What Is Creatine? Understanding Its Benefits And Side Effects

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A lot of creatine experts are sick of the way we talk about creatine. Some are tired of cotton candy-flavored energy drinks hawking “super creatine” on neon cans, protein bars infused with the supplement, social media posts confusing creatine with steroids. Others are tired of the slew of “before and after” TikToks in which trim young men show off bulging muscles after a handful of weeks taking the supplement, or women display rippling abs they attribute only to the powder.

“I don’t know why people make up things about this particular supplement,” said Jose Antonio, an associate professor of health and human performance at Nova Southeastern University in Florida who has studied creatine. The world of creatine is rife with misinformation, he said, in spite of the large — and growing — body of evidence that the supplement can improve short bursts of athletic performance and enhance muscle mass.

Is the powder a miracle workout supplement, or is the hype overblown? Here’s what to know.

Creatine is formed in the body from compounds similar to amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. It serves as a type of fuel for your skeletal muscles, and can promote muscle growth when paired with exercise. It’s produced in the liver and kidneys, but you likely get creatine through your diet, too — red meat, fish and chicken contain it.

Throughout the day, your body naturally replenishes creatine in your muscles, but supplements can help “top up the tank,” said Eric Rawson, a health, nutrition and exercise science professor at Messiah University in Pennsylvania.

Creatine monohydrate — the form of creatine typically found in commercial powders — has been rigorously studied. “There’s probably more data on creatine monohydrate than any other supplement in existence,” Dr. Antonio said.

Creatine has specific, focused benefits for exercisers. The supplement can power you through short bursts of activity, like lifting a weight or dashing through a short race. If you’re in the middle of a Peloton workout, for instance, you might be able to increase your speed for a sprint, said David Creel, an exercise physiologist and a psychologist and dietitian in the Bariatric and Metabolic Institute at the Cleveland Clinic.

But the effect is usually small. Creatine makes the most sense for certain competitive athletes eager for a split-second advantage, said Samantha Heller, a senior clinical nutritionist at N.Y.U. Langone Health. “For your average gym-goer, someone who’s a cyclist, someone who plays soccer on the weekends — they don’t need this,” she said.

Scientists have studied creatine and exercise performance since the early ‘90s. A recent review of 35 studies found that creatine supplementation, combined with resistance training, increased lean body mass — the body’s weight, minus fat — by more than two pounds in adults, regardless of age. The difference is small, but significant, although men reported higher gains than women. Vegetarians and vegans are more likely to have a larger response to the supplements, since they don’t get as much creatine in their diets, Dr. Rawson said.

Creatine may provide a small boost in muscle mass, but “whether it’s a 2 or 3 or 4 percent gain, no dietary supplements compare to proper training and sleep and nutrition habits,” Dr. Rawson said. Still, the increase could have a notable effect on older adults in particular, he said. “A very, very small improvement in strength could be the difference between a fall and not a fall.”

And emerging research suggests that creatine could have cognitive benefits, potentially enhancing memory and attenuating symptoms of concussions or traumatic brain injuries, although that data is much more limited than studies on creatine and muscular fitness.

“There really doesn’t appear to be any major hazards to it, which is kind of unique for a supplement,” said Dr. Creel. People who take the supplement, especially in large quantities, might experience some gastrointestinal distress, said Ms. Heller. People may also bloat or experience weight gain.

There are some claims floating around social media that creatine causes hair loss, but doctors said there was not significant research to verify that. And you won’t get any kind of high from creatine — it’s not like the jolt of energy you get from downing an espresso, Dr. Creel said.

The supplement is popular with teenagers, but there isn’t data on prolonged long-term use, especially in people who are still growing, said Dr. Pieter Cohen, an associate professor of medicine at the Cambridge Health Alliance, who studies supplements. Out of an abundance of caution, he suggested that teens refrain from using the supplement.

As with any supplement, you should talk to your primary care doctor before you start taking creatine. And just like other dietary supplements you can pull off the shelves, creatine is not tested by the Food and Drug Administration, said Dr. Cohen. That means there’s no guarantee that a powder you’re buying actually contains the amount of creatine it claims, or even any at all. The Department of Defense’s Operation Supplement Safety program recommends four third-party companies that test and evaluate dietary supplements, which you can use to ensure you’re really getting creatine. 

You should also stick with the recommended dose, which is usually around three to five grams per day. There isn’t substantial data for how long people can safely take the supplement beyond five years.It’s also important to come up with specific goals before taking the supplement, Dr. Cohen said, and to determine what the pill or powder could actually help you achieve — keeping in mind that it’s not a guaranteed ticket to building muscle. “People think creatine’s a steroid,” Dr. Antonio said. “That’s like saying water is fire.”

Source: What is Creatine? Understanding its Benefits and Side Effects – The New York Times

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Critics to Creatine:

Creatine was first identified in 1832 when Michel Eugène Chevreul isolated it from the basified water-extract of skeletal muscle. He later named the crystallized precipitate after the Greek word for meat, κρέας (kreas). In 1928, creatine was shown to exist in equilibrium with creatinine.[3] Studies in the 1920s showed that consumption of large amounts of creatine did not result in its excretion. This result pointed to the ability of the body to store creatine, which in turn suggested its use as a dietary supplement.[4]

In 1912, Harvard University researchers Otto Folin and Willey Glover Denis found evidence that ingesting creatine can dramatically boost the creatine content of the muscle.[5][non-primary source needed] In the late 1920s, after finding that the intramuscular stores of creatine can be increased by ingesting creatine in larger than normal amounts, scientists discovered phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate), and determined that creatine is a key player in the metabolism of skeletal muscle. The substance creatine is naturally formed in vertebrates.[6]

The discovery of phosphocreatine[7][8] was reported in 1927.[9][10][8] In the 1960s, creatine kinase (CK) was shown to phosphorylate ADP using phosphocreatine (PCr) to generate ATP. It follows that ATP, not PCr is directly consumed in muscle contraction. CK uses creatine to “buffer” the ATP/ADP ratio.[11]

While creatine’s influence on physical performance has been well documented since the early twentieth century, it came into public view following the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona. An August 7, 1992 article in The Times reported that Linford Christie, the gold medal winner at 100 meters, had used creatine before the Olympics. An article in Bodybuilding Monthly named Sally Gunnell, who was the gold medalist in the 400-meter hurdles, as another creatine user. In addition, The Times also noted that 100 meter hurdler Colin Jackson began taking creatine before the Olympics.

At the time, low-potency creatine supplements were available in Britain, but creatine supplements designed for strength enhancement were not commercially available until 1993 when a company called Experimental and Applied Sciences (EAS) introduced the compound to the sports nutrition market under the name Phosphagen.[14] Research performed thereafter demonstrated that the consumption of high glycemic carbohydrates in conjunction with creatine increases creatine muscle stores.

Creatine is a naturally occurring non-protein compound and the primary constituent of phosphocreatine, which is used to regenerate ATP within the cell. 95% of the human body’s total creatine and phosphocreatine stores are found in skeletal muscle, while the remainder is distributed in the blood, brain, testes, and other tissues. The typical creatine content of skeletal muscle (as both creatine and phosphocreatine) is 120 mmol per kilogram of dry muscle mass, but can reach up to 160 mmol/kg through supplementation.

Approximately 1–2% of intramuscular creatine is degraded per day and an individual would need about 1–3 grams of creatine per day to maintain average (unsupplemented) creatine storage.[18][19][20] An omnivorous diet provides roughly half of this value, with the remainder synthesized in the liver and kidneys.

Creatine is not an essential nutrient. It is an amino acid derivative, naturally produced in the human body from the amino acids glycine and arginine, with an additional requirement for S-Adenosyl methionine (a derivative of methionine) to catalyze the transformation of guanidinoacetate to creatine. In the first step of the biosynthesis, the enzyme arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT, EC:2.1.4.1) mediates the reaction of glycine and arginine to form guanidinoacetate.

This product is then methylated by guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT, EC:2.1.1.2), using S-adenosyl methionine as the methyl donor. Creatine itself can be phosphorylated by creatine kinase to form phosphocreatine, which is used as an energy buffer in skeletal muscles and the brain. A cyclic form of creatine, called creatinine, exists in equilibrium with its tautomer and with creatine.

Related contents:

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Pilates: Research Shows How This Low-Impact Workout Can Benefit Your Health

Pilates has seen a jump in popularity recently thanks to a spate of celebrity endorsements, including the Kardashians, model Hailey Bieber and actress Kate Hudson. Even elite athletes such as Cristiano Ronaldo and Andy Murray incorporate some form of pilates into their training to improve performance.

Pilates is said to be good for your balance, posture, strength and flexibility, as well as improving your core strength. And the best part about it is that anyone can do it, not just celebrities and athletes. But does research show that it’s as good for your health as many people claim?

There are two main types of pilates. The simplest is mat pilates – which you only need a yoga mat to do, and can be done both at home or in a class. The other type of pilates (which is becoming increasingly popular) is reformer pilates. This uses a specialised apparatus (called a reformer) – a bed-like frame with a flat platform on it.

The platform moves forward and backwards on wheels within the frame. The platform is attached to one end of the frame by springs and these produce tension. Most reformer pilates involves pushing or pulling the platform, or holding it steady as it’s pulled on by the strings. This movement engages several muscles – particularly the core.

What the evidence says

Pilates is a form of muscle strengthening exercise, which is well-known to be important for maintaining good health. Strength training is important as it helps us prevent the slow muscle deterioration that occurs as we get older. It also increases muscle mass, which can in turn increase metabolism – which is important for maintaining a healthy weight.

There’s some evidence that doing eight weeks of pilates for one hour a day, four times a week can increase metabolism and reduce obesity in obese women. In older adults, a review of research showed pilates training improved balance and helped prevent falls.

Another study even showed that inactive women who began performing only one hour of pilates a week for ten weeks had improved muscle mass, flexibility, balance and core strength. Research also shows that pilates may even be used to treat low back pain and improve balance in adults with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s’s disease.

The evidence shows us that pilates can certainly lead to several health benefits. While more intense types of strength training – such as weight lifting – are likely to confer even greater benefits, pilates can still be a great way for people to control their weight and build strength. The best part about it is that this workout can be done by almost anyone anywhere, and doesn’t require a lot of equipment or a gym membership.

Reformer v mat pilates

Among people who do pilates, there’s a lot of discussion about which type is superior: mat or reformer pilates.There’s actually little research out there comparing the two types. One study looking at the treatment of low back pain found that both reformer pilates and mat pilates worked equally well to improve back pain in people who did the workout for six weeks.

Both types also equally improved people’s ability to undertake daily activities, such as getting out of bed or doing the dishes. But when participants were followed up four and a half months later, the reformer pilates group continued to experience improvements in their daily life compared to the mat pilates group.

Another study from Brazil also showed both reformer pilates and mat pilates used the same number of muscles and activated them to the same extent – suggesting there’s no difference between the two methods, and that both are equally effective. But this conflicts with the findings of another study, which showed reformer pilates caused people to burn more calories (2.6 calories per minute) than mat Pilates (1.9 calories per minute).

The reason for the slight differences between these two types of pilates comes down to how they’re performed. While mat pilates uses your body weight as resistance during the movements, reformer pilates uses the unstable platform and springs to create resistance. This might create greater resistance and activate more muscles. Though this wasn’t supported by the Brazilian study, they only looked at one movement, so more research is needed.

Although research can’t quite agree on whether mat pilates or reformer pilates is better for you, that doesn’t mean that reformer pilates isn’t still great for your health. For example, one study showed that people who did reformer pilates for nine weeks had improved cholesterol levels and lower insulin resistance, suggesting that it can help maintain weight and lower the risk of certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.

As you can see, pilates is becoming popular for good reason as it provides many health benefits. People of all ages and abilities can do it, including pregnant women. How you decide to do it is entirely up to you, but if you have health difficulties or are pregnant, you may want to consult your doctor first.

By:

Source: Pilates: research shows how this low-impact workout can benefit your health

Critics by Eun-Ju Lim and Eun-Jung Hyun

This study investigates whether Pilates and yoga lead people to adopt generally health-promoting lifestyle elements and feel better about their physical and mental fitness. To this end, we designed an 8 week exercise program of Pilates and yoga reviewed by veteran practitioners and conducted an experimental study through which we collected the data from 90 volunteered adult subjects between ages 30 and 49 (mean age = 35.47), equally represented by women and men without previous experience with Pilates or yoga.

In the 8 week long experiment, we assigned the subjects to three groups, where subjects in the two exercise groups regularly took part in either Pilates or yoga classes, and the control group participated in neither exercise classes. All participants completed two surveys, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP II) and the Health Self-Rating Scale (HSRS), before and after their assigned program. In our analysis of pre- and post-treatment differences across the three groups, we ran ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Sheffé test, implemented using SPSS PASW Statistics 18.00.

Our results indicate that Pilates and yoga groups exhibited a higher engagement in health-promoting behaviors than the control group after the program. Subjective health status, measured with HSRS, also improved significantly among Pilates and yoga participants compared to those in the control group after the program. The supplementary analysis finds no significant gender-based difference in these impacts.

Overall, our results confirm that Pilates and yoga help recruit health-promoting behaviors in participants and engender positive beliefs about their subjective health status, thereby setting a positive reinforcement cycle in motion. By providing clear evidence that the promotion of Pilates or yoga can serve as an effective intervention strategy that helps individuals change behaviors adverse to their health, this study offers practical implications for healthcare professionals and public health officials alike.

Among many kinds of physical activity programs, it is noteworthy that Pilates and yoga have gained increasing popularity amongst the general public over the past two decades. Pilates and yoga are particularly appealing due to their direct benefits on physical wellbeing—including weight control and improved posture, flexibility, and cardiovascular function—that come with low risks of sports-related injuries

. According to an annual survey conducted by IDEA(International Dance Exercise Association) Fitness Programs and Equipment Survey in 2007, Pilates ranked sixth on the most frequently offered exercise programs, a vast improvement since 1999 . In the same year, yoga also ranked 13th, although its position has undergone gradual declines from its peak in 2002. In annual Fitness Trends Surveys carried out by a United States (US)-based association of Sports Medicine, Pilates and yoga have been frequently listed as Worldwide Fitness Trends since 2008.

Evidence of the direct health benefits of Pilates and yoga is growing. For example, some studies showed that regular engagement in Pilates is associated with a boost in functional autonomy, balance, flexibility, and muscle strength . Other studies show that regular yoga participation helped individuals alleviate muscle-related pains, especially among adults with sedentary lifestyles or suffering from chronic illnesses

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How To Avoid The Most Common Workout Injuries, According To Experts

A good rule of thumb: Don’t increase your workout volume more than 10% per week. And every four to eight weeks, give your body a rest by significantly reducing the volume and intensity of your workouts. “This ‘three steps forward, one step back’ approach requires discipline and isn’t always fun,” Matthews said, “but it’s the best way to make your body more resilient and durable.”Cross-training is another good idea, which the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons endorses. Since your body’s soft tissues are working in different ways or even resting when you bike versus swim or play tennis, it’s an easy preventive measure.

Diet, stress, sleep may increase risk, too

Avoiding soft tissue injuries isn’t necessarily all about training, however. Research suggests major changes in your environment may affect your risk of injury, too, Cheatham said, such as poor nutrition, stress and lack of sleep. Cheatham is also a member of the National Academy of Sports Medicine Scientific Advisory Board. If you get less than seven hours of sleep at night for more than two weeks, your risk of musculoskeletal injury rises 1.7 times, found a 2021 study published in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports. So eat well, get plenty of sleep and perhaps skip tough workouts when your stress levels are high.

And what about stretching? Stretching, warm-ups, a post-workout meal and other practices have long been touted to help avoid injury, yet there is no evidence to support these moves, Matthews said. Still, developing a strong core is always helpful, said physical therapist Aime Maranan, owner of Skillz Physical Therapy in Evanston, Illinois.”If the muscles in your core aren’t strong enough to withstand hours of training, their strength will go down, then the stability of the spine will go down, and then your nerves and soft tissues will be irritated,” she said. “It’s a domino effect.”

Core exercises such as the plank are good, she said, or holding the tabletop position, where you lie on your back with your hips and knees at a 90-degree angle. The quadruped is valuable, too. This exercise involves getting onto your hands and knees, contracting your core, then alternating an extension of your right arm and left leg with an extension of your left arm and right leg. Yet these exercises have to be performed properly, or ironically, they could cause a soft issue injury. So consult with a professional before doing them on your own to ensure proper form. This could be your physical therapist, chiropractor, personal trainer or fitness instructor.

Take any injuries seriously

If you do get injured despite your best precautions, take it seriously. “Even when people realize they have a soft tissue injury, they often carry on with their program and whistle past the graveyard, hoping it gets better with time,” Matthews said. “More often than not, it just gets worse and worse until it hurts badly enough that the person simply can’t train due to the pain.”Instead of ignoring that muscle or ligament strain, see a qualified health care provider and expect to spend a few weeks to a month or more recovering, depending on the severity of the injury, your age and other factors. Most importantly, complete your entire rehabilitation process so another injury doesn’t occur, Cheatham said. No stopping the minute you start feeling a little better.

A positive mindset is also key to a speedy recovery. “If you think you will not get any better, you will not get any better. If you think you will get injured again, you will get injured again,” Maranan said. “It starts with your mindset, then religiously doing your home exercises and your post-exercise recovery routine.” And remember, stay mindful to stay true to form.

By: Melanie Radzicki McManus

Source: How to avoid the most common workout injuries, according to experts – CNN

Critics:

Nearly two million people every year suffer sports-related injuries and receive treatment in emergency departments. Fatigue is a large contributing factor that results in many sport injuries. There are times where an athlete may participate on low energy leading to the deterioration in technique or form, resulting in a slower reaction time, loss in stability of muscle joints, and allowing an injury to occur.

For both sexes the most common areas injured are the knee and ankle, with sprains/strains being the most common areas for injury. Injuries involving the patellofemoral articulation are significantly more frequent among females. The sport with the highest injury rate in the United States is American football, with greater than 12 times the number of injuries seen in the next most common sport.

Soft tissue injuries

When soft tissue experiences trauma the dead and damaged cells release chemicals, which initiate an inflammatory response. The small blood vessels that are damaged become dilated which produce bleeding within the tissue. The body’s normal response includes forming a small blood clot in order to stop the bleeding and allows a clot of special cells, called fibroblasts, to form. This begins the healing process by laying down scar tissue.

Therefore, the inflammatory stage is the first phase of healing. However, too much of an inflammatory response in the early stage can indicate that the healing process takes longer and a return to activity is delayed. Sports injury treatments are intended to minimize the inflammatory phase of an injury, so that the overall healing process is accelerated. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors are determinant for the healing process.

Soft tissue injuries can be generally grouped into three categories: contusions, abrasions and lacerations. Contusions or bruises are the simplest and most common soft tissue injury and is usually a result of blunt force trauma. Severe contusions may involve deeper structures and can include nerve or vascular injury. Abrasions are superficial injuries to the skin no deeper than the epidermis tissue layer, and bleeding, if present, is minimal.

Minor abrasions generally do not scar, but deeper abrasions generally bleed and may scar. Lastly, sports-related lacerations are caused by blunt trauma and result in burst-type open wounds, often with jagged irregular edges. Facial lacerations are the most variable of the soft tissue injuries that athletes can sustain. They can occur intraorally and extraorally, vary from a superficial skin nick to a through and through lip laceration, or involve significant vascular disruption or injury to collateral vital structures.

Hard tissue injuries

Types of hard tissue injuries can include dental and bone injuries and are less frequent than soft tissue injuries in sport, but are often more serious.Hard tissue injuries to teeth and bones can occur with contusions, such as Battle sign, which indicates basilar skull fracture, and so-called raccoon eyes, which indicate mid-face fractures. However, tooth fractures are the most common type of tooth injury, and can be categorized as crown infractions, enamel-only fracture, enamel-dentin fractures, and fractures that extend through the enamel and dentin into the pulp which are defined below.

  • Crown infractions are characterized by a disruption of the enamel prisms from a traumatic force, these injuries typically present as small cracks that affect only the enamel.
  • Enamel-only fractures are mild and often appear as roughness along the edge of the tooth crown. These injuries typically can go unnoticed by the athlete as they are usually not sensitive to the touch or to temperature changes. Enamel-only fractures are not considered dental emergencies and immediate care is not needed.
  • Enamel-Dentin crown fractures typically present as a tooth fracture confined to enamel and dentin with loss of tooth structure, but not exposing the pulp. The athlete often will report sensitivity to air, cold or touch, but the athlete can return to play as tolerated and referral can be delayed up to 24 hours.
  • Enamel-Dentin-Pulp fractures extend through the enamel and dentin and into the pulp. If the pulp is vital, a focal spot of hemorrhage will be noticeable within the yellow dentin layer and the athlete may report acute pain. Referral to a trauma-ready dentist should occur as soon as possible.

In addition to tooth fractures, there are several types of bone fractures as well. These types being closed or simple, open or compound, greenstick, hairline, complicated, comminuted, avulsion, and compression. A complicated fracture is when the structures surrounding the fracture are injured, such as blood vessels, organs, nerves, etc.

Overuse injuries

Overuse injuries can be defined as injuries that result from a mechanism of repetitive and cumulative micro-trauma, without a specific onset incident.Rapid changes in physical growth can make children vulnerable to overuse injuries, and these types of injuries are increasing among youth populations. Overuse injuries can usually be classified into 4 types/stages, these include:

  • Pain in the affected area during activity (which does not affect performance)
  • Pain in the affected area during activity (which does restrict performance)
  • Pain in the affected area after activity
  • Chronic pain in the affected area, even after resting

Predictive Indicators of Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Endurance Athletes, runners seem to account for the majority of injuries (up to 80 percent) with the majority of these injuries (more than two-thirds), occurring in the lower extremity and being of an overuse nature.Although incidence rates in senior athletics has been reported as 3.9 injuries/1000 hours of practice, specific injury incidence in youth track and field varies among disciplines; whereas an overall incidence of 0.89 injuries/1000 hours has been reported for high school track and field athletes. In addition, long-distance runners have showed a 19 times higher incidence (17 injuries/1000 hours) than other disciplines.

Head and neck injuries

Head and neck injuries can include a variety of pathologies from sprains, strains and fractures to traumatic brain injuries and spinal cord injuries. Sprains and strains can occur from an abrupt rotation or whipping motion, such as whiplash.Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. The onset of the observed cervical fractures in sports injury were likely due to continued momentum that transferred loads superiorly through the neck, which likely exacerbated the injuries to the occipital condyles and the upper cervical vertebrae.

Researchers have reported that 3-25% of cervical spine injuries actually occur after the initial traumatic event and are caused or exacerbated by improper handling during early stages of management or patient transport.One of the more common head or neck injuries that occurs in sports is a concussion. A concussion is a type of mild traumatic brain injury resulting in a chemical change in the brain and has potential to cause damage to brain tissue.

This can occur when a person sustains a hit or blow that cause the head and brain to move quickly, causing the brain to bounce in the skull. According to an epidemiological study published in the Journal of Athletic Training, the incidence of concussions from 27 high school sports was 3.89 sports-related concussions per 10,000 athlete exposures.

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09:51
09:50
How to avoid the most common workout injuries, according to experts CNN

16:03 Wed, 10 Aug
“Overuse Injuries – Treatment and Prevention”. SportNova UK. 2017-01-14. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
“Predictive Indicators of Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Endurance Athletes”. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12 (Suppl 2): S2-153–S2-156. doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0316. ISSN 1555-0265. PMID 27918673.

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Just 2 Minutes of Walking After a Meal Is Surprisingly Good For You

A new paper suggests that it takes far less exercise than was previously thought to lower blood sugar after eating. Walking after a meal, conventional wisdom says, helps clear your mind and aids in digestion. Scientists have also found that going for a 15-minute walk after a meal can reduce blood sugar levels, which can help ward off complications such as Type 2 diabetes. But, as it turns out, even just a few minutes of walking can activate these benefits.

In a meta-analysis, recently published in the journal Sports Medicine, researchers looked at the results of seven studies that compared the effects of sitting versus standing or walking on measures of heart health, including insulin and blood sugar levels. They found that light walking after a meal, in increments of as little as two to five minutes, had a significant impact in moderating blood sugar levels.

“Each small thing you do will have benefits, even if it is a small step,” said Dr. Kershaw Patel, a preventive cardiologist at Houston Methodist Hospital who was not involved in the study.

In five of the studies that the paper evaluated, none of the participants had pre-diabetes or Type 2 diabetes. The remaining two studies looked at people with and without such illnesses. Participants were asked to either stand or walk for two to five minutes every 20 to 30 minutes over the course of a full day.

All seven studies showed that just a few minutes of light-intensity walking after a meal were enough to significantly improve blood sugar levels compared to, say, sitting at a desk or plopping down on the couch. When participants went for a short walk, their blood sugar levels rose and fell more gradually.

For people with diabetes, avoiding sharp fluctuations in blood sugar levels is a critical component in managing their illness. It’s also thought that sharp spikes and crashes in blood sugar levels can contribute to developing Type 2 diabetes.

Standing also helped lower blood sugar levels, although not to the degree that light walking did. “Standing did have a small benefit,” Aidan Buffey, a graduate student at the University of Limerick in Ireland and an author of the paper, said. Compared to sitting or standing, “light-intensity walking was a superior intervention,” he said.

That’s because light walking requires more active engagement of muscles than standing and uses the fuel from food at a time when there is a lot of it circulating in the bloodstream. “Your muscles will soak up some of that excess glucose,” said Jessie Inchauspé, author of the book “Glucose Revolution: The Life-Changing Power of Balancing Your Blood Sugar.”

“You still had the same meal, but the impact on your body will be lessened,” she added.

Although light walking at any time is good for your health, a short walk within 60 to 90 minutes of eating a meal can be especially useful in minimizing blood sugar spikes, as that is when blood sugar levels tend to peak.

Ms. Inchauspé also recommended getting up to do housework or finding other ways to move your body. This short amount of activity will also enhance other dietary changes that people may be making to help control their blood sugar levels.

“Moving even a little bit is worthwhile and can lead to measurable changes, as these studies showed, in your health markers,” Dr. Euan Ashley, a cardiologist at Stanford University who was not associated with the study, said.

Mr. Buffey, whose research focuses on physical activity interventions in workplace environments, noted that a mini-walk of two to three minutes is more practical during the workday. People “are not going to get up and run on a treadmill or run around the office,” he said, but they could get some coffee or even go for a stroll down the hallway.

For people working from home, he suggested a short walk around the block between Zoom meetings or after lunch. The more we normalize mini-walks during the workday, Mr. Buffey said, the more feasible they will be. “If you are in a rigid environment, that’s when the difficulties may come.” If you cannot take those few minutes to take a walk, Dr. Ashley said, “standing will get you some of the way there.”

The benefits of physical activity are never all or nothing, Dr. Patel said, but instead exist on a continuum. “It’s a gradual effect of more activity, better health,” he said. “Each incremental step, each incremental stand or brisk walk appears to have a benefit.”

Source: Just 2 Minutes of Walking After a Meal Is Surprisingly Good for You – The New York Times

Critics By Sarah Garone

After a satisfying meal with family and friends, if a little voice inside tells you it’s time to head out for a stroll, you may want to listen. Not only is a walk after eating a pleasant way to enjoy social connection with others, it also offers surprising benefits for your health. From improved digestion to better blood sugar management, a lap around the block (or further) might just be the perfect finishing touch to a meal.

Read on for five reasons to take a walk after breakfast, lunch, or dinner.

May Improve Digestion

The internal nudge you may feel toward getting up and out after a meal might be coming from your gut. Research shows that post-meal movement can actually help you better digest your food.

In a 2014 meta-analysis of 20 studies, walking was associated with faster gastric emptying (the rate at which the body moves food through the stomach).

Though some people may experience indigestion from working up a sweat after eating, overall, physical activity appears to have a protective effect on colon cancer risks, and possibly some other diseases in the GI tract.3 More research is still needed.

May Help Reduce Blood Sugar Levels

People with diabetes or other blood sugar issues could especially benefit from stepping out after mealtimes. A post-meal walk may help steady your blood glucose.

In a small 2013 study, older adults with pre-diabetes experienced better glycemic control from walking after meals than from merely taking a morning walk.

Another study yielded equivalent results, finding that people with type 2 diabetes had better blood sugar measures when they walked after meals, compared to a single daily walk. The most dramatic improvements occurred when walking after dinner.5 Sounds like good reason to take a quick stroll before settling into more sedentary activities for the evening!

May Help Regulate Blood Pressure

You’ve probably heard that exercise is a helpful means of lowering blood pressure. What you may not have heard is that timing brief walks throughout the day (such as after meals) could offer even more results for hypertension than one longer bout of exercise.

According to a 2016 study, the accumulated effects of 10-minute bouts of physical activity significantly brought down diastolic blood pressure in people with pre-hypertension.

Mealtimes can serve as a convenient trigger for working in these shorter bouts of light exercise.

May Reduce Heart Disease Risk

As you work to bring down your blood pressure with after-meal walks, you’ll do your body the additional favor of lowering your risk of heart disease. People who keep their blood pressure within healthy limits have less incidence of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Since 47% of Americans have high blood pressure (and only one in four has it under control), we’d all do well to squeeze in a stroll after mealtimes.7

May Lessen Bloating

Whether you suffer with bloating as a result of occasional overeating, food sensitivities, or irritable bowel syndrome, a walk could be just the thing to tame a distended tummy.

As discussed above, research indicates that the more steps people with IBS get in a day, the less likely they may be to experience adverse symptoms, including bloating. And it’s not just people with IBS who could calm belly bloating with a walk around the block. A four-week study from 2021 found that when people with non-IBS-related bloating went for a 10-15 minute walk after meals, they reported relief.8

When bloating has you feeling uncomfortable after eating, consider a walk as quick, side effect-free treatment.

Related contents:

Walking aid recycling scheme brings benefits to Clacks Alloa Advertiser

16:20 Tue, 19 Jul
Walking club has so many benefits The Telegraph & Argus
12:34 Thu, 14 Jul
Walking and mental health: understanding the benefits Psychologies

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Superior Muscle Growth Plan B Workouts Your Favorite Workout Splits

Do you want to build lean muscle and get your “goal body” as quickly as possible? Do you want to do this WITHOUT gaining excess body fat, spending all of your time in the gym, using a diet or workout that isn’t customized to you, or doing myth-based nonsense that only works for people with amazing genetics?

Superior Muscle Growth is the ultimate science-based program for building your ideal body, regardless of your age, genetics, gender, body type, available schedule, or specific goals. This step-by-step plan has been tested, adjusted, and improved over a span of 15 years by myself, my hundreds of clients, and the thousands of men and women who have come to me for help and advice.

Do you work out at home with nothing but some resistance bands, or a few dumbbells, or just your own body weight? If so, I’ve written the ultimate guide to getting the results you want without a gym. I call it: The Home Workout Guide

It contains beginner, intermediate, and advanced home workouts. 2-day, 3-day, 4-day, and 5-day home workouts. Body weight options, dumbbell options, and resistance band options. 170+ home exercises to choose from, with video examples for each. And so… much… more.

Do you want to lose body fat and get leaner in the easiest and most effective way possible? Do you want to do it WITHOUT losing muscle, feeling hungry all the time, giving up your favorite foods, doing 100 hours of cardio, or struggling with plateaus, motivation, metabolic slowdown, and everything else that sucks about losing fat?

Superior Fat Loss is the most effective approach to losing fat quickly, safely, and easily, while eliminating every single problem that prevents most people from reaching their goal or maintaining it afterwards.

My work involving fast food nutrition was used in a study called The Effect Of Fast Food Restaurants On Obesity And Weight Gain, which was published in the American Economic Journal in 2009/2010. My work has appeared in textbooks published by Pearson Education (Teaching Today’s Health, 10th Edition), among others.

In several years since, this “Plan B Workouts” website has become the place where I’ve done all of my writing, and it’s grown into significantly more than just a guide to creating “plan b workouts.” (So yeah, the name is semi-weird, but at least the story behind it makes sense.)

Throughout this period, my workout and diet guidelines have been recommended by doctors to their patients, used by teachers in schools and universities, and utilized by members of local law enforcement and military.

My diet/training programs have been adapted by coaches, trainers and diet professionals at every level, and used by natural bodybuilders, figure competitors, models, and athletes. I’ve written a few books – Superior Muscle GrowthSuperior Fat Loss, and The Home Workout Guide – each of which has been read by tens of thousands of men and women, with overwhelmingly positive feedback.

Over 215,000 people are actively subscribed to receive email updates from me to ensure they never miss a thing that I put out. My work has been seen by millions of people from all over the world, in every country imaginable, and translated into a variety of different languages.

Back in 2001, when I was just 18, I wrote about this experiment I did with ab exercises to prove that spot reduction was a myth and no amount of ab workouts or As-Seen-On-TV ab gadgets (which were at the height of their popularity at the time) would actually burn belly fat. It became so popular that I was contacted by a Fox TV station and scheduled to appear live on air for a segment they were doing on infomercial ab machines. (9/11 happened soon after, so I never got to make my TV debut.)

But hey, I have good news! I’m here to help prevent your head from exploding. To do this, I’m going to help you find exactly what you need and clearly lay it all out for you. Kinda like a little website tour, so to speak.Ready? Let’s begin…

  • The Weight Training Guide
  • The Diet Guide
  • The Beginner Workout Routine
  • The Muscle Building Workout Routine
  • The 5-Day Workout Routine
  • My 4 Favorite Workout Splits
  • Losing Fat
  • Building Muscle
  • Diet & Nutrition
  • Common Myths

If you like what you’ve seen here, chances are you’re going to like the new (free) content I put out on a regular basis. To ensure you never miss a new article, program or guide of some sort, I’d highly recommend subscribing. This way, whenever I put out something new, you’ll get a quick email letting you know. As a bonus, I’ll also send you a copy of The 9-Step Diet Checklist for free as a thank you for subscribing.

Source: Superior Muscle Growth – Plan B Workouts

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