What We Know About Why Some People Never Get Covid 19

Americans who haven’t had covid-19 are now officially in the minority. A study published this week from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that 58% of randomly selected blood samples from adults contained antibodies indicating that they had previously been infected with the virus; among children, that rate was 75%.

What is different about that minority of people that hasn’t yet gotten infected? Stories abound of close calls, of situations where people are sure they could have (or should have) gotten sick, but somehow dodged infection. Not all the questions are answered yet, but the question of what distinguishes the never-covid cohort is a growing area of research even as the US moves “out of the full-blown” pandemic. Here are the possibilities that scientists are considering to explain why some people haven’t contracted the virus.

They behave differently

We’ve seen it play out time and time again—some people adhere more strictly to protocols known to reduce transmission of the virus, including wearing a mask and getting vaccinated. Some people avoid large public settings and may have even been doing so before the pandemic, says Nicholas Pullen, a biology professor at the University of Northern Colorado. Then again, that doesn’t tell the whole story; as Pullen himself notes: “Ironically, I happen to be one of those ‘never COVIDers’ and I teach in huge classrooms!”

They’ve trained their immune systems

The immune system, as any immunologist or allergist can tell you, is complicated. Though vaccination against covid-19 can make symptoms more mild for some people, it can prevent others from contracting the illness altogether.

Growing evidence suggests that there may be other ways that people are protected against the virus even without specific vaccines against it. Some could have previously been infected with other coronaviruses, which may allow their immune systems to remember and fight similarly shaped viruses. Another study suggests that strong defenses in the innate immune system, barriers and other processes that prevent pathogens from infecting a person’s body, may also prevent infection.

An innate immune system that’s already not functioning as well due to other medical conditions or lifestyle factors such as sleep or diet may put a person at higher risk of getting sick from a pathogen. There’s not single answer here yet, but initial studies are intriguing and may offer avenues for future treatments for covid-19 and other conditions.

They’re genetically different

In the past, studies have found interesting associations between certain genetic variants and people’s susceptibility to communicable diseases such as HIV, tuberculosis, and the flu. Naturally, researchers wondered if such a variant could exist for covid-19. One June 2021 study that was not peer reviewed found an association between a genetic variant and lower risk of contracting covid-19; another large-scale study, focused on couples in which one person got sick while the other didn’t, kicked off in Oct. 2021.

“My speculation is that something will be borne out there, because it has been well observed that resistance embedded in genetic variation is selected in pandemics,” Pullen says. But most experts suspect that even if they are able to identify such a variant with some certainty, it’s likely to be rare. For now, it’s best for those who haven’t gotten covid to assume they’re as susceptible as anyone else. Whatever the reasons some people haven’t yet gotten sick, the best defense remains staying up to date with vaccinations and avoiding contact with the virus.

Source: What we know about why some people never get covid-19 — Quartz

“Being exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus doesn’t always result in infection, and we’ve been keen to understand why,” study author Rhia Kundu said in a statement, using the scientific name for the coronavirus. “We found that high levels of pre-existing T cells, created by the body when infected with other human coronaviruses like the common cold, can protect against COVID-19 infection.”

The study, which examined 52 people who lived with someone who contracted the coronavirus, found that those who didn’t get infected had significantly higher levels of T cells from previous common cold coronavirus infections. T cells are part of the immune system and believed to protect the body from infection. “Our study provides the clearest evidence to date that T cells induced by common cold coronaviruses play a protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection,” study author Ajit Lalvani said in a statement.

Researchers cautioned that the findings should not be relied upon as a protection strategy. “While this is an important discovery, it is only one form of protection, and I would stress that no one should rely on this alone,” Kundu said. “Instead, the best way to protect yourself against COVID-19 is to be fully vaccinated, including getting your booster dose.” And the findings on the subject have been inconsistent, with other studies actually suggesting that previous infection with some coronaviruses have the opposite effect.

A major question that has come from the so-called ‘never COVID’ group is whether genetics plays a role in preventing infection. In fact, the question has spurred a team of international researchers to look for people who are genetically resistant to COVID-19 in the hopes that their findings could improve therapeutics. “What we are doing essentially is that we are testing the hypothesis that some people might not be able to get infected because of their genetic and inborn makeup, meaning that they might be genetically resistant to COVID,” says Spaan, who is a member of the COVID Human Genetic Effort.

The effort has sequenced genetic data from about 700 individuals so far, but enrollment is ongoing and researchers have received thousands of inquiries, according to Spaan. The study has several criteria, including laboratory test confirmation that the person has not had previous COVID-19 infection, intense exposure to the virus without access to personal protective equipment like masks and an unvaccinated status at the time of exposure, among others. So far, the group doesn’t know what the genetic difference could be – or if it even exists at all, though they believe it does.

“We do not know how frequent it is actually occurring,” Spaan says. “Is it like a super rare individual with a very, very rare mutation? Or is that something more common?” But the hypothesis is “embedded in human history,” according to Spaan. “COVID is not quite the first pandemic that we are dealing with,” Spaan says. “Humans have been exposed to viruses and other pathogens across time from the early beginning, and these infections have left an imprint on our genetic makeup.”

Those who haven’t gotten the coronavirus are “very much at risk,” says Murphy of Northwestern University. “I think every unvaccinated person is going to get it before this is over.” Experts stressed that research to determine why some people get COVID-19 while others don’t is still very much underway, and no one should rely on any of the hypotheses for protection. Instead, those who haven’t gotten the coronavirus should continue mitigation measures that have been proven to work, like vaccination and mask-wearing.

“You don’t ever want to have COVID,” Murphy says. “You just don’t know which people are going to get really sick from this and die or who’s going to get long COVID, which is hard to diagnose and difficult to treat and very real.” But with coronavirus cases on the rise and mitigation measures like mask mandates dropping left and right, it’s not an easy task.

COVID19: Face masks could return as cases spike Financial Mirror

06:48 Tue, 21 Jun
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An Omicron Surges Spark Chain Reactions That Strain US Hospitals Everywhere

America’s hospitals and their workforces have reached and exceeded their breaking points in the last two years — and another surge of Covid-19 is already underway.

Earlier this month, with a new wave of Covid-19 cases looking likely after the omicron variant was identified, Rhode Island emergency doctors wrote their state leaders to warn that any new surge of patients would “lead to collapse of the state health care system.” In Kansas, patients in rural hospitals have been stuck in the ER for days while they wait for a transfer to a larger hospital with the capacity and resources to care for them.

With the fast-spreading omicron variant now upon us, some of the rhetoric around the pandemic has changed. Government officials, starting with President Joe Biden, are pointedly differentiating between the risks for vaccinated and unvaccinated people. This could create the perception that some places face more of a risk than others: Perhaps omicron will threaten rural communities (where vaccination rates are lowest) and their health systems, but perhaps more vaccinated cities and their hospitals will be better off.

Such thinking would be misguided. As convoluted and sometimes siloed as the US health system may seem at times, it is still a system. Patients transfer between facilities based on capacity or clinical need. If rural hospitals are shipping seriously ill patients to their urban neighbors, which already tend to run close to capacity even in normal times, a rural Covid-19 crisis could quickly become a crisis for everybody.

One hospital being overwhelmed isn’t a one-hospital problem, it’s an every-hospital problem. Even if your community is not awash with Covid-19 or if most people are vaccinated, a major outbreak in your broader region, plus all the other patients hospitals are treating in normal times, could easily fill your hospital, too. That makes it harder for the health system to treat you if you come to the ER with heart attack symptoms or appendicitis or any acute medical emergency.

Already, because of existing staffing shortages, rural hospitals are finding it difficult to find room for their patients at larger hospital systems. With omicron spreading rapidly, increasing the number of patients seeking care while sidelining health workers who have to quarantine, systemic overload may not be far off.

“When you have a Covid patient who needs ICU care, those hospitals are turning away patients,” Carrie Saia, CEO of Holton Community Hospital, located in a town of 3,000 people about 90 minutes east of the Kansas City metropolitan area, told me earlier this month. “We’re sending our patients farther away. Not because they’re full, they’re just out of staff.”

At earlier points in the crisis, large hospitals would limit transfers from smaller facilities in order to preserve their capacity to treat the most seriously ill patients. As a new wave driven by the omicron variant takes off, that could happen again.

As Karen Joynt Maddox, a practicing cardiologist and associate professor of medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, told me in August: “During Covid surges, we were told to limit transfers only to patients who had needs that could not be met at their current hospital (i.e. decline transfers because the family requested it, but equal services available at both places) because that was the only way we could make sure that we did have the ability to accept patients that only we (or another major referral center) could handle.”

The feedback loop works in reverse as well. Recently, the HCA hospital in Conroe, Texas, about 40 miles north of Houston, was dealing with such a staffing shortage in its emergency department that the facility temporarily asked ambulances to bypass it because the ED couldn’t handle any more patients, according to a spokesperson. Suddenly, hospitals in the heart of Houston were seeing an unexpected surge of patients who needed emergency care, causing long wait times at their facilities.

America’s hospitals are all in this together. So what can we do quickly to relieve the burden for all of our hospitals and prevent unnecessary deaths?

How we can all help hospitals handle a surge in omicron patients

Last week, the Biden White House detailed a new plan for helping hospitals handle the coming surge of Covid-19 patients. They are deploying emergency medical personnel to six states: Michigan, Indiana, Wisconsin, Arizona, New Hampshire, and Vermont. They are also planning to deploy another 1,000 military doctors and nurses in January and February, as well as ordering FEMA to work with states to add hospital beds. The White House also said it had 100,000 ventilators in the federal stockpile that could be deployed as needed.

Those policies could certainly help to alleviate the pressure on hospitals in places facing particularly acute crises. But the truth is, they can only do so much. US hospitals cannot suddenly grow the staff and physical capacity to handle another enormous surge of Covid-19 patients.

Infected medical workers add to the strain on hospitals. Hospitals have seen a spike in nurses and doctors testing positive; by late December, the El Centro Regional Medical Center, about two hours east of San Diego near the US-Mexico border, was seeing 5 to 10 percent of its staff either infected or being tested for exposure at any given time, according to CEO Adolphe Edward. Other hospitals have told me they are also seeing a growing number of workers test positive, which requires them to stop working and isolate.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently revised its isolation protocols for health care workers who test positive for Covid-19, shortening the standard isolation period from 10 days to 7 (if accompanied by a negative test). But that still takes doctors and nurses out of commission for several days if they contract the virus. (On Monday, the CDC released new guidelines for the general public stating that those who test positive can stop isolating after five days if they do not have symptoms.)

“You can send all the ventilators you want,” Roberta Schwartz, executive vice president at Houston Methodist Hospital, told me. “I have no one to staff them.”

Nearly 99 percent of rural hospitals said in a survey released in November they were experiencing a staffing shortage; 96 percent of them said they were having the most difficulty finding nurses. According to a September study commissioned by the American Hospital Association, the average cost of labor expenses for each discharged patient has grown by 14 percent in 2021 — even as the number of full-time employees has dropped by 4 percent.

“The only things I can think of could not be accomplished in two weeks,” Peter Viccellio, associate chief medical officer at Stony Brook University Hospital in New York, said. “We have a severe staffing shortage everywhere, and it’s not going to go away. It existed before Covid, and Covid just exacerbated it.”

Some policy changes — smoothing schedules that better distribute surgeries (and therefore patient volume) throughout the day or week, earlier discharges or more weekend discharges — could help. “But this won’t happen without a mandate,” Viccellio said.

“We won’t prevent future catastrophes because of a very simple reason. It requires that we think of the future and plan for it,” he added. “You can see how that’s working out. We can’t frigging plan for one month from now.”

More money from the federal government could also allow hospitals to beef up their staffing, said Beth Feldpush, senior vice president of policy and advocacy at America’s Essential Hospitals, which represents critical access facilities. But all of these policies targeted directly to hospitals may only help at the margins. The American health system’s capacity is what it is — the time to act was long ago. Instead, the US health care system is behind many of its wealthy peers in the number of practicing medical staff in its hospitals.

So the quickest and surest action to prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed is actually to prevent people from needing to go to the hospital with Covid-19 in the first place, hospital leaders said. Get vaccinated — with three doses. Wear masks indoors in public places. Test before you see people who don’t live in your house.

Following the pandemic playbook can make a difference for hospitals bracing for another grim winter in this pandemic.

“The more we can help keep the public protected, the more we can keep our workers here,” Schwartz said, “and lessen the burden of this.”

Dylan Scott

I grew up in Ohio, lived in Las Vegas for a year and moved to Washington in 2011. I cover health care and other domestic policy. You’ll probably see me tweeting about Cleveland sports or the last movie I watched.

Source: An omicron Covid-19 surge anywhere can strain US hospitals everywhere

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CDC Recommends Cutting Covid Isolation Time To 5 Days For Some Healthcare Workers

With hospitals in some areas struggling with staffing shortfalls amid a nationwide surge of Covid-19 cases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control revised its guidelines Thursday to recommend that healthcare workers who contract Covid-19 but display mild-to-moderate symptoms and are not moderately or severely immunocompromised can return to work five days after symptoms first appear, down from 10 days previously.

Key Facts

Healthcare workers who contract the virus should also wait until at least 24 hours after their last fever without the use of fever-reducing medications and must wait until symptoms like coughing and shortness of breath have improved, according to the guidelines.

Some hospitals have voluntarily adopted a seven-day isolation period for infected staff, the New York Times reported.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises someone who tests positive to go into isolation for 10 days. Critics say that the policy does not take into account how the pandemic has developed over the last two years.

Omicron is now the dominant strain in the U.S. Although more transmissible than prior variants and amid a spike in breakthrough infections among the fully vaccinated, the strain so far appears to be causing milder symptoms.

The CDC also recommended that hospitals cancel all non-essential procedures and visits if necessary to mitigate staffing shortages. Other new CDC guidelines also revised rules for workers who have higher-risk exposure to Covid-19, such as having their eyes, nose or mouth exposed to material possibly containing the virus, but who are not confirmed to have been infected.

In general, asymptomatic workers who have been exposed to the virus in this way do not require any restriction from work if they have received all recommended vaccine doses, including boosters, the CDC said.

Fauci told CNN reducing the 10-day isolation recommendation would help those without symptoms return to work or school, although added “no decisions” had been made yet.

Key Background

As the spread of the highly transmissible omicron variant raises infection rates across the U.S., hospitals have struggled with worker burnout and understaffing. In Massachusetts, New York and Ohio, the National Guard has been deployed to reinforce overburdened hospital staff, Spectrum News reported. “When it comes to the workforce, it’s fair to say we’re facing a national emergency,” American Hospital Association President Rick Pollack told NPR.

Tangent

Airlines for America, a trade association representing most of the nation’s largest airlines, asked the CDC on Thursday to shorten its quarantine recommendation to five days for fully vaccinated people who have a breakthrough Covid-19 case. A4A CEO Nicholas Calio cited potential worker shortages and operation disruptions amid the omicron coronavirus surge if the quarantine time isn’t reduced.

However, flight attendant union chief Sara Nelson pushed back against the airlines’ call on Thursday, saying it would pose health risks. “Although breakthrough infections are mild, the 10-day isolation is extremely disruptive to people’s lives,” he told Newsweek. “It’s unnecessary if a person is contagious for a significantly shorter period of time,” Adalja noted.

Omicron is the most dominant COVID strain in the U.S., comprising of 73 per cent of new infections last week. But even if proven to have milder systems, there are fears the health care system could be overwhelmed if infections put medical workers out of action.

I cover breaking news for Forbes. Previously, I was editor for The Cordova Times newspaper in Cordova, Alaska. In 2018, I obtained a Master of Journalism

I am a Hawaii-based reporter covering breaking news for Forbes. I graduated from the University of Hawaii with a bachelor’s degree in Journalism and

Source: CDC Recommends Cutting Covid Isolation Time To 5 Days For Some Healthcare Workers

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Related contents:

COVID-19 Vaccines Not Linked To Pregnancy Loss; Mixing Vaccines May Confer Greater Protection

The following is a summary of some recent studies on COVID-19. They include research that warrants further study to corroborate the findings and that have yet to be certified by peer review.

COVID-19 vaccines not linked with pregnancy loss

Two studies in major medical journals add to evidence that COVID-19 vaccines are safe before and during pregnancy. One study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine on Wednesday, tracked nearly 18,500 pregnant women in Norway, including about 4,500 who had miscarriages.

Researchers found no link between COVID-19 vaccines and risk of first-trimester miscarriage, regardless of whether the vaccines were from Moderna, Pfizer and BioNTech, or AstraZeneca. Overall, the women with miscarriages were 9% less likely to have been vaccinated, according to the researchers’ calculations.

In a separate study published on Thursday in The Lancet, researchers tracked 107 women who became pregnant while participating in trials of AstraZeneca’s vaccine in the UK, Brazil and South Africa. Seventy-two of the women had received the vaccine while the others got a placebo. AstraZeneca’s vaccine had no effect on the odds of safely carrying the pregnancy to term, the researchers reported.

“It is important that pregnant women are vaccinated since they have a higher risk of hospitalizations and COVID-19-complications, and their infants are at higher risk of being born too early,” the authors of the Norwegian study wrote. “Also, vaccination during pregnancy is likely to provide protection to the newborn infant against COVID-19 infection in the first months after birth.”

Vaccine combinations with different technologies may be best

Healthcare workers in France who got a first shot of AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 vaccine and then the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for their second shot showed stronger immune responses than those who had received two shots of the Pfizer vaccine, in a recent study. Combining different technologies is known to boost immune responses to other viruses, and the current study suggests it may be true for the coronavirus as well.

Both vaccines in the study deliver instructions that teach cells in the body to make a piece of protein that resembles the spike on the coronavirus and that triggers an immune response. But they do it in very different ways. Both protocols provided “safe and efficient” protection, said Vincent Legros of Universite de Lyon in France, coauthor of a report published on Thursday in Nature.

But combining the AstraZeneca shot with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine “conferred even better protection” than two doses of Pfizer’s shot, including against the Delta variant, Legros said. The two technologies combined induced an antibody response of better quality, with more neutralizing antibodies that could block the virus, and more cells that have been “trained” by the vaccine to have increased defense potential, he said.  Combination vaccination “is safe and may provide interesting options… for clinicians to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection,” Legros concluded.

Cognitive problems seen in middle-aged COVID-19 survivors

A “substantial proportion” of middle-aged COVID-19 survivors with no previous dementia had cognitive problems more than half a year after diagnosis, researchers have found. They looked at 740 people who ranged in age from 38 to 59. About half were white, and 63% were female. On tests of thinking skills, 20% had trouble converting short-term memories to long-term memories, 18% had trouble processing information rapidly, and 16% had trouble with skills needed for planning, focusing attention, remembering instructions, and juggling multiple tasks.

The average time from diagnosis was 7.6 months. About one-in-four patients had been hospitalized, but most of them were not critically ill. “We can’t exactly say that the cognitive issues were lasting because we can’t determine when they began,” said Dr. Jacqueline Becker of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, who co-led the study published on Friday in JAMA Network Open. “But we can say that our cohort had higher than anticipated frequency of cognitive impairment” given that they were relatively young and healthy, Becker said.

Data support use of Pfizer vaccine in children and teens

The Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine showed 90.7% efficacy against the coronavirus in a trial of children ages 5 to 11, the U.S. drugmaker said on Friday in briefing documents submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration but not formally published. The children were given two shots of a 10-microgram dose of the vaccine – a third of the strength given to people 12 and older.

The study was not primarily designed to measure efficacy against the virus. Instead, it compared the amount of neutralizing antibodies induced by the vaccine in the children to the response of recipients in their adult trial. Pfizer and BioNTech said the vaccine induced a robust immune response in the children. Outside advisers to the FDA are scheduled to meet on Tuesday to vote on whether to recommend authorization of the vaccine for that age group.

A separate study from Israel conducted while the Delta variant was prevalent and published on Wednesday in The New England Journal of Medicine, compared nearly 95,000 12- to -18-year-olds who had received Pfizer’s vaccine with an equal number of adolescents who had not been vaccinated. The results show the vaccine “was highly effective in the first few weeks after vaccination against both documented infection and symptomatic COVID-19 with the Delta variant” in this age group, the research team reported.

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Source: COVID-19 vaccines not linked to pregnancy loss; mixing vaccines may confer greater protection | Reuters

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“Q&A on COVID-19, pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding”. http://www.who.int. Retrieved 6 April 2020. Mimouni F, Lakshminrusimha S, Pearlman SA, Raju T, Gallagher PG, Mendlovic J (May 2020). “Perinatal aspects on the covid-19 pandemic: a practical resource for perinatal-neonatal specialists”. Journal of Perinatology. 40 (5): 820–826. doi:10.1038/s41372-020-0665-6. PMC7147357. PMID32277162. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. (March 2020). “Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records”. Lancet. 395 (10226): 809–815. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30360-3. PMC7159281. PMID32151335. “Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy Version 9” (PDF). Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. 13 May 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-06-05. Retrieved 2020-05-14. “Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, Maternal and Newborn Health & COVID-19”. http://www.unfpa.org. Retrieved 5 June 2020. “RCOG and RCM respond to UKOSS study of more than 400 pregnant women hospitalised with coronavirus”. Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. 11 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-12. Knight M, Bunch K, Vousden N, Morris E, Simpson N, Gale C, et al. (June 2020). “Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population based cohort study”. BMJ. 369: m2107. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2107. PMC7277610. PMID32513659. Rimmer MP, Al Wattar BH, et al. (UKARCOG Members) (August 2020). “Provision of obstetrics and gynaecology services during the COVID-19 pandemic: a survey of junior doctors in the UK National Health Service”. BJOG. 127 (9): 1123–1128. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.16313. PMC7283977. PMID32460422. “UK Audit and Research Collaborative in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (UKARCOG)”. ukarcog.org. Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Miller R, Martinez R, Bernstein K, et al. (May 2020). “Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals”. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM. 2 (2): 100118. doi:10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100118. PMC7144599. PMID32292903. Liu D, Li L, Wu X, Zheng D, Wang J, Yang L, Zheng C (July 2020). “Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes of Women With Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Preliminary Analysis”. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 215 (1): 127–132. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23072. PMID32186894. S2CID213185956. Salehi S, Abedi A, Balakrishnan S, Gholamrezanezhad A (July 2020). “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review of Imaging Findings in 919 Patients”. AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology. 215 (1): 87–93. doi:10.2214/AJR.20.23034. PMID32174129. Liang H, Acharya G (April 2020). “Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) in pregnancy: What clinical recommendations to follow?”. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 99 (4): 439–442. doi:10.1111/aogs.13836. PMID32141062. S2CID212569131. Karami P, Naghavi M, Feyzi A, Aghamohammadi M, Novin MS, Mobaien A, et al. (April 2020). “WITHDRAWN: Mortality of a pregnant patient diagnosed with COVID-19: A case report with clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings”. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease: 101665. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101665. PMC7151464. PMID32283217. “Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pregnancy Version 7”. Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-04-14. Coronavirus (COVID-19) Infection in Pregnancy (PDF) (Report). RCOG. 24 July 2020. p. 49. Retrieved 15 September 2020. “International Registry of Coronavirus Exposure in Pregnancy (IRCEP)”. corona.pregistry.com. Retrieved 7 June 2020. Dong L, Tian J, He S, Zhu C, Wang J, Liu C, Yang J (May 2020). “Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected Mother to Her Newborn”. JAMA. 323 (18): 1846–1848. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4621. PMC7099527. PMID32215581. Zeng H, Xu C, Fan J, Tang Y, Deng Q, Zhang W, Long X (May 2020). “Antibodies in Infants Born to Mothers With COVID-19 Pneumonia”. JAMA. 323 (18): 1848–1849. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4861. PMC7099444. PMID32215589. Tripathi S, Gogia A, Kakar A (September 2020). “COVID-19 in pregnancy: A review”. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 9 (9): 4536–4540. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_714_20. PMC7652131. PMID33209759. Qiao J (March 2020). “What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women?”. Lancet. 395 (10226): 760–762. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30365-2. PMC7158939. PMID32151334. 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Some Vaccinated Travelers Are Already Getting Covid-19 Booster Shots But Experts Say That May Be Counterproductive

Since January, all travelers must test negative for Covid-19 within 72 hours of entering the U.S. There are many reports in recent months of both vaccinated and unvaccinated travelers testing positive within the last three days of their trip.

This can completely upend re-entry plans because a positive test result means delaying a return to the U.S.. Travelers must get retested until they receive a negative test result and, in the meantime, they must remain in their destination at their own expense, often under quarantine or isolation orders.

To give themselves an extra insurance policy against becoming a breakthrough case, some fully vaccinated American travelers are finagling a third shot of the vaccine a few weeks before leaving on their trip — even though the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has yet to give booster shots an official green light. In some cases, they are simply presenting themselves as unvaccinated at pharmacies or other vaccine providers in order to get another dose. Others are getting a booster with the blessing of their doctors.

“People are acting in their own self-interest, and that doesn’t shock me,” said Dr. Kavita Patel, a primary care physician in Washington, D.C., who served as an advisor on health policy in the Obama administration.

“It’s unfortunate, because there remains no evidence that if you’re under 65 years old and otherwise healthy, that you need a third shot right now,” said Dr. Vin Gupta, a pulmonary critical-care physician and an affiliate assistant professor at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington. “There needs to be guardrails here. We need to understand what three doses mean. Are we protected for five years or just another eight months? There are lots of open questions.”

The Biden administration has urged the FDA to release a booster rollout plan as soon as possible, given that some Americans, including first responders and immunocompromised people, received their initial doses in 2020 and officials want the most vulnerable people to be at the front of the line for boosters.

The FDA is currently evaluating when a wider swath of vaccinated Americans should begin receiving Covid-19 booster shots, which is likely to be either six or eight months after completing their initial doses. “The administration recently announced a plan to prepare for additional Covid-19 vaccine doses, or ‘boosters,’ this fall, and a key part of that plan is FDA completing an independent evaluation and determination of the safety and effectiveness of these additional vaccine doses,” said the agency in a statement.

Pending FDA approval, booster doses might begin rolling out to eligible Americans as early as this month, said U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy on a call yesterday that was hosted by the U.S. Health and Human Services Covid-19 Community Corps.

It’s important for individuals to adhere to the FDA’s recommended timing of a third shot, said Dr. Patel. Just as with any other three-shot vaccine series, the intervals between shots will be gauged to give people robust immunity for a longer period of time.

“That’s actually consistent with what we do with other vaccines. Think of the timing of any pediatric vaccine or the human papillomavirus vaccine,” said Dr. Patel. “What I tell patients is that there’s actually a downside from getting a booster too early. They could be potentially harming themselves six to 12 months down the line. I mean, Covid is not going away.”

While Dr. Patel thinks “it’s inevitable” that everyone will eventually need another shot, “there’s unfortunately a perception that in order to go on a trip and avoid getting sick or avoid potential additional costs, people think that a booster is going to be what they need to do to stay protected. I think a lot of people are just thinking, ‘Well, if two is better than one and three is better than two, at some point, I’ll get four.’ And that’s a very dangerous assumption.”

In other words, instead of rushing to get a third shot before a planned trip, it makes more sense to stick to the optimal timing for a booster shot, then plan future trips accordingly.

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I watch trends in travel. Prior to working at Forbes, I was a longtime freelancer who contributed hundreds of articles to Conde Nast Traveler, CNN Travel, Travel + Leisure, Afar, Reader’s Digest, TripSavvy, Parade, NBCNews.com and scores of other outlets. Follow me on Instagram (@suzannekelleher) and Flipboard (@SRKelleher).

Source: Some Vaccinated Travelers Are Already Getting Covid-19 Booster Shots—But Experts Say That May Be Counterproductive

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