Who Scams The Scammers? Meet the Scambaiters

Police struggle to catch online fraudsters, often operating from overseas, but now a new breed of amateurs are taking matters into their own hands.

Three to four days a week, for one or two hours at a time, Rosie Okumura, 35, telephones thieves and messes with their minds. For the past two years, the LA-based voice actor has run a sort of reverse call centre, deliberately ringing the people most of us hang up on – scammers who pose as tax agencies or tech-support companies or inform you that you’ve recently been in a car accident you somehow don’t recall. When Okumura gets a scammer on the line, she will pretend to be an old lady, or a six-year-old girl, or do an uncanny impression of Apple’s virtual assistant Siri.

Once, she successfully fooled a fake customer service representative into believing that she was Britney Spears. “I waste their time,” she explains, “and now they’re not stealing from someone’s grandma.” Okumura is a “scambaiter” – a type of vigilante who disrupts, exposes or even scams the world’s scammers. While scambaiting has a troubled 20-year online history, with early forum users employing extreme, often racist, humiliation tactics, a new breed of scambaiters are taking over TikTok and YouTube. Okumura has more than 1.5 million followers across both video platforms, where she likes to keep things “funny and light”.

In April, the then junior health minister Lord Bethell tweeted about a “massive sudden increase” in spam calls, while a month earlier the consumer group Which? found that phone and text fraud was up 83% during the pandemic. In May, Ofcom warned that scammers are increasingly able to “spoof” legitimate telephone numbers, meaning they can make it look as though they really are calling from your bank. In this environment, scambaiters seem like superheroes – but is the story that simple? What motivates people like Okumura? How helpful is their vigilantism? And has a scambaiter ever made a scammer have a change of heart?

Batman became Batman to avenge the death of his parents; Okumura became a scambaiter after her mum was scammed out of $500. In her 60s and living alone, her mother saw a strange pop-up on her computer one day in 2019. It was emblazoned with the Windows logo and said she had a virus; there was also a number to call to get the virus removed. “And so she called and they told her, ‘You’ve got this virus, why don’t we connect to your computer and have a look.” Okumura’s mother granted the scammer remote access to her computer, meaning they could see all of her files. She paid them $500 to “remove the virus” and they also stole personal details, including her social security number.

Thankfully, the bank was able to stop the money leaving her mother’s account, but Okumura wanted more than just a refund. She asked her mum to give her the number she’d called and called it herself, spending an hour and 45 minutes wasting the scammer’s time. “My computer’s giving me the worst vibes,” she began in Kim Kardashian’s voice. “Are you in front of your computer right now?” asked the scammer. “Yeah, well it’s in front of me, is that… that’s like the same thing?” Okumura put the video on YouTube and since then has made over 200 more videos, through which she earns regular advertising revenue (she also takes sponsorships directly from companies).

“A lot of it is entertainment – it’s funny, it’s fun to do, it makes people happy,” she says when asked why she scambaits. “But I also get a few emails a day saying, ‘Oh, thank you so much, if it weren’t for that video, I would’ve lost $1,500.’” Okumura isn’t naive – she knows she can’t stop people scamming, but she hopes to stop people falling for scams. “I think just educating people and preventing it from happening in the first place is easier than trying to get all the scammers put in jail.”

She has a point – in October 2020, the UK’s national fraud hotline, run by City of London Police-affiliated Action Fraud, was labelled “not fit for purpose” after a report by Birmingham City University. An earlier undercover investigation by the Times found that as few as one in 50 fraud reports leads to a suspect being caught, with Action Fraud frequently abandoning cases. Throughout the pandemic, there has been a proliferation of text-based scams asking people to pay delivery fees for nonexistent parcels – one victim lost £80,000 after filling in their details to pay for the “delivery”. (To report a spam text, forward it to 7726.)

Asked whether vigilante scambaiters help or hinder the fight against fraud, an Action Fraud spokesperson skirted the issue. “It is important people who are approached by fraudsters use the correct reporting channels to assist police and other law enforcement agencies with gathering vital intelligence,” they said via email. “Word of mouth can be very helpful in terms of protecting people from fraud, so we would always encourage you to tell your friends and family about any scams you know to be circulating.”

Indeed, some scambaiters do report scammers to the police as part of their operation. Jim Browning is the alias of a Northern Irish YouTuber with nearly 3.5 million subscribers who has been posting scambaiting videos for the past seven years. Browning regularly gets access to scammers’ computers and has even managed to hack into the CCTV footage of call centres in order to identify individuals. He then passes this information to the “relevant authorities” including the police, money-processing firms and internet service providers.

“I wouldn’t call myself a vigilante, but I do enough to say, ‘This is who is running the scam,’ and I pass it on to the right authorities.” He adds that there have only been two instances where he’s seen a scammer get arrested. Earlier this year, he worked with BBC’s Panorama to investigate an Indian call centre – as a result, the centre was raided by local police and the owner was taken into custody.

Browning says becoming a YouTuber was “accidental”. He originally started uploading his footage so he could send links to the authorities as evidence, but then viewers came flooding in. “Unfortunately, YouTube tends to attract a younger audience and the people I’d really love to see looking at videos would be older folks,” he says. As only 10% of Browning’s audience are over 60, he collaborates with the American Association of Retired People to raise awareness of scams in its official magazine. “I deliberately work with them so I can get the message a little bit further afield.”

Still, that doesn’t mean Browning isn’t an entertainer. In his most popular upload, with 40m views, he calmly calls scammers by their real names. “You’ve gone very quiet for some strange reason,” Browning says in the middle of a call, “Are you going to report this to Archit?” The spooked scammer hangs up. One comment on the video – with more than 1,800 likes – describes getting “literal chills”.

But while YouTube’s biggest and most boisterous stars earn millions, Browning regularly finds his videos demonetised by the platform – YouTube’s guidelines are broad, with one clause reading “content that may upset, disgust or shock viewers may not be suitable for advertising”. As such, Browning still also has a full-time job.

YouTube isn’t alone in expressing reservations about scambaiting. Jack Whittaker is a PhD candidate in criminology at the University of Surrey who recently wrote a paper on scambaiting. He explains that many scambaiters are looking for community, others are disgruntled at police inaction, while some are simply bored. He is troubled by the “humiliation tactics” employed by some scambaiters, as well as the underlying “eye for an eye” mentality.

“I’m someone who quite firmly believes that we should live in a system where there’s a rule of law,” Whittaker says. For scambaiting to have credibility, he believes baiters must move past unethical and illegal actions, such as hacking into a scammer’s computer and deleting all their files (one YouTube video entitled “Scammer Rages When I Delete His Files!” has more than 14m views). Whittaker is also troubled by racism in the community, as an overcrowded job market has led to a rise in scam call centres in India. Browning says he has to remove racist comments under his videos.

“I think scambaiters have all the right skills to do some real good in the world. However, they’re directionless,” Whittaker says. “I think there has to be some soul- searching in terms of how we can better utilise volunteers within the policing system as a whole.”

At least one former scambaiter agrees with Whittaker. Edward is an American software engineer who engaged in an infamous bait on the world’s largest scambaiting forum in the early 2000s. Together with some online friends, Edward managed to convince a scammer named Omar that he had been offered a lucrative job. Omar paid for a 600-mile flight to Lagos only to end up stranded.

“He was calling us because he had no money. He had no idea how to get back home. He was crying,” Edward explains. “And I mean, I don’t know if I believe him or not, but that was the one where I was like, ‘Ah, maybe I’m taking things a little too far.’” Edward stopped scambaiting after that – he’d taken it up when stationed in a remote location while in the military. He describes spending four or five hours a day scambaiting: it was a “part-time job” that gave him “a sense of community and friendship”.

“I mean, there’s a reason I asked to remain anonymous, right?” Edward says when asked about his actions now. “I’m kind of embarrassed for myself. There’s a moment where it’s like, ‘Oh, was I being the bad guy?’” Now, Edward doesn’t approve of vigilantism and says the onus is on tech platforms to root out scams.

Yet while the public continue to feel powerless in the face of increasingly sophisticated scams (this summer, Browning himself fell for an email scam which resulted in his YouTube channel being temporarily deleted), But scambaiting likely isn’t going anywhere. Cassandra Raposo, 23, from Ontario began scambaiting during the first lockdown in 2020. Since then, one of her TikTok videos has been viewed 1.5m times. She has told scammers her name is Nancy Drew, given them the address of a police station when asked for her personal details, and repeatedly played dumb to frustrate them.

“I believe the police and tech companies need to do more to prevent and stop these scams, but I understand it’s difficult,” says Raposo, who argues that the authorities and scambaiters should work together. She hopes her videos will encourage young people to talk to their grandparents about the tactics scammers employ and, like Browning, has received grateful emails from potential victims who’ve avoided scams thanks to her content. “My videos are making a small but important difference out there,” she says. “As long as they call me, I’ll keep answering.”

For Okumura, education and prevention remain key, but she’s also had a hand in helping a scammer change heart. “I’ve become friends with a student in school. He stopped scamming and explained why he got into it. The country he lives in doesn’t have a lot of jobs, that’s the norm out there.” The scammer told Okumura he was under the impression that, “Americans are all rich and stupid and selfish,” and that stealing from them ultimately didn’t impact their lives. (Browning is more sceptical – while remotely accessing scammers’ computers, he’s seen many of them browsing for the latest iPhone online.)

“At the end of the day, some people are just desperate,” Okumura says. “Some of them really are jerks and don’t care… and that’s why I keep things funny and light. The worst thing I’ve done is waste their time.”

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Source: Who scams the scammers? Meet the scambaiters | Cybercrime | The Guardian

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ISBN9781412960472. “FBI 2017 Internet Crime Report” (PDF). FBI.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation. May 7, 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.

“The Economic Impact of Cybercrime— No Slowing Down” (PDF). McAfee. 2018. Retrieved October 24, 2018. Goel, Rajeev K. (2020).

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‘Easy money’: How International Scam Artists Pulled Off An Epic Theft of Covid Benefits

Russian mobsters, Chinese hackers and Nigerian scammers have used stolen identities to plunder tens of billions of dollars in pandemic aid, officials say. From a report: In June, the FBI got a warrant to hunt through the Google accounts of Abedemi Rufai, a Nigerian state government official.

What they found, they said in a sworn affidavit, was all the ingredients for a “massive” cyberfraud on U.S. government benefits: stolen bank, credit card and tax information of Americans. Money transfers. And emails showing dozens of false unemployment claims in seven states that paid out $350,000.

Rufai was arrested in May at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York as he prepared to fly first class back to Nigeria, according to court records. He is being held without bail in Washington state, where he has pleaded not guilty to five counts of wire fraud.

Rufai’s case offers a small window into what law enforcement officials and private experts say is the biggest fraud ever perpetrated against the U.S., a significant part of it carried out by foreigners. Russian mobsters, Chinese hackers and Nigerian scammers have used stolen identities to plunder tens of billions of dollars in Covid benefits, spiriting the money overseas in a massive transfer of wealth from U.S. taxpayers, officials and experts say.

And they say it is still happening. Among the ripest targets for the cybertheft have been jobless programs. The federal government cannot say for sure how much of the more than $900 billion in pandemic-related unemployment relief has been stolen, but credible estimates range from $87 million to $400 billion — at least half of which went to foreign criminals, law enforcement officials say.

Those staggering sums dwarf, even on the low end, what the federal government spends every year on intelligence collection, food stamps or K-12 education.

“This is perhaps the single biggest organized fraud heist we’ve ever seen,” said security researcher Armen Najarian of the firm RSA, who tracked a Nigerian fraud ring as it allegedly siphoned millions of dollars out of more than a dozen states.

Jeremy Sheridan, who directs the office of investigations at the Secret Service, called it “the largest fraud scheme that I’ve ever encountered.”

“Due to the volume and pace at which these funds were made available and a lot of the requirements that were lifted in order to release them, criminals seized on that opportunity and were very, very successful — and continue to be successful,” he said.

While the enormous scope of Covid relief fraud has been clear for some time, scant attention has been paid to the role of organized foreign criminal groups, who move taxpayer money overseas via laundering schemes involving payment apps and “money mules,” law enforcement officials said.

“This is like letting people just walk right into Fort Knox and take the gold, and nobody even asked any questions,” said Blake Hall, the CEO of ID.me, which has contracts with 27 states to verify identities.

Officials and analysts say both domestic and foreign fraudsters took advantage of an already weak system of unemployment verification maintained by the states, which has been flagged for years by federal watchdogs. Adding to the vulnerability, states made it easier to apply for Covid benefits online during the pandemic, and officials felt pressure to expedite processing. The federal government also rolled out new benefits for contractors and gig workers that required no employer verification.

In that environment, crooks were easily able to impersonate jobless Americans using stolen identity information for sale in bulk in the dark corners of the internet. The data — birthdates, Social Security numbers, addresses and other private information — have accumulated online for years through huge data breaches, including hacks of Yahoo, LinkedIn, Facebook, Marriott and Experian.

At home, prison inmates and drug gangs got in on the action. But experts say the best-organized efforts came from abroad, with criminals from nearly every country swooping in to steal on an industrial scale.

“They were literally calling this easy money,” said Ronnie Tokazowski, a senior threat researcher at Agari, a security firm, who has been monitoring dark web communications by West African fraud gangs.

In some cases, overseas organized crime groups flooded state unemployment systems with bogus online claims, overwhelming antiquated computer software benefits in blunt-force attacks that siphoned out millions of dollars. On several occasions, states have had to suspend benefit payments while they tried to figure out what was real and what was not.

“It’s definitely an economic attack on the United States,” said FBI Deputy Assistant Director Jay Greenberg, who is investigating cases as part of the Justice Department’s Covid fraud task force. “Tens of billions of dollars will be missing. … It’s a significant amount of money that’s gone overseas.”

Under the Pandemic Unemployment Assistance program for gig workers and contractors, people could apply for retroactive relief, claiming months of joblessness with no employer verification possible. In some cases, that meant checks or debit cards worth $20,000, Hall said.

“Organized crime has never had an opportunity where any American’s identity could be converted into $20,000, and it became their Super Bowl,” he said. “And these states were not equipped to do identity verification, certainly not remote identity verification. And in the first few months and still today, organized crime has just made these states a target.”

Sheridan, whose purview at the Secret Service includes financial crimes, pointed out that the stolen sums far exceed the annual cost of ransomware, a problem estimated to cost the economy $20 billion a year, which has commanded outsize media attention.

The windfall for criminal groups will fuel other types of crime, including drug and human trafficking, he said.

“These groups that are profiting so greatly from these types of schemes, they engage in a host of other crimes,” he said. “Drug trade, crimes against children, more sophisticated cyber-related fraud. And this money is basically an investment to them to conduct more extensive criminal operations … some of which include crimes that will compromise national security.”

Missed opportunities

By the time states recognized the extent of the criminality, the spigot of cash had been gushing for months.

“Nobody really understood how big the problem was until it was playing out,” said Najarian, the RSA security researcher. “We all accepted that there was fraud taking place, organized fraud and local fraud. But what we didn’t realize … was that the organized fraud was very aggressive and very efficient and moving very, very large sums of money offshore.”

The investigative journalism site ProPublica calculated last month that from March to December 2020, the number of jobless claims added up to about two-thirds of the country’s labor force, when the actual unemployment rate was 23 percent. Although some people lose jobs more than once in a given year, that alone could not account for the vast disparity.

The thievery continues. Maryland, for example, in June detected more than half a million potentially fraudulent unemployment claims in May and June alone. Most of the attempts were blocked, but experts say that nationwide, many are still getting through.

The Biden administration has acknowledged the problem and blamed it on the Trump administration.

“There is perhaps no oversight issue inherited by my Administration that is as serious as the exploitation of relief programs by criminal syndicates using stolen identities to steal government benefits,” Biden said in a statement in May as the government announced a Justice Department Covid fraud task force.

The Biden administration has allocated $2 billion to shore up state unemployment systems. That appears to be badly needed, because states have failed to take basic steps to improve identity verification, according to the Labor Department’s inspector general.

In a memo in February, the inspector general reported that as of December, 22 of 54 state and territorial workforce agencies were still not following its repeated recommendation to join a national data exchange to check Social Security numbers. And in July, the inspector general reported that the national association of state workforce agencies had not been sharing fraud data as required by federal regulations.

Twenty states failed to perform all the required database identity checks, and 44 states did not perform all recommended ones, the inspector general found.

“The states have been chronically underfunded for years — they’re running 1980s technology,” Hall said.

Not a victimless crime

Along with the huge losses inflicted on the U.S. Treasury, the criminals also hurt tens of thousands of people, many of whom suffered delays in getting much-needed benefits.

When Yvonne Matlock lost her job last year as a fundraiser for an Indiana addiction treatment center, she applied for unemployment benefits online, like millions of other Americans.

But she was told she was already getting relief money.

“Somebody had gotten ahold of my Social Security number and set up an account in my name. It seems as though it was really easy for them to do,” she said.

She said it was an ordeal to verify her identity with the state and get her benefits.

“I sent them everything but a blood sample,” she said. “I sent my driver’s license, my Social Security card, my gun permit — which they issued, by the way — my W-2 forms.”

“I sent more than what they asked me for and was still denied,” Matlock added.

She finally got the benefits after three months. And then she was victimized again. Somebody else stole her identity and diverted $1,200. Police are investigating.

The detective “said I’ll do my best, [but] the chances of us finding this person are pretty slim,” she said.

So far, there has been relatively little recovery of the stolen cash — or accountability for the criminals who took it.

The FBI has opened about 2,000 investigations, Greenberg said, but it has recovered just $100 million. The Secret Service, which focuses on cyber and economic crimes, has clawed back $1.3 billion. But the vast majority of the pilfered funds are gone for good, experts say, including tens of billions of dollars sent out of the country through money-moving applications such as Cash.app.

‘Sick to my stomach’

The government does not seem to know how much has been stolen.

Through a public records request, NBC News obtained data from the Labor Department, which funds Covid relief unemployment benefits programs, that are riddled with blank values and underestimates. The data list just over a billion dollars in fraud across the three CARES Act unemployment programs — a figure experts say is off by orders of magnitude.

In fact, state officials have made statements that refute their own reporting into the Labor Department data system. California, for example, appears to have reported only $2 million in fraud across CARES Act programs, despite publicly having acknowledged over $11 billion in unemployment fraud after an audit in January. State officials said early this year that projected losses could reach $31 billion.

More than two-thirds of states, 34, reported no cases of identity theft overpayments in the most vulnerable unemployment benefits program. Experts say that simply is not accurate.

The inspector general pointed out in a recent report that the Labor Department reduced testing and reporting requirements on state unemployment systems during the pandemic.

One result is that the public is in the dark about the scope of the fraud.

“It makes me sick to my stomach, particularly when I see how much is coming out of my taxes each month for unemployment,” said John Wilson, Agari’s field chief technology officer.

The inspector general has projected that there will be $87 billion in misspent unemployment funds, a conservative estimate that assumes no spike in fraud rates. Both the inspector general and the FBI declined to offer an estimate of what the actual value of lost funds might be.

ID.me’s estimate of $400 billion comes from the data the company has seen across the states, Hall said.

ID.me implements extra verification steps beyond paper or digital records, requiring people, for example, to prove through FaceTime that their faces match the ones on the drivers’ license. As a result, fraudsters have used Barbie dolls, silicon masks and deep fake videos in an unsuccessful effort to beat the system, he said.

A Nigerian fraud group strikes

One of the few examples in which analysts have pointed the finger at a specific foreign group involves a Nigerian fraud ring dubbed Scattered Canary by security researchers. The group had been committing cyberfraud for years when the pandemic benefits presented a ripe target, Najarian said.

“The moment the pandemic hit, that was the next big thing that they jumped on, and they did a great job exploiting that opportunity,” he said.

Scattered Canary took advantage of a quirk in Google’s system. Gmail does not recognize dots in email addresses — John.Doe@gmail.com and JohnDoe@gmail.com are routed to the same account. But state unemployment systems treated them as distinct email addresses.

Exploiting that trait, the group was able to create dozens of fraudulent state unemployment accounts that funneled benefits to the same email address, according to research by Najarian and others at Agari.

In April and May of 2020, Scattered Canary filed at least 174 fraudulent claims for unemployment benefits with the state of Washington, Agari found — each claim eligible to receive up to $790 a week, for a total of $20,540 over 26 weeks. With the addition of the $600-per-week Covid supplement, the maximum potential loss was $4.7 million for those claims alone, Agari found.

Scattered Canary and other groups made use of so-called money mules — witting or unwitting third parties who moved the stolen funds through bank accounts so they could be transferred out of the country, Najarian said.

Cash App, which describes itself as “the easiest way to send money, spend money, save money, and buy cryptocurrency,” has been frequently used by fraudsters to move money, law enforcement officials and private consultants said.

“When you use the app, you can quickly and easily convert everything over to Bitcoin,” Tokazowski said. “Within like 10 minutes, you can get that cash converted and sent on its way.”

Cash App said in a statement that it has “enhanced our systems to monitor and act upon deposits that we deem to be risky, despite coming from largely trusted sources like state unemployment agencies. We also partner with law enforcement and government agencies to investigate potential fraud and work collaboratively to return those funds when possible.”

Rufai, the Nigerian official, is accused of having used 100 fraudulent claims to steal $350,000. He is being held without bail after having been transferred from New York to Washington state. He has been placed on leave from his government job, said his attorney, Lance Hester.

Federal officials have not linked the cases to Scattered Canary. But at a detention hearing, prosecutors portrayed Rufai as a significant player in cyberfraud going back to 2017.

“This is a defendant who is charged with participating in a massive fraud on the United States,” said Seth Wilkinson, an assistant U.S. attorney in Seattle, according to a public transcript. “It is someone who exploited our country’s efforts to take care of its own people during the biggest emergency of our lifetime.”

Hester said he could not comment because he had not had a chance to speak with his client in detail.

“I know he stands strongly behind his not guilty plea,” Hester said.

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Source: ‘Easy money’: How international scam artists pulled off an epic theft of Covid benefits

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