchange to make and receive payments worth $780 million.

Additionally, the German police said investigators began seeing criminals in Europe turn to Binance in 2020 to launder some of the proceeds from investment fraud schemes that caused victims, many of them pensioners, to lose a total of $750 million euros ($800 million).

The flow of illicit funds through the exchange represents a very small portion of Binance’s overall trading volume (over $9.5 trillion in 2021 according to The Block) but is still significant as regulators and policymakers, including U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and European Central Bank President Christine Lagarde, raise concerns over the illegal use of cryptocurrencies. The FTC last week reported that more than $1 billion had been illicitly obtained from crypto fraud and scams between January 2021 and March 2022.

Reuters has also revealed for the first time how North Korea’s hacking group Lazarus, which allegedly helps fund Pyongyang’s nuclear weapons program, used Binance to launder some $5.4 million of cryptocurrency stolen in September 2020 from Slovakian crypto exchange Eterbase. In January, Reuters reported that Binance has kept weak money-laundering checks on its users until mid-2021 despite concerns raised by senior company officials.

Binance’s chief communications officer Patrick Hillmann told Reuters in an email that Binance did not consider the news outlet’s calculation to be accurate. Hillmann reportedly said that the exchange uses transaction monitoring and risk assessments to “ensure that any illegal funds are tracked, frozen, recovered and/or returned to their rightful owner” and is working closely with law enforcement to disrupt criminal networks using cryptocurrencies, including in Russia.

In a statement to Forbes, Binance has called the report a “woefully misinformed op-ed that uses outdated information from 2019 and unverified personal attestations.” “The fact is that Binance has some of the strictest AML policies in the fintech industry and plays a significant leadership role in helping law enforcement deal with cyber and financial crime. Since the article ran, we have received an outpouring of support from partners in law enforcement across the globe,” a Binance spokesperson said.

Editor’s note: the story and headline were updated to reflect Binance’s response.

I report on cryptocurrencies and other applications of blockchain technology. I also edit the weekly Forbes Crypto Confidential newsletter

Source: Binance Disputes Claim Its Exchange Hosted $2.35 Billion In Laundered Illicit Funds

Critics by

Binance, the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange by volume, has disputed claims that it has acted as a vehicle for the laundering of at least $2.35 billion in illicit funds.

  • A Reuters report claimed that Binance has become a “hub for hackers, fraudsters and drug traffickers” with strong links to Russia-based dark web market Hydra.
  • Matthew Price, Binance’s senior director of investigations who was the lead investigator on Hydra when he worked at the IRS criminal investigation, told CoinDesk: “What I think is very skewed in this report is that every exchange has exposure to dark net markets.”
  • Tigran Gambaryan, the exchange’s global head of intelligence who also worked at the IRS’ cyber crimes unit, added: “It’s something that completely disregards facts to get an agenda across.”
  • “The biggest part of this story is completely ignored. You can’t control deposits, you can only control what you can do afterwards,” Gambaryan added.
  • Price and Gambaryan said that Binance has a stringent process in place that handles exposure to fraud, dark net markets and scams using blockchain analytics software provided by Chainalysis and Elliptic.
  • “There is a system in place. We do have risk scoring for everything you can think of. We have everything tagged internally based on our tools, then we are able to do post-transaction monitoring with Chainalysis,” Gambaryan noted.
  • Binance published 50 pages of email exchanges between its intelligence team and Reuters, in which it comments on recovering $5.8 million from the Ronin hack, as well as its assistance in multiple fraud cases.
  • The email exchange reiterates that the reporter was confusing “indirect” exposure to dark net markets and “direct exposure.”
  • Data from Chainalysis reveals that 0.15% of all cryptocurrency transactions in 2021 were associated with illicit activity, while the U.N. estimates that between 2% and 5% of fiat currency is linked to some form of criminal activity.

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Scammers Have a New Way to Phish for Bank Account Information, Banker Says

A new phishing scam is hitting banking customers—and this time, the scammers make it seem like their messages are coming from the real customer service line or fraud prevention hotline.

The scam was revealed by wrestling announcer Lenny Leonard, who says that when he’s not calling body slams and sleeper holds, he’s a “mid-level executive with a very large financial institution.” In a Twitter thread, he details the new scam and how not to fall for it.

Leonard warned on Thursday that he had been called by a scammer who had spoofed the legitimate phone number to his bank. The scammer then sent a fraud alert using this number, asking if he recognized a certain charge.

In Leonard’s case, he says that when he told the scammer that he’d have to call them back, the scammer told him to look at the back of his debit card to confirm that they were calling from the same number. After telling off the scammer, Leonard says he called his bank and, sure enough, no legitimate alert had been sent, nor had any unusual activity been seen on his account.

Leonard told his followers how to not fall for the scam.

“If you EVER have someone CALL YOU and say they are your bank, do NOT provide any information like that over the phone on an INBOUND CALL,” he wrote. “Tell them you need to call them back & make sure you are dialing the number on the back of your card NOT a # they give you”.

“I would just urge everyone to make sure they are sharing this with their less tech savvy friends and family because the text I got looked EXACTLY like a prior text I had gotten from the bank my account is with,” Leonard told Newsweek.

A representative from Chase also confirmed that the company was familiar with the scam.

“Unfortunately, scammers target consumers from many banks. We urge all consumers to never share their banking passwords or send money to someone who tells them that doing so will prevent fraud on their account. Bank employees won’t call, text or email consumers asking for this information, but scammers will,” Amy Bonitatibus, Chase’s chief communications officer, told Newsweek.

While spoofing a phone number is common with scammers, often it’s a fake number as well, though Western Bank warns their customers that fake calls can come from a number they recognize.

The bank also lists a variation on the scam Leonard warns of. In the version Western Bank describes, a scammer spoofs the legitimate customer service number of the bank, like before. But this time, anticipating a response like Leonard’s, the scammer will ask the victim to call them back using the same number that’s on the back of the debit card—which is the same as the one they’re spoofing.

In this variation, though, they’ll leave the phone connection active, fooling the victim with a fake dial tone. Once the victim dials, the scammer “answers,” in hopes that the victim will be fooled into thinking the scammer is indeed a legitimate employee.

One way to thwart this is to remember that a real bank employee will already have your information. Never offer up important information like a bank account number. Instead, ask the bank employee if you can confirm their information by asking them to read off what they have.

In addition, banks will never ask for a PIN, a full Social Security number or a customer’s online banking username and password. Banks already have access to customers’ accounts, and when it comes to Social Security numbers, a legit bank employee will only ask for the last four digits to confirm.

By

Source: Scammers Have a New Way to Phish for Bank Account Information, Banker Says

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How ‘The Tinder Swindler’ Made This Woman Realize She Was Being Scammed

Phishing for phishing awareness”. Behaviour & Information Technology. 32 (6): 584–593. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2011.632650. ISSN 0144-929X. S2CID 5472217.

Phishing attacks and countermeasures”. In Stamp, Mark; Stavroulakis, Peter (eds.). Handbook of Information and Communication Security. Springer. ISBN 978-3-642-04117-4.

Internet Crime Report 2020″ (PDF). FBI Internet Crime Complaint Centre. U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 21 March 2021.

The Phishing Guide: Understanding and Preventing Phishing Attacks”. Technical Info. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2006-07-10.

The Big Phish: Cyberattacks Against U.S. Healthcare Systems”. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 31 (10): 1115–8. 2005). “A Leet Primer”. TechNewsWorld.

Security Usability Principles for Vulnerability Analysis and Risk Assessment”. Proceedings of the Annual Computer Security Applications Conference 2007 (ACSAC’07). Archived from the original on 2021-03-21. Retrieved 2020-11-11.

Susceptibility to Spear-Phishing Emails: Effects of Internet User Demographics and Email Content”. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 26 (5): 32.

Data Breach Investigations Report” (PDF). PhishingBox. Verizon Communications. Retrieved 21 March 2021.

Fifteen years of phishing: can technology save us?”. Computer Fraud & Security. 2019 (7): 11–16. doi:10.1016/S1361-3723(19)30074-0. S2CID 199578115. Retrieved 21 March 2021.

The Black Market for Netflix Accounts”. The Atlantic. Retrieved 21 March 2021.

Spear Phishing: Who’s Getting Caught?”. Firmex. Archived from the original on 2014-08-11. Retrieved July 27, 2014.

Hacking Gets Personal: Belgian Cryptographer Targeted”. Info Security magazine. 3 February 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2018.

RSA explains how attackers breached its systems”. The Register. Retrieved 10 September 2018.

Epsilon breach used four-month-old attack”. itnews.com.au. Retrieved 10 September 2018.

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How the Russians hacked the DNC and passed its emails to WikiLeaks”

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Why Jack Dorsey’s First-Tweet NFT Plummeted 99% In Value In A Year

In December 2020, Jack Dorsey created a non-fungible token (NFT) out of his first-ever Twitter post. He turned a static image of a five-word tweet into a digital file stored on a blockchain, and voila, an NFT was born. A few months later, the image sold for a stunning $2.9 million. Yet in an auction this past week, no one bid more than $280 for it. And even current bids on OpenSea only amount to about $10,000, a 99% drop in value. What happened?

Dorsey’s NFT initially garnered little interest, with some people bidding a few thousand dollars in December 2020—a time when NFTs still had few believers. But in March 2021, the market entered hype mode, with monthly sales on OpenSea jumping to nearly $150 million, up from just $8 million two months prior.

Iranian crypto entrepreneur Sina Estavi got swept up in the frenzy, buying Dorsey’s NFT for $2.9 million. He tells Forbes he paid such a hefty sum due to the NFT’s uniqueness and association with such a valuable company as Twitter.

While you could argue that Dorsey’s first-tweet NFT has historical significance, the $2.9 million price tag is nearly impossible to justify. The bubble price Estavi paid epitomizes the greater fool theory at work. “What is the utility of that NFT?

Does Jack Dorsey take you out to dinner in Silicon Valley?” says Mitch Lacsamana, an NFT collector and head of marketing for an NFT trading group. “What is the real value proposition here? I think time has probably told us, and it’s probably nothing.”

On April 5, Estavi put the NFT up for auction for 14,969 ether, or about $50 million. Embarrassingly, no one bid more than $280. Estavi says “no one knows” why the bids came in so low. It seems that few people took it seriously. “Bidders just realized what it was–a publicity stunt. A way to get exposure,” says Blake Moser, an NFT collector who has nearly 400 NFTs. “I do think Sina Estavi accomplished what he was looking for–exposure to his NFT.”

Estavi has indeed gotten attention, but he seems severely out of touch with the rapidly changing NFT market. “The market isn’t ready to jump into literally anything that a celebrity or someone of high stature might release,” Lacsamana says. “I think last year was a really good time for that, but a lot of people have grown weary of cash-grab tactics.”

While the failed auction shows that NFT hype has waned, the market is still very active, with trading volume hovering between $2 to $3 billion a month on OpenSea, up from $150 million a year ago. Prices for some NFT collections like the Bored Ape Yacht Club remain near all-time highs.

Estavi’s NFT saga seems to be a case of an ill-advised $2.9 million purchase, buyer’s remorse and a new bid for attention. Estavi himself has a sketchy history. His startup, Oracle Bridge, says it will allow blockchain platforms to ingest data more easily, but today it seems to be little more than a white paper.

Estavi also claims he was arrested last year in Iran and had to shut down the company for nine months while he was in prison. “They accused me of disrupting the economic system,” he says vaguely. Now he’s trying to start the company up again. Over the past day, bids for the Dorsey tweet NFT have risen to about $10,000. Estavi says he won’t sell for anything less than $50 million.

I lead our fintech coverage at Forbes and also cover crypto. I edit our annual Fintech 50 and 30 Under 30 for fintech, and I’ve written frequently about leadership and corporate

Source: Why Jack Dorsey’s First-Tweet NFT Plummeted 99% In Value In A Year

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Critics: By:

NFTs are traded in NFT marketplaces, which have structured platforms like eBay’s. Most NFTs are sold via auctions, although some sell at fixed prices. Some marketplaces specialize in a type of NFTs, e.g., art, games, sports, whereas others sell everything.

If you wish to create a new NFT (called minting) you can do so through any of the marketplaces. The largest marketplace is OpenSea, which in 2021 had about a 90% market share by dollar trading volume across marketplaces. 

There are fees for creating and trading NFTs, from upfront account setup fees and minting fees to sales fees. If you are going to create or trade NFTs, make sure you know a marketplace’s fee structure. To get a sense of fees collected, OpenSea collected about 8% of its sales volume in fees in January.

There may also be royalty fees (usually 10-30% of the sales price) that go to the original creator of an NFT every time a transaction in that NFT takes place. 

Through 2021, the top ten NFT collections had over $15 billion in historical trading value and around a 60% share of the total NFT market. The dominance of a few collections in the market is most likely due to a preference by NFT speculators to trade within collections. It is easier to value an NFT from a collection because there are other NFTs to compare it to.

It follows that, of the money a minority of traders make speculating in NFTs, most of it is from trading within collections. Clearly, informed traders know where the money is, but it is hard to believe that the market can absorb as many collections as there are today: 3,264, up from 193 a year ago. At some point, having so many collections defeats their purpose.

The evidence from the previous study is clear: most NFT speculative traders do not earn a positive return. From an investing perspective the results are unfortunate, but not surprising. Another aspect of trading in NFTs is that fraud within the NFT ecosystem is said to be rampant. The potential for “bad actors” to engage in nefarious selling and trading of NFTs (including counterfeit tokens or assets they don’t actually own) was described as a “contagion” by the CEO of one NFT platform.

The result is a situation where your NFT purchase could end up being worthless. Combining the difficulty of earning a positive return and the inherent risks, NFT trading is not a good proposition, so stay away. They have all the signs of being an investing fad that will likely pass.

More Contents:

Jump Trading Replaces Stolen Wormhole Funds After $320M Crypto Hack

The cryptocurrency arm of Jump Trading said on Thursday it had restored more than $320 million to crypto platform Wormhole after the decentralized finance site was hit with one of the largest crypto heists on record.

In a tweet, Jump Crypto said they chose to replace the stolen money “to make community members whole and support Wormhole now as it continues to develop.”

Chicago-based Jump Trading acquired Certus One, the developer behind Wormhole, in August.

Wormhole, an online platform that allows the transfer of information across crypto networks, said on Wednesday it had been “exploited” for 120,000 digital tokens connected to the second-largest cryptocurrency, ether.

At the time of its announcement, the market value of the tokens was just over $320 million.

The cryptocurrency arm of Jump Trading said on Thursday it had restored more than $320 million to crypto platform Wormhole after the decentralized finance site was hit with one of the largest crypto heists on record. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration

maxslides-768x101-1The theft was the latest to hit the fast-growing but mostly unregulated DeFi sector. DeFi platforms allow users to lend, borrow and save – usually in crypto – while bypassing traditional gatekeepers of finance such as banks.

“All funds have been restored and Wormhole is back up,” the platform said on Twitter after earlier saying on its Telegram channel that “all funds are safe.”

London-based blockchain analysis firm Elliptic said that attackers were able to fraudulently create the wETH tokens, almost 94,000 of which were later transferred to the ethereum blockchain, which powers transactions for ether.

Elliptic added that Wormhole has offered the attacker a $10 million “bounty” to return the funds, citing messages embedded within ether transactions sent to the attacker’s digital address.

MAJOR HACKING RISK

Cash has poured into DeFi sites, mirroring the explosion of interest in cryptocurrencies as a whole. Many investors, facing historically low or sub-zero interest rates, are drawn to DeFi by the promise of high returns on savings.

adaleadzYet with their breakneck growth, DeFi platforms have emerged as a major hacking risk, with bugs in code and design flaws allowing criminals to target DeFi sites and deep pools of liquidity, and also to launder the proceeds of crime, while leaving few traces.

Fraud and theft at DeFi platforms surpassed $10 billion last year, research by Elliptic shows, laying bare the risks in the fast-growing but mostly unregulated area of cryptocurrencies.

Last August, hackers behind likely the biggest ever digital coin heist returned nearly all of the $610 million-plus they stole from the DeFi site Poly Network.

Hacks have long plagued crypto platforms. In 2018, digital tokens worth some $530 million were stolen from Tokyo-based platform Coincheck. Mt. Gox, another Japanese exchange, collapsed in 2014 after hackers stole half a billion dollars of crypto.

Source: Jump Trading replaces stolen Wormhole funds after $320M crypto hack | Fox Business

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genesis-768x148-1-1More contents:

Tallinn, Hacking, and Customary International Law”. AJIL Unbound. 111: 224–228. doi:10.1017/aju.2017.59. S2CID 158071009.

Searching Places Unknown: Law Enforcement Jurisdiction on the Dark Web”. Stanford Law Review. 69 (4): 1075.

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. 1984.

Internet Users’ Glossary”. Archived from the original on 2016-06-05.RFC 1983

In ’95, these people defined tech: Gates, Bezos, Mitnick and more”. CNET. Archived from the original on 28 May 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2020.

A Short History of “Hack””. The New Yorker. Retrieved November 3, 2015.

“Internet Users’ Glossary”. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16.RFC 1392

eyeslick-1-1024x116-1-768x87-1EDN – ‘Hacker’ is used by mainstream media, September 5, 1983″. EDN. Retrieved 2020-09-07.

A who’s who of hackers”. Reporter. Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on June 19, 2011. Retrieved 19 June 2011.

TMRC site”. Archived from the original on 2006-05-03.

Antedating of “Hacker” Archived 2007-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. American Dialect Society Mailing List (13. June 2003)

The Origin of “Hacker””. April 1, 2008.

Happy 60th Birthday to the Word “Hack””. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.

Raymond, Eric (25 August 2000). “The Early Hackers”. A Brief History of Hackerdom. Thyrsus Enterprises. Retrieved 6 December 2008.

prrage2What are crackers and hackers? | Security News”. http://www.pctools.com. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2016-09-10.

Reflections on Trusting Trust” (PDF). Communications of the ACM. 27 (8): 761. doi:10.1145/358198.358210. S2CID 34854438.

The Hacker Community and Ethics: An Interview with Richard M. Stallman”. GNU Project. Retrieved

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