10 Things That Can Affect Your Dreams At Night

Source: 10 Things That Can Affect Your Dreams At Night

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A Little RedBull May Give You Wings, But It Probably Will Not Affect Your Tpe

“Energy drinks” (EDs) often contain high levels of caffeine and sugar, with variable levels of taurine, guarana, other “supplements,” and on occasion, vitamins. Frequently chosen by teens and young adults, the sale of EDs has enjoyed tremendous market growth. Over 4.6 billion cans of the most successful of these beverages, Red Bull, were sold in 2011. This prosperity resulted from the strong, recent worldwide annual growth, such as 11% in the United States, 35% in France, and 86% in Turkey.

Whether consumed alone or with alcohol or other drugs, EDs may have significant physical and behavioral effects (). Marketing materials for EDs often imply that these products will improve energy level, attention span, and physical and/or mental performance . Red Bull has been shown to increase heart rate and blood pressure and can reduce cerebral blood flow; these effects can be potentiated under conditions of stress . EDs were responsible for over 20,000 emergency department visits in the United States in 2011, including a doubling in the incidence between 2007 and 2011.

In this issue of the Anatolian Journal of Cardiology, Elitok et al. reported on the electrocardiographic effects of Red Bull. They had particular interest in Red Bull’s effects on ventricular repolarization. The dispersion of ventricular repolarization (DVR), as indicated by a longer interval between the T wave’s peak and end (Tpe or Tpe/QT), correlates with arrhythmic risk in multiple populations .

The healthy volunteer medical students in this investigation consumed a single can of Red Bull under controlled conditions, and the effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiographic measurements were observed. As expected, both blood pressure and heart rate increased following Red Bull consumption. However, no change in electrocardiographic DVR was found.

Should young club-going people take this news as vindication of their next order for a “vodka and Red Bull?” Can we write off Red Bull’s cardiovascular effects as benign? Not so fast. The absence of an acute effect of a small dose of ED on one arrhythmia risk factor measured only in ECG lead V5 among a relatively small number of healthy young adults at rest does not equate to definite harmlessness. Our understanding of Red Bull’s effects remains incomplete, especially in cases wherein larger doses are consumed, especially by sicker people and under more strenuous conditions.

Would the consumption of five cans of Red Bull affect healthy subjects’ ECGs? Might only one serving of Red Bull affect ECG of a cardiomyopathy patient or ECG of a patient taking other cardiovascular active medications? Does chronic Red Bull consumption have the same or different effects as a Red Bull binge?

Elitok et al. should be congratulated for their interest in exposing potentially dangerous effects of popular EDs. More studies are required for us to declare Red Bull consumption to be harmless. For now, we can take heart in the absence of one signal of potential danger. At least this little bull is not in the proverbial china shop.

Energy drinks have the effects caffeine and sugar provide, but there is little or no evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect. Most of the effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance, such as increased attention and reaction speed, are primarily due to the presence of caffeine. Advertising for energy drinks usually features increased muscle strength and endurance, but there is little evidence to support this in the scientific literature.

A caffeine intake of 400 mg per day (for an adult) is considered as safe from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but most (although not all) place the caffeine content of their drinks on the label anyway, and some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.

Excessive consumption of energy drinks can have serious health effects resulting from high caffeine and sugar intakes, particularly in children, teens, and young adults. Excessive energy drink consumption may disrupt teens’ sleep patterns and may be associated with increased risk-taking behavior. Excessive or repeated consumption of energy drinks can lead to cardiac problems, such as arrhythmias and heart attacks, and psychiatric conditions such as anxiety and phobias.

In Europe, energy drinks containing sugar and caffeine have been associated with the deaths of athletes. Reviews have noted that caffeine content was not the only factor, and that the cocktail of other ingredients in energy drinks made them more dangerous than drinks whose only stimulant was caffeine; the studies noted that more research and government regulation were needed

By: Todd M. Rosenthal and Daniel P. Morin

Source: A little Red Bull may give you wings, but it probably will not affect your Tpe

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As COVID-19 Lockdowns Lift, Fraudsters Shift Focus

What’s the impact on digital fraud as countries ease COVID-19 lockdown restrictions? We recently analyzed billions of transactions in our flagship identity proofing, risk-based authentication and fraud analytics solution suite — TransUnion TruValidate™ — and found the rate of suspected digital fraud attempts across industries rose 16.5% globally when comparing Q2 2020 and Q2 2021.1 In the US, the percentage of digital fraud attempts increased at a similar rate of 17.1% during the same time period.

As fraud attempts on businesses and consumers continue to rise, fraudsters are pivoting to target industries with growing markets. “It’s quite common for fraudsters to shift focus every few months from one industry to another,” said Shai Cohen, Senior Vice President of Global Fraud Solutions at TransUnion.

For example, when looking at financial services, online fraud attempt rates had risen 149% when comparing the last four months of 2020 to the first four months of 2021. Yet, when comparing Q2 2021 to Q2 2020, the rate of suspected online financial services fraud attempts has risen at a much lower rate of 38.3% in the US (18.8% globally).

Where are fraudsters turning their efforts globally? We found gaming, and travel and leisure rose 393.0% and 155.9%, respectively when comparing the percent of suspected digital fraud in Q2 this year and last. In the US, during the same time periods, these rates rose 261.9% for gaming and 136.6% for travel and leisure.

Global Industry Year-over-Year Suspected Digital Fraud Attempt Rate Increases and Declines in Q2 2021

Industry Suspected fraud percentage change Top type of fraud
Largest percentage increases
Gaming 393.0% Gold farming
Travel & Leisure 155.9% Credit card fraud
Gambling 36.2% Policy/License agreement violations
Largest percentage declines
Logistics -32.74% Shipping fraud
Telecommunications -16.35% True identity theft
Insurance -8.33% Suspected ghost broker

Fraudsters capitalize on new opportunities as travel begins to reopen

While volumes remain lower than pre-pandemic levels, travel has seen a significant increase. The daily US Transportation Security Administration (TSA) screenings for many days in April 2020 were below 100,000. However, the busiest day in April 2021 had 1,572,383 screenings, reflecting the growing number of travelers.

Cybercriminals are taking note and acting accordingly. “Fraudsters tend to seek out industries that may be seeing an immense growth in transactions. This quarter, as countries began to open more from their COVID-19 lockdowns, and travel and other leisure activities became more mainstream, fraudsters clearly made this industry a top target,” noted Cohen.

In addition to leveraging credit card fraud (the top type of digital fraud reported to TransUnion by its travel and leisure customers), fraudsters are also quickly adapting to target desperate travelers. Recently, the US State Department temporarily shut down their online booking system for all urgent passport appointments in response to a group of scammers using bots to book all available appointments and sell them for as high as $3,000 to applicants with urgent travel needs.

More than one-third of consumers say they’ve been targeted by COVID-19-related digital fraud

While travel and leisure, and gaming saw the largest increases in suspected digital fraud, 36% of consumers participating in TransUnion’s Consumer Pulse study said they’d been targeted  by a digital fraud scheme related to COVID-19 — across all industries — during Q2 2021.

Phishing was the leading type of COVID-19-related digital fraud impacting consumers in Q2 2021. Stolen credit card or fraudulent charges was the second most cited type of COVID-19-related online fraud, affecting 24% of global consumers.

Suspected Digital Fraud Attempt Rate Increasing Worldwide

For more digital fraud findings, see our entire infographic here.

“One in three people globally have been targeted by or fallen victim to digital fraud during the pandemic, placing even more pressure on businesses to ensure their customers are confident in transacting with them,” said Melissa Gaddis, Senior Director of Customer Success, Global Fraud Solutions at TransUnion. “As fraudsters continue to target consumers, it’s incumbent on businesses to do all that they can to ensure their customers have an appropriate level of security to trust their transaction is safe all while having a friction-right experience to avoid shopping cart abandonment.”

How our TruValidate suite helps businesses detect and prevent fraud

TransUnion Global Fraud Solutions unite consumer and device identities to detect threats across markets while ensuring friction-right user experiences. The solutions, all part of the TransUnion TruValidate™ suite, fuse traditional data science with machine learning to provide businesses unique insights about consumer transactions, safeguarding tens of millions of transactions each day.

Source: As COVID-19 Lockdowns Lift, Fraudsters Shift Focus | TransUnion

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Five Steps To Making The Perfect Iced Coffee at Home

Buying an iced coffee can be hit and miss. Although it is absurdly simple on paper – coffee served over ice and stirred with milk – there are all manner of variables that can affect quality. So, perhaps it’s best you just make your own. I spoke to Stuart Wilson, the founder of Whitstable-based speciality roastery Lost Sheep Coffee and Lynsey Harley of the Fife roastery and Edinburgh cafe Modern Standard, on how to make the perfect version at home.

Step one: coffee

You have three choices here, but the foundation of each is the right sort of bean. “I would recommend a Brazilian or a Colombian,” says Wilson. “You want a nice, sweet, full-bodied coffee … preferably single origin.” This is important. Coffee blends – which is to say a mixture of coffee from different countries – are typically designed to be brewed hot. When combined with heated milk, their natural sugars are brought to the fore.

If you use a blend to make iced coffee, this process doesn’t occur and the finished product might be more acidic than you expect. Wilson’s advice is to “get the purest, most fulfilling flavour in its simplest form, because then there’s less to go wrong”. Also important: don’t buy pre-ground coffee from supermarkets. The quality is poor, the grind isn’t fine enough for espresso, and it will be staler than if you buy direct from a roaster.

‘Don’t buy pre-ground coffee from supermarkets ...’
‘Don’t buy pre-ground coffee from supermarkets …’ Photograph: Tharakorn/Getty Images/iStockphoto

The easiest option: capsules
If you are in a hurry, the quickest way to make an iced coffee is to use a Nespresso (or equivalent) machine. Plenty of specialty roasters make Nespresso-compatible pods, many of which are now, thankfully, compostable.

The expensive option: espresso machine
If you are lucky enough to have an espresso machine at home, you can also get your shot of hot coffee this way. The key here is consistency. When Wilson makes an espresso, the process is exact: “We weigh out exactly 18.5 grams of freshly ground coffee, and then tamp it softly and evenly. We would then time the espresso extraction, a good starting point is 30 seconds, and weigh the espresso extraction at the end, to ensure that we have 30 grams of espresso”.

The longest option: cold brew
If neither of these are available, you can try making your own cold brew. This requires a lot more time, because cold water won’t dissolve the coffee’s solubles as much or as quickly as hot water. You may also want to choose a different type of bean for this method since, as Harley points out: “You’ll probably want light to medium roasts, as anything darker might be too bitter”.

The recipe is simple, though: take your cafetière, add 120g of coarsely ground coffee per litre of cold water, stir (but definitely do not plunge), and leave in the fridge for 24 hours. After that, you can plunge it, or feed it through a filter, then decant it into a jug or pot. This is your cold brew coffee. But remember, as Wilson says, this will be weaker than an espresso extraction, so use a double shot for the iced coffee.

Step two: sweeten

Now, theoretically, you have chosen and prepared the perfect type of coffee in the perfect way, which means it should be sweet enough to drink as is. But if you do need to add sugar, do so when you are pouring the hot coffee. If you’re using a cold brew, put sugar in the glass before the coffee. If you’re using a capsule or an espresso machine, sweeten the drink before you tip it into the glass.

Step three: serve over ice

iced coffee
Photograph: Burak Karademir/Getty Images

Good news, the hardest part is over. Wilson describes the rest of the process as simply: “Coffee in, ice over the top, milk, stir,” but let’s break that down a bit. Your shot of (hot, unless you’ve cold brewed) coffee goes in the bottom of a glass. Now it’s time to add the ice. You want to fill the glass between a third and a half with ice, to cool the coffee down. Your first few cubes will melt quickly, because of the heat of the coffee. The alternative method is to blend the ice, but this has its own pitfalls.

As Harley says: “Blended drinks just change the dilution of the coffee, so blending the ice with the milk and espresso turns it more into a slushie. If people want to blend the ice, they might want to consider increasing their espresso, maybe adding another double, so that once blended it tastes more balanced. But I’m more of a cube purist. I like just to have a chilled drink, and not a blended one.”

Step four: add milk

Now you top up the glass with milk. Again, personal preference comes before anything else here, so feel free to experiment with what works for you, but Wilson thinks that “full-fat milk” gives a more full-bodied flavour. But milk alternatives will work just as well. If you’re non-dairy, Harley suggests avoiding soy milk, since “the acidity in the coffee can often split soy and that’s not ideal”. Instead, she says, “Oat milk works well cold, and it adds a really lovely biscuity flavour to the iced coffees. Coconut milk is another good substitute, and it’s a good summer flavour, too.”

Step five: stir vigorously

Your coffee is almost ready. The final step, according to Wilson, is to stir. “I’m not talking electric whisks,” he says. “I’m talking a good four or five full stirs around the cup. What you want to do is get the coffee, the milk and the ice to combine and chill down hard, and then you get that really nice, ice coldness all the way through.”

Stuart Heritage

By:

Source: Brew master: five steps to making the perfect iced coffee at home | Coffee | The Guardian

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How the New Child Tax Credit Is Helping Parent Entrepreneurs

Eligible parents are slated to receive their monthly child tax credit payments starting Thursday. How you use the money could affect your business or help you start one.

The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 expanded the tax credit score to $3,600 per baby underneath the age of six and to $3,000 for these aged six to 17. It is in impact only for 2021, although Biden has advocated making it making it everlasting.

Half of the funds might be despatched to folks in installments via December. For instance, a mum or dad with one baby underneath six would obtain $300 per 30 days. Dad and mom can declare the remainder upon submitting taxes for 2021–unless they choose out to allow them to obtain all the cash once they file.

Madilynn A. Beck, founder and CEO of Palm Springs, California-based Fountful–an app that gives “life-style providers” like manicures or DJ appearances on demand–is contemplating that strategy. Beck says that if she meets her enterprise targets this 12 months, Fountful might generate sufficient income to considerably enhance her tax burden come subsequent April. “I am protecting my head above water now,” she says. “What occurs if I’m absolutely underwater then and do not have a life vest?”

The kid tax credit score will have an effect on individuals at a “wide selection” of earnings ranges, says Daniel Milan, managing accomplice at Cornerstone Monetary Providers primarily based in Southfield, Michigan. For aspiring entrepreneurs, it’d offset childcare prices for just a few months whereas they work on getting a enterprise off the bottom. For others, the cash might simply assist alleviate day by day monetary stress.

That is the case for Ruby Taylor, CEO and founding father of Baltimore-based Monetary Pleasure Faculty, which supplies monetary literacy training and produces a card sport that teaches the topic to younger individuals. In April 2021, she and her spouse’s monetary scenario modified consequently of the pandemic however they nonetheless needed to cowl issues like a brand new roof and fence for his or her home.

Their financial savings account dwindled, and Taylor’s nervousness spiked, leading to her occurring blood stress and nervousness treatment. The additional $500 the mom of two expects to obtain means the couple can construct up their security web once more, taking the stress off each of them. “When she’s not pressured, I am not pressured,” Taylor says. It “will assist the enterprise not directly, as a result of I may be extra productive.”

Guardian entrepreneurs face the extra problem of staying current with spouses and kids, says James Oliver Jr., founder and CEO of ParentPreneur Basis, an Atlanta-based nonprofit that helps Black mum or dad founders financially and with an internet neighborhood (of which Beck and Taylor are each members).

 Month-to-month funds “may very well be the distinction of sending the youngsters to summer season camp, shopping for further groceries, taking a bit trip, or taking the youngsters to the amusement park as soon as a month to assist the household bond,” he says.

Source: How the New Child Tax Credit Is Helping Parent Entrepreneurs | Inc.com

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Critics:

The Internal Revenue Service today launched two new online tools designed to help families manage and monitor the advance monthly payments of Child Tax Credits under the American Rescue Plan. These two new tools are in addition to the Non-filer Sign-up Tool, announced last week, which helps families not normally required to file an income tax return to quickly register for the Child Tax Credit. The new Child Tax Credit Eligibility Assistant allows families to answer a series of questions to quickly determine whether they qualify for the advance credit.

The Child Tax Credit Update Portal allows families to verify their eligibility for the payments and if they choose to, unenroll, or opt out from receiving the monthly payments so they can receive a lump sum when they file their tax return next year. This secure, password-protected tool is available to any eligible family with internet access and a smart phone or computer. Future versions of the tool planned in the summer and fall will allow people to view their payment history, adjust bank account information or mailing addresses and other features. A Spanish version is also planned.

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