Dividend-Payers Still Shine Brightly As Stocks Stage Bounce-Back Rally

After seven straight down weeks for the S&P 500 Index and eight weeks of declines by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, stocks staged a big comeback from lows last Tuesday to finish the week with robust gains across the board. Sentiment gauges from the AAII survey to Investor’s Intelligence’s roundup of investment newsletter editor outlook had been flashing multi-decade highs in pessimism. Technically, put-call ratios had also spiked to levels associated with widespread panic. but now they are on the decline and helping to thrust stocks higher as pessimism recedes from unsustainable peaks.

The most important piece of economic news came out on Friday after the rally was well underway when the Commerce Department reported that the core personal consumption expenditure (PCE) price index rose at a 4.9% annual rate in April, which was a deceleration from the 5.2% pace in March. The report provided hope that the Federal Reserve would not need to be as aggressive as planned in hiking rates in the coming months. Next Friday’s nonfarm payrolls report for May will be another critical piece of data for handicapping the Fed’s moves.

By the end of the week, both the S&P 500 Index and the Russell 2000 Small Cap Index had both gained 6.6%. It would not be unreasonable to see this rally take the S&P 500 to it’s declining 50-day moving average, but there is a lot to prove for the bulls to make this burst of buying anything more than a rally within a larger downtrend.

The biggest gains last week came from the sector that has been the most beaten down this year: Consumer staples jumped higher by 9.5%. A 4.3% increase in crude oil prices helped drive the energy sector higher by 8.3%. Growth stocks outperformed value, and domestic equities performed better than international stocks.

Equity Income Universe: Last week, the top performing equity income funds that we track were the WisdomTree MidCap Dividend (DON DON +6.6%) and FlexShares Quality Dividend (QDF QDF +6.3%).

Dividend growth funds have been big underperformers this year, but the style shined last week with T. Rowe Price Dividend Growth (PRDGX +6.2%), WisdomTree U.S. Quality Dividend Growth (DGRW DGRW +6.2%) and Vanguard Dividend Appreciation Index (VIG VIG +6.2%) all gaining more than 6%.

Also jumping more than 6% were the year-to-date total return leader, Alerian MLP (AMLP AMLP +6.2%) master limited partnership ETF, and the VanEck BDC Income (BIZD BIZD +6.2%) business development company ETF.

FDI Portfolio Action: Last week’s Forbes Dividend Investor portfolio of 22 stocks gained an average of 4.87%, with only two stocks failing to post positive returns.

Our top performer was master limited partnership Holly Energy Partners, L.P. (HEP +8.9%). Also higher by more than 8% for the week were Luxembourg-based steel maker Ternium TX SA (TX +8.7%), chemicals maker LyondellBasell Industries LYB NV (LYB +8.5%), and International Business Machines (IBM +8.4%).

Capturing Call Premium On The Bounce

A medium-term bearish environment with at least a temporary burst of bullishness is one in which selling covered calls makes sense. Last Monday, we sold covered calls on Tyson Foods TSN (TSN +6.8%) and Kraft Heinz (KHC -0.3%). Both companies had ex-dividend dates last week.

Selling the same TSN $87.50 July 15 calls would now earn you $5.30, based on Friday’s closing price for Tyson of $91.04. With Kraft Heinz, the $39 July 1 calls we sold for $1.30 last Monday now trade for only $0.65-$0.70. Going out to the July 15 expiration and selling slightly in-the-money KHC $37.50 calls earns premium of $1.65-$1.70.

John Dobosz

I am the deputy editor of investing content for Forbes Media. I’m responsible for money and investing coverage on Forbes.com and in Forbes magazine.

Source: Dividend-Payers Still Shine Brightly As Stocks Stage Bounce-Back Rally

Highest Dividend-Paying Stocks in the S&P 500

Part of the reason we are seeing a “risk-off” environment on Wall Street in 2022 is because – for the first time in a long time – you can get a decent payday in traditional fixed-income investments thanks to a rising interest rate environment. Consider that 10-year Treasury bonds pay almost 2.9% right now – more than double the yield of last summer – while the S&P 500 averages a dividend yield of just 1.4% right now. Many income investors aren’t willing to settle for the risk of stocks when they can instead get significantly higher yield in bond markets. However, the following S&P 500 components offer a way to tap into outsized yield that may make them worth a look – with a minimum yield of 4.7% and payouts as high as 8.6% at current pricing.

By now, everyone knows how bad smoking is for your health. But as with sugary soft drinks or fatty fast food, just because something is unhealthy doesn’t mean consumers will stop buying it. And as we enter a period of volatility for the stock market thanks to price inflation, many investors are learning that smokers are incredibly reliable customers. That makes $160 billion tobacco icon Philip Morris a slam dunk thanks to leading brands such as Marlboro, the best-selling cigarette in the world, along with its other popular products. PM dividends have roughly doubled from 64 cents quarterly back in 2011 to $1.25 as of the beginning of this year, adding up to one of the best yields in the S&P 500 index.

Office real estate operator Vornado has a portfolio concentrated in the nation’s key metropolitan markets, including prime properties in New York City, Chicago and San Francisco. Vornado is also the leading firm when it comes to sustainable commercial properties, with over 23 million square feet of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or LEED, certified buildings. Structured as a REIT, or real estate investment trust, VNO must deliver 90% of its taxable income back to shareholders each year – meaning a mandate for consistent and generous dividends for shareholders.

Another REIT, Simon differs from Vornado in that it is one of the largest mall owners in America. Its locations are focused on shopping, dining, entertainment and mixed-use destinations instead of commercial real estate high-rises. COVID-19 was naturally quite tough on Simon; however, the recovering economy and the decline of social distancing restrictions has allowed SPG to get back on track. Shares have more than doubled from this time two years ago, and Simon just gave dividend investors a lot more to like with a big boost of almost 27% in its payout this year.

Old-school tech giant IBM isn’t often included in the same conversations as dynamic and younger firms like Amazon.com Inc. (AMZN) or Google parent Alphabet Inc. (GOOG, GOOGL). However, “Big Blue” still has a lot to offer. Its deep enterprise technology relationships in software, consulting and IT infrastructure make the company tremendously profitable. Though the company forecast earnings per share north of $10.50 next fiscal year, dividends currently only add up to $6.56 annually. That means the generous dividends aren’t just sustainable but ripe for future increases down the road, even if earnings don’t grow at the outsized rates you’ll find at more ambitious Silicon Valley firms.

Big Oil companies have gotten a lot of attention this year, but integrated energy giants that have risen along with crude oil are not as generous with their dividends as smaller and more focused players like Oneok. OKE is a play on the “midstream” portion of the energy business alone, which involves transportation and storage and is not exposed to the risks of commodity price volatility. Oneok helps move natural gas around the U.S. and charges fees for that service, then passes a portion of that cash on to shareholders. Income investors will take comfort in this stable model, which supports strong cash flows regardless of the price of a barrel of oil in 2023 and beyond.

KMI is another energy infrastructure company operating across North America, with a network of natural gas and crude oil pipelines, as well as storage and processing facilities. All told, the stock owns roughly 83,000 miles of pipelines and almost 150 terminals and is valued at nearly $45 billion. With a scale like that, alongside a midstream focus that insulates it from the ups and downs in oil and gas prices, it should be no surprise that KMI is one of the most reliable income plays in the S&P 500 right now.

You may see AT&T stock in some screening tools with a higher yield, but keep in mind that is based on previous payouts before a recent spinoff of Warner Bros. Discovery Inc. (WBD) that reduced both the market value of parent AT&T along with its dividend potential. However, a new dividend run-rate of about 28 cents per share quarterly annualizes to a yield that is more than four times the typical S&P 500 component. And furthermore, the spinoff helps management focus on the core business of this long-standing telecom leader. Shares have rallied strongly since March as Wall Street has looked ahead to life after the split, and with a big-time payout there’s reason to think this run could continue in 2022.

The $100 billion tobacco icon Altria is behind some of the biggest brands in North America, including its flagship Marlboro cigarettes, Black & Mild cigars and smokeless tobacco products including Copenhagen and Skoal. Yes, the health risks of these tobacco products are real. But that doesn’t stop millions of customers from buying Altria products despite this. And with the company increasingly looking beyond this core revenue stream to cannabis-related goods and vaping products, there’s a good chance this “sin stock” will see consistent profits and generous dividends for the foreseeable future regardless of whatever morality you assign to its business model.

Lumen is a telecommunications company offering voice and data connections, along with related services including cloud solutions and cybersecurity add-ons. CenturyLink rebranded itself Lumen Technologies a few years ago, in the wake of a series of big-time acquisitions including the purchase of Level 3 Communications for about $25 billion, but despite that big price tag the current LUMN stock valuation is only about $12 billion or so. There are challenges for this second-tier telecom, including its large debt load from those previous deals. However, income investors who don’t mind the risk may be interested in the big-time yield of this top S&P dividend stock as a hedge against potentially lackluster share performance.

More contents:

Tech Stock Rally on Alibaba Results May Be Short Lived, as Pandemic Impact on Industry, Consumer Spending Come Into Focus

Alibaba Group Holding’s better-than-expected results may offer only a temporary boost to Chinese technology stocks, as fallout from pandemic lockdowns depresses consumer spending and causes analysts to cut earnings forecasts by as much as 11 per cent.

Alibaba’s shares surged 12 per cent in Hong Kong on Friday after the release of its quarterly report, as the Hang Seng Tech Index rose nearly 4 per cent.

However, major brokerages China International Capital Corp (CICC) and Citic Securities cut earnings projections for the e-commerce giant. They cited the Covid-19 outbreaks that have ravaged about 40 cities in China this year, disrupting supply chains and prompting consumers to tighten their purse strings.

A weak result from Baidu has bolstered the argument. The nation’s biggest search-engine saw its advertising revenue drop 4 per cent from a year earlier in the first quarter, reflecting a tough macroeconomic environment.

The latest brokerage calls reinforce the view that the worst for China’s tech juggernauts is yet to come, as the pandemic takes over from the regulatory crackdown as the factor holding sway over the sector. Alibaba, Tencent soar in Hong Kong as report cards ease earnings concerns

A flurry of high-level government meetings over the last month signal an end to the year-long regulatory storm that wiped out more than US$1 trillion in market cap. Top policymakers have made it clear they want tech platforms to play a bigger role in reviving growth, as the outlines of a consumer-spending slowdown and a “big shock” to industrial profits become clear following lockdowns that started in April.

“Consumer spending and the development of the pandemic are the key to the tech stocks now,” said Dai Ming, a fund manager at Huichen Asset Management in Shanghai. “People won’t spend even online now, with the courier service devastated by the pandemic. The regulatory factor is less of a major concern now.”

CICC reduced Alibaba’s earnings forecast for the financial year by 7 per cent to 131.8 billion yuan (US$19.6 billion) and that for the following year by 1 per cent to 169.1 billion yuan. The investment firm also slashed the price target of Alibaba’s Hong Kong-traded shares by 4 per cent to HK$137, representing 13 times estimated earnings, amid a compressing valuation within the tech sector.

Citic Securities, China’s biggest publicly traded brokerage, also slashed Alibaba’s profit forecast, by 11 per cent to 124.9 billion yuan for this year and by 12 per cent to 147.7 billion yuan for next year. The share-price estimate is set at HK$160.

Alibaba’s customer management revenue (CMR), its biggest source of revenue, will probably decrease by more than 10 per cent for the quarter ended in June as a result of dwindling demand for online shopping and supply-chain disruptions, the brokerage said in a report on Friday.

“Looking to the whole year, investors still need to wait until the recovery in the macroeconomy for the improvement in Alibaba’s earnings,” Citic analysts led by Xu Yingbo wrote in the report. “We estimate that earnings will begin to pick up after the third or the fourth quarter.”

Beijing has reaffirmed its adherence to the zero-Covid policy, which JPMorgan has said the government sees as necessary because of a low vaccination rate among China’s elderly and a fragile healthcare system. The US bank, as well as Swiss private bank Union Bancaire Privee, predict a contraction in China’s growth in the second quarter. Premiere Li Keqiang highlighted the gravity of the situation for the nation’s economy at a meeting this week, saying that it was even worse in some aspects than the aftermath of the Wuhan Covid-19 outbreak in 2020.

Alibaba, the owner of the Post, jumped 12 per cent to HK$90.85 on Friday in Hong Kong. The rally has pared the stock’s loss to 23 per cent this year after a 49 per cent slump in 2021. Revenue for the March quarter rose 9 per cent from a year ago, beating estimates, but the company swung to a net loss in the span on increased investments in new businesses, according to results released on Thursday.

Alibaba’s future earnings may risk trailing the estimate, “given the uncertainty of putting the pandemic under control,” said Tang Jiarui, an analyst at Everbright Securities in Shanghai. “The logistics snarls have reduced consumers’ willingness to spend.”

By: Zhang Shidong

Source: Tech-stock rally on Alibaba results may be short-lived

More contents:

Hundreds Of Billions Lost As Major Cryptocurrencies Including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana, Cardano Tumble In Crypto Crash

Hundreds of billions has been wiped from the cryptocurrency market Tuesday amid a market-wide crash that has seen the prices of major cryptocurrencies—including bitcoin, ethereum, cardano and solana—plummet and fall sharply from near record highs this week.

The price of bitcoin plummeted to around $60,500 Tuesday morning, down 8% from 24 hours before, according to CoinGecko.

Most major tokens—including ethereum, XRP, cardano, solana and dogecoin—experienced similarly steep drops over the last 24 hours, falling between 7% and 10%.

Of the four most valuable cryptocurrencies by market capitalization—excluding the biggest, bitcoin, and tether, a stablecoin pegged to USD—ether fell 9.6% to around $4,300, Binance’s BNB 8.9% to $590, solana 7.5% to $225 and cardano 9% to $1.90.

XRP, polkadot, dogecoin and shiba inu coin—the next largest cryptocurrencies by market cap, excluding another stablecoin, USD Coin—fell 9.3%, 12.4%, 8.8% and 6%, respectively.

The losses come as part of a wider rout in the cryptocurrency market, which is now worth some $2.76 trillion, according to CoinGecko, down 8.6% from the day before.

The crash comes less than a week after bitcoin hit a new record high, jumping just above $69,000. This came as part of a wider rally following a market crash earlier this year, a response to an intensifying regulatory crackdown in China and growing concerns over bitcoin’s environmental impact.

The crash wiped many of the gains made throughout the pandemic, when the volatile market thrived due to numerous factors including an influx of retail investors, more options to trade digital currencies and the popularity of meme stocks and tokens driven by online forums on sites like Reddit and celebrity endorsement.

It’s not clear why the cryptocurrency market is crashing, though there are several factors that could contribute. Chinese authorities renewed efforts to crackdown on cryptocurrency mining Tuesday, slamming the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the process. China’s earlier crackdown on mining saw cryptocurrency miners flee the country en masse, many of whom landed in the U.S. Another possible reason could be responses to President Joe Biden’s infrastructure bill, which includes provisions for potentially regulating and taxing cryptocurrency.

Follow me on Twitter. Send me a secure tip.

I am a London-based reporter for Forbes covering breaking news. Previously, I have worked as a reporter for a specialist legal publication covering big data

Source: Hundreds Of Billions Lost As Major Cryptocurrencies—Including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Solana, Cardano—Tumble In Crypto Crash

.

More Contents:

Bitcoin Hits First Record High In More Than Six Months After Historic Fund Debut (Forbes)

Elon Musk Shows How Crypto May Start Ruining Stock Traders’ Weekends (Bloomberg)

U.S. Claims Top Spot For Bitcoin Mining As Miners Flee China Crackdown — Here Are The World’s Biggest Mining Hubs (Forbes)

Costelloe, Kevin (November 29, 2017). “Bitcoin ‘Ought to

“Central banker takes stab at bitcoin ‘bubble

Silcoff, Sean (February 13, 2018). “OMERS-affiliated Ethereum Capital offering pinched, but not pulled, following choppy markets and cryptocrash”. The Globe and Mail. The Woodbridge Company.

Investors Buy Oil on Inflation Fears, Pushing Prices Even Higher

Luc Filip doesn’t work at a big energy company or an industrial manufacturer. He isn’t a day trader or an OPEC official. But he is still helping drive the surge in oil prices.

Mr. Filip is head of investments at SYZ Private Banking in Switzerland, and his big concern is inflation taking a bite out of the $28.5 billion of clients’ investments he manages. So he has been buying oil.

Fund managers like Mr. Filip are contributing to a rally that has pushed oil prices to their highest level since the 2014 energy bust. While energy-futures markets are more typically the province of producers and commodities-focused hedge funds, an oil rally that shows no signs of slowing is now exerting a pull on traditional money managers who run portfolios of stocks and bonds.

Because commodities prices tend to rise alongside inflation, they can protect investment portfolios against its erosive effects. When combined with other commodities like copper and gold, energy is “quite a decent hedge,” said Mr. Filip, who has been buying energy futures and selling longer-dated bonds that will lose value if inflation turns out to be high for longer than expected.

To be sure, inflation fears aren’t the main driver of the West Texas benchmark’s run from $62 a barrel in August to $85 this week. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries has stuck to its plan to increase production in small increments. A shortage of natural gas has caused some industrial manufacturers to switch to diesel, which is refined from oil.

Untangling these inputs is hard. But traders and analysts say that some of the recent oil gains could be explained by inflation worries, especially on days with no news about supply that might drive trading by the usual players such as commodities brokers and oil producers.

What the Inflation of the 1970s Can Teach Us Today. The U.S. inflation rate reached a 13-year high recently, triggering a debate about whether the country is entering an inflationary period similar to the 1970s.

In one sign of investors’ interest, money has been pouring into funds that buy energy futures and stocks, accelerating just as inflation fears took center stage this fall. These funds have experienced four straight weeks of inflows for the first time since the spring, with last week’s $753 million the highest weekly total in five months, according to data provider EPFR.

Data from the Commodity Futures Trading Commission showed a rise in speculative buying of crude-oil futures and options in the week to Oct. 19. Bets on $100-a-barrel oil—a price last seen seven years ago—surged earlier this summer. This month, investors have put wagers on $200.

These investors, especially those that are newcomers or buying for ancillary reasons like inflation fears, are taking the risk that a sudden shock could send oil prices plummeting. That happened in the spring of 2020, when demand collapsed due to the Covid-19 pandemic just as Saudi Arabia ramped up production.

What is more, energy is a major contributor to the consumer-price index, the broadest measure of inflation. That means that investing in energy as a hedge against rising prices can be a self-reinforcing cycle: As oil prices rise, so does inflation, which sends money managers like Mr. Filip back to the energy market to reup their protection.

“People buy oil, that boosts inflation expectations, and that can feed on itself,” said Evan Brown, head of asset allocation at UBS Asset Management.

Inflation has gone from an expected and natural consequence of economies emerging from lockdowns to a major source of investor angst. Higher prices eat into yields on fixed-rate bonds and loans. Stocks of companies that can’t as easily pass on higher costs to customers tend to take a hit, too.

Some investors have bet that oil prices could rise to $200 a barrel.

U.S. consumer prices in September rose at a 5.4% annual rate, faster than in August and just below a 30-year high. Germany’s 4.5% annual rate in October was the biggest year-to-year increase since 1993.

Central bankers in the U.S. and Europe say higher prices are likely temporary and will ease as supply-chain delays are resolved and economies work through restart creaks. But investors aren’t so sure. In addition to more traditional inflation hedges, such as bonds whose yields are linked to consumer prices, they are flocking to commodities.

SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS

How concerned are you about inflation? Join the conversation below.

Mr. Brown, who helps devise portfolios for some $1.2 trillion of client assets at UBS, is recommending commodity futures, energy stocks and currencies of oil-rich countries such as Russia and Canada. John Roe, head of multiasset funds at Legal & General Investment Management, said he is protecting his investments against runaway prices with Chilean pesos, which are linked to copper prices, and shares in gold miners.

So far the strategy appears to be working. Inflation is rising but so are the prices of energy and many metals. Paul O’Connor, head of multiasset at Janus Henderson, warned that might not last.

Today’s inflation is being driven by gummed-up supply chains that have created shortages of nearly everything, pushing the prices of raw materials higher. But he expects future inflation to be driven more by rising wages, and it is less clear if that would have the same effect on commodity prices. “Quite questionable,” he said of the strategy.

By: Anna Hirtenstein

Anna Hirtenstein is a reporter at The Wall Street Journal in London, covering financial markets. She was previously a reporter at Bloomberg in London, an investment banker at Greentech Capital Advisors in Zurich and has also worked as a field correspondent with a focus on oil in Northern Iraq and West Africa. 

Source: Investors Buy Oil on Inflation Fears, Pushing Prices Even Higher – WSJ

.

Related Contents:

Ng, Abigail (14 October 2021). “Goldman Sachs says oil prices could be higher for much longer”. CNBC. Retrieved 18 October 2021.

2 Specialty Retail Stocks To Add To Your Shopping List

2 Specialty Retail Stocks to Add to Your Shopping List

Let’s face it – retail is one of the most competitive industries out there. Consumer preferences are constantly changing and it takes a lot for these types of businesses to earn shoppers’ hard-earned cash. That’s one of the reasons why investing in specialty retail stocks can be a great long-term strategy if you choose wisely. Since specialty retailers focus on specific product categories, like office supplies, furniture, or men’s or women’s clothing, they are oftentimes able to carve out a unique niche and stand out among their competitors.

Thanks to all of the stimulus that has been added to the economy over the last year and the fact that a newly vaccinated population is getting back to shopping in person, we could see some strong sales coming out of the specialty retail space in the coming months. There are 2 specialty retail stocks that stand out as potential buys at this time given their unique brands and impressive earnings reports. Let’s take a further look at these intriguing stocks below.

RH (NYSE:RH)

RH, formerly known as Restoration Hardware, is a great specialty retail stock because it is doing something that is completely unique. While there are plenty of home furnishings stores out there, RH is distinctive in that it specializes in ultra-high-end luxury home goods and creating a unique shopping experience at every single store. Homeowners can find upscale products including furniture, lighting, bathware, outdoor & garden, tableware textiles, and décor at RH, and each one of the company’s showrooms offers an original and aesthetically pleasing experience.

The company counts Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway among its investors and is undoubtedly benefitting from a hot residential real estate market. With that said, RH has upside potential regardless of what’s going on in the economy, as the company doesn’t have exposure to seasonal inventory and caters to wealthy consumers that spend big year-round. The stock has been pulling back in recent months after a rally from $70 to $700 a share, but after the company’s latest earnings report it could be gearing up for more gains.

RH saw its Q1 revenues up 78% year-over-year to $860.8 million and delivered Q1 adjusted diluted earnings per share increase by 285% year-over-year to $4.89 per share. Other positives from the stellar report included an increased fiscal 2021 outlook and the fact that the company expects to be net debt-free by the end of the fiscal year. The bottom line here is that RH is a specialty retail company that is executing at a very high level, which is evident in both the earnings results and stock price.

Lovesac (NASDAQ:LOVE)

There’s a lot to love about this specialty retailer, which designs and manufactures modular couches and beanbags. What really stands out about Lovesac is how it has created a brand and product lines that have quickly become the favorite furniture of an entire generation. Millennials are among Lovesac’s most frequent customers, as they love the idea of the company’s flagship product, a unique modular furniture piece known as a “sactional”.

These are couches that are easily assembled and disassembled in order to meet the needs of the consumer. There are literally dozens of different ways that sactionals can be rearranged to fit in someone’s home, and the fact that customers can continue adding on pieces and accessories over time is perfect for creating repeat buyers.

While the company has 91 retail showrooms across the United States, investors should be impressed with the progress that it has made over the last year developing its digital sales channels. E-commerce sales were up over 250% in 2020 and although the company might not be able to keep up that torrid pace, Lovesac has proved it is more than capable of finding buyers online. Also, keep in mind that those showrooms are going to see foot traffic pick up as the pandemic winds down.

Lovesac just reported very strong Q1 2022 earnings results including net sales growth of 52.5% and diluted EPS of $0.13, up 122.1% year-over-year. Analysts also love the stock, as Lovesac recently got a price target increase from Craig Hallum on Thursday. Pandemic tailwinds are continuing to help this specialty retailer grow, and that narrative should remain in place for the foreseeable future. These are all great reasons why Lovesac is a great stock to consider adding to your shopping list.

By:

Source: 2 Specialty Retail Stocks to Add to Your Shopping List

.

Critics:

A stock derivative is any financial instrument for which the underlying asset is the price of an equity. Futures and options are the main types of derivatives on stocks. The underlying security may be a stock index or an individual firm’s stock, e.g. single-stock futures.

Stock futures are contracts where the buyer is long, i.e., takes on the obligation to buy on the contract maturity date, and the seller is short, i.e., takes on the obligation to sell. Stock index futures are generally delivered by cash settlement.

A stock option is a class of option. Specifically, a call option is the right (not obligation) to buy stock in the future at a fixed price and a put option is the right (not obligation) to sell stock in the future at a fixed price. Thus, the value of a stock option changes in reaction to the underlying stock of which it is a derivative. The most popular method of valuing stock options is the Black–Scholes model. Apart from call options granted to employees, most stock options are transferable.

Stock price fluctuations

The price of a stock fluctuates fundamentally due to the theory of supply and demand. Like all commodities in the market, the price of a stock is sensitive to demand. However, there are many factors that influence the demand for a particular stock. The fields of fundamental analysis and technical analysis attempt to understand market conditions that lead to price changes, or even predict future price levels.

A recent study shows that customer satisfaction, as measured by the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI), is significantly correlated to the market value of a stock.Stock price may be influenced by analysts’ business forecast for the company and outlooks for the company’s general market segment. Stocks can also fluctuate greatly due to pump and dump scams.

See also

%d bloggers like this: