Sympathy vs. Empathy: The Key Differences & Social Uses

The suffix -pathy comes from the Greek word for “suffering,” pathos. The U.S. medical system is built around pathology, which simply means diagnosing suffering and treating disease. Similarly, mental health professionals find social connections critically important to the ways that people cope with and overcome suffering, grief, and trauma. Words like sympathy, empathy, and even apathy describe the nuanced differences between the very complex social connections and reactions humans display when we are suffering or when we witness others in pain.

While subtle behavioral differences might seem obvious to therapists, counselors, and psychologists, it’s not so easy for everyone else. So we spoke to Atlanta-based therapist Habiba Zaman, LPC, NCC, Pepperdine University professor of psychology Steven M. Sultanoff, Ph.D., and licensed clinical psychologist Bruce L. Thiessen, Ph.D., about simple ways to define sympathy and empathy—and their relationship to compassion.

Defining sympathy.

“Sympathy is when you understand someone else’s suffering and feel sorrow or pity for the experience they are facing,” Zaman explains. “It involves having a value judgment on someone else’s experience.”

While often well intentioned, this value-judgment-centered response often creates a palpable distance between the person in pain and the person who is listening. So, Zaman says, sympathy is often extended when a person doesn’t necessarily relate to, fully comprehend, or appreciate the circumstances of suffering facing someone they know or love.

“The emotion of sympathy is my experience of (reaction to) your situation. Sympathy lacks understanding,” Sultanoff adds. “When you are sympathetic, you get caught up in your own emotional reaction to how you are experiencing the world. This, for the most part, does not demonstrate any understanding of the person in distress.”

He notes that sympathy can create a barrier to understanding that can be activated because a sympathetic person may shift focus away from the person in distress to focus on themselves instead. Sympathy is the emotional reaction of the listener, who might say things like “I feel so sorry that this is happening to you,” or “I get so angry just listening to your story.” Other common ways it can show up are as pity (e.g., “I feel so bad for you”) or even as envy (e.g., “I’m sorry for your loss, but I sure wish I had as much time with my loved ones as you did”).

Defining empathy.

“When one expresses empathy, one draws upon personal experience, in relating to another person in the midst of a similar experience or hardship,” Thiessen explains. “An example of an empathetic statement might be, ‘I also have recently lost a loved one and know what it feels like to experience that deep sense of sorrow and grief.”

He says that this sense of commonality is a key differentiator between empathy and sympathy.

“Empathy is the ability to feel intimately and see the other person’s perspective. It is not just to understand what they are going through but rather, being able to walk in the other person’s shoes,” Zaman explains. “It is being able to say, ‘I am here to feel with you’ and let you know you are not alone.”

She adds that empathy is best defined by how the listener connects with the person in pain. Without judgment, an empathetic person would try to create and hold space for a person’s feelings and experiences. Empathy, which can be taught and honed over time, involves honoring how a person in pain sees their own situation, even if that is not how others might view it.

Understanding the key differences.

When it comes to understanding the key differences between empathy and sympathy, there are both internal and external factors to keep in mind. Sympathy and empathy are largely distinguished by external behavioral and performative aspects, which most people believe are a reflection of how the listener internally feels about the person who is suffering. Instead, the experts say that the difference is more about the relationship between the listener and the sufferer.

On the outside, sympathy often appears socially distant, like a one-off message of condolences, with no follow-up. Zaman says this is because sympathy lacks intimacy, but there may be situational reasons why that might be the case. In certain corporate settings or power structures, it might be appropriate to emotionally withhold to maintain decorum or to preserve group dynamics that extend beyond just the listener and the person in pain. Social dynamics and the appropriateness of displaying curiosity toward a person in pain might make a listener moderate their naturally emotive behavior.

“Sympathy is used in social situations where there isn’t an intimate connection between two people. It would be perfectly appropriate in a corporate environment to experience sympathy from coworkers or a boss. A card or flowers that share in acknowledging grief is perfectly acceptable and is expected in those environments because anything more could be perceived as inauthentic, unless that initial and genuine connection is there,” Zaman says.

Meanwhile, she says, that very same gesture of sending a card and flowers might be wholly inadequate for lifelong friends. Thus, the relationship and social context between the people involved is very important.

Also, no matter how close or distant the relationship, Sultanoff says that empathy is an internal experience of feeling caring, concern, and understanding toward another human being or living creature that is best shown through active and reflective listening.

“Responding by repeating back (but not parroting) what you heard from the other person, while especially attending to their feelings, demonstrates focus on the person and letting go of your own internal distractions,” he says.

In an attempt to be empathetic, a person who genuinely wants to help might share problem-solving advice, but Sultanoff says that this behavior does not necessarily show empathy for the other person’s immediate emotional state. In many ways, the difference between sympathy and empathy is the desire to understand the experience of a person who is suffering, not necessarily the drive to stop their suffering.

What about compassion?

“Both empathy and sympathy, when coming from a place of sincerity, are sensations and open expressions of compassion,” Thiessen says. After all, compassion, which simply means “to suffer together,” is an expression of caring and warmth.

He says that compassion from empathy typically comes from sharing similar experiences with another person, but compassion from sympathy can be just as useful. “For example, the act of researching the types of suffering experienced by an abused child might increase a person’s sympathy for abused children, regardless of whether or not the researching party had ever been a victim of child abuse,” offers Thiessen.

And this ability to extend emotions beyond one’s own personal experience is good because compassion allows humans to be motivated to alleviate harms they, personally, have never experienced.

“Expressions of compassion, be they in the form of empathy, or sympathy, or some palpable act of kindness, can be experienced as a healing balm on the psyche and the soul,” Thiessen says.

Moreover, that emotional inspiration can spark activism, philanthropy, or public advocacy in the service of moral causes that are far-reaching and socially impactful. In this way, actively cultivating compassion can allow an observer in one situation to be a force for change in many others.

The bottom line.

In the simplest of terms, empathy is an internal emotion that is directed outward toward another person, Sultanoff says. It demonstrates a true understanding of the other person, without any personal biases interfering with that understanding. Sympathy, however, is internally directed.

If you are watching someone in mourning or grief, empathy is focused on understanding the person in pain, while sympathy is focused on your reaction to watching that person deal with their pain. “From a mental health perspective, empathy is very healing, and sympathy is not,” Sultanoff says.

“Generally, it feels better to be the recipient of empathy than simply sympathy, because it allows for a point of connection and intimacy. Also, an expression of sympathy may be more difficult to trust unless it is coming from a genuine relationship and a place of genuine concern,” Thiessen summarizes.

All that said, both feelings can serve socially positivity purposes when tied with compassion and action.

Nafeesah Allen, Ph.D.
Nafeesah Allen, Ph.D.

Nafeesah Allen, Ph.D., is an American writer and independent researcher with a particular interest in migration, literature, gender identity, and diaspora studies within the global South. She completed her Ph.D. in Forced Migration from the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. She completed a postgraduate diploma in Folklore & Cultural Studies at Indira Gandhi National Open University in New Delhi, India. She completed a Masters of International Affairs at Columbia University in 2009 and graduated cum laude from Barnard College at Columbia University in 2006.

Originally from New Jersey, she has lived in Spain, India, Mozambique, Angola, and South Africa. She speaks four languages (reads in three), but primarily publishes in English. Her writing placements range from popular trade magazines like Better Home & Gardens, Real Simple, and Whetstone to academic journals like Harvard’s Transition Magazine, the Centre for Feminist Foreign Policy, and the Oxford Monitor.

Source: Sympathy vs. Empathy: The Key Differences & Social Uses | mindbodygreen

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Responding To Microaggressions In The Classroom

The term “microaggression” was coined in 1970 to name relatively slight, subtle, and often unintentional offenses that cause harm (Pierce, 1970). Since then, a substantial body of research on microaggressions has demonstrated their prevalence and harmful effects (Boysen, 2012; Solorzan, et. al., 2010; Suárez-Orozco, et. al., 2015; Sue, 2010).

Whether an observer, the target, or the unintentional perpetrator of microaggressions, faculty often don’t know how to respond to them in the moment. We may feel frozen (if the observer) or defensive (if the target or perpetrator). How we respond can shift the communication climate from supportive to defensive, which can have an adverse effect on student learning and comfort (Dallimore, et al, 2005; Souza, et al, 2010).

Despite the feelings of paralysis or reactivity that tend to emerge in response to microaggressions in the classroom, certain practices can be implemented to increase the likelihood of maintaining a supportive climate. The following communication framework is offered as one of many possible response strategies to help faculty feel better equipped to effectively respond when a microaggression occurs.

I developed this framework (first introduced in Chueng, Ganote, & Souza, 2016) as an interactive response one could take to a microaggression by a student in the classroom. The acronym and steps below provide a guide on how to take ACTION rather than feeling frozen when faced with a microaggression.

Ask clarifying questions to assist with understanding intentions.

“I want to make sure that I understand what you were saying.  Were you saying that…?”

Come from curiosity not judgment.

  • Listen actively and openly to their response.
  • If they disagree with your paraphrase and clarify a different meaning, you could end the conversation. If you suspect they are trying to “cover their tracks,” you may consider making a statement about the initial comment to encourage learning.

I’m glad to hear I misunderstood you, because, as you know, such comments can be…”

  • If they agree with your paraphrase, explore their intent behind making the comment.

Can you tell me what you were you hoping to communicate with that comment?”

“Can you please help me understand what you meant by that?

Tell what you observed as problematic in a factual manner.

“I noticed that . . .”

Impact exploration: ask for, and/or state, the potential impact of such a statement or action on others.

“What do you think people think when they hear that type of comment?”

“As you know, everything speaks. What message do you think such a comment sends?”

“What impact do you think that comment could have on …”

Own your own thoughts and feelings around the impact.

“When I hear your comment I think/feel…”

“Many people might take that comment to mean…”

“In my experience, that comment can perpetuate negative stereotypes and assumptions about… I would like to think that is not your intent.”

Next steps: Request appropriate action be taken.

“Our class is a learning community, and such comments make it difficult for us to focus on learning because people feel offended. So I am going to ask you to refrain from stating your thoughts in that manner in the future. Can you do that please?”

“I encourage you to revisit your view on X as we discuss these issues more in class.”

“I’d appreciate it if you’d consider using a different term because it is inconsistent with our course agreement regarding X…”

When practiced, the ACTION framework can be a tool that is quickly retrieved out of your mental toolbox to organize your thoughts and unpack the microaggression in a way that addresses the situation and cools down tension.

When students make comments that are microaggressive in the classroom, doing nothing is a damaging option (Souza, Vizenor, Sherlip, & Raser, 2016). Instead, we can engage thoughtfully and purposively in strategies that maintain a positive climate that is conducive to learning and models the skills needed in responding to microaggressions in any context (Souza, 2016).

By:

Source: Responding to Microaggressions in the Classroom: Taking ACTION

.

Related contents:

“Neurobiology of Escalated Aggression and Violence”. Journal of Neuroscience. 27 (44): 11803–11806. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3500-07.2007. ISSN 0270-6474. PMC 2667097. PMID 17978016.Buss, A. H. (1961). The psychology of aggression. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.Wahl, Klaus (2020).

The Radical Right. Biopsychosocial Roots and International Variations. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 47. ISBN 978-3-030-25130-7. OCLC 1126278982.Wahl, Klaus (2013).

Aggression und Gewalt. Ein biologischer, psychologischer und sozialwissenschaftlicher Überblick. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 978-3-8274-3120-2. OCLC 471933605.

Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.McEllistrem, Joseph E. (2004). “Affective and predatory violence: A bimodal classification system of human aggression and violence”. Aggression and Violent Behavior. 10 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2003.06.002.

Relational Aggression Among Students Principal Leadership, October, copyright the National Association of Secondary School Principals

“International Court May Define Aggression as Crime”. The New York Times.Nathaniel Snow

Violence and Aggression in Sports: An In-Depth Look (Part One) (Part 2Part 3) Bleacher Report, 23 March 2010

Journal of Psychiatric Research. 41 (6): 488–92. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.04.009. PMID 16765987.Barbara Krahé (11 February 2013).

The Social Psychology of Aggression: 2nd Edition. Psychology Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-136-17772-9.Elizabeth Kande Englander (30 January 2003).

Understanding Violence. Psychology Press. pp. 55–86. SBN 978-1-135-65676-8.Merriam-Webster: Aggression Retrieved 10 January 2012

Online Etymology Dictionary: Aggression Retrieved 10 January 2012Stearns, D. C. (2003).

Anger and aggression. Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Paula S. Fass (Ed.). Macmillan Reference Books

Developmental Origins of Aggression, 2005, The Guilford Press.

“Numerical assessment affects aggression and competitive ability: A team-fighting strategy for the ant Formica xerophila”. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 273 (1602): 2737–42. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3626. JSTOR 25223670. PMC 1635503. PMID 17015327.

Lethal intergroup aggression leads to territorial expansion in wild chimpanzees”. Current Biology. 20 (12): R507–8. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.04.021. PMID 20620900. S2CID 6493161.Issa, F. A.; Adamson, D. J.; Edwards, D. H. (1999).

Dominance hierarchy formation in juvenile crayfish procambarus clarkii”. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 202 (24): 3497–506. doi:10.1242/jeb.202.24.3497. PMID 10574728.

“Individual Variation in Social Aggression and the Probability of Inheritance: Theory and a Field Test” (PDF). The American Naturalist. 167 (6): 837–52. doi:10.1086/503445. hdl:10871/26263. PMID 16615035. S2CID 12094679.

Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates ISBN 0-19-507119-0

Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: The male warrior hypothesis”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 367 (1589): 670–9. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0301. JSTOR 41433544. PMC 3260849. PMID 22271783.uss, D.M. (2005).

The murderer next door: Why the mind Is designed to kill. New York: Penguin Press.

“The evolution of aggression”. In Schaller, M.; Simpson, J. A.; Kenrick, D. T. (eds.). Evolution and Social Psychology. New York: Psychology Press. pp. 263–86.Briffa, Mark (2010).

“Territoriality and Aggression”. Nature Education Knowledge. 3 (10): 81.Archer, John (2009).

Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression?” (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 32 (3–4): 249–66, discussion 266–311. doi:10.1017/S0140525X09990951. PMID 19691899.

The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, edited by David M. Buss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Chapter 21 by Anne Campbell.[page needed]Zuk, M. “

Sexual Selections: What We Can and Can’t Learn about Sex from Animals.” University of California Press, 2002[page needed]

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Why Indecision Makes You Smarter

Indecision can seem like a wholly undesirable trait. But research shows it might actually lead to smarter judgements. In the TV series The Good Place, the character Chidi Anagonye is defined by his inability to make even the simplest of decisions – from choosing what to eat, to proclaiming love for his soulmate. The very idea of making a choice often results in a serious stomach-ache. He is stuck in continued ‘analysis paralysis’.

We meet Chidi in the afterlife, and learn that his indecisiveness was the cause of his death. While standing in the street, endlessly equivocating on which bar to visit with his best friend, an air-conditioning unit from the apartment above falls on his head, killing him instantly.

“You know the sound that a fork makes in the garbage disposal? That’s the sound my brain makes all the time,” he says in one episode. And besides making himself unhappy, Chidi’s lack of confidence in his own judgements drives the people around him crazy.

If that sounds like an exaggerated version of you, then you are not alone: indecisiveness is a common trait. While some people come to very quick judgements, others struggle to weigh up the options – and may even try to avoid making a choice at all.

As Chidi shows, indecisiveness can be linked to problems like anxiety, yet recent research suggests that it can also have an upside – it protects us from common cognitive errors like confirmation bias, so that when the person does finally come to a judgement, it is generally wiser than those who jumped to a conclusion too quickly. The trick is to learn when to wait, and when to break through the inertia while it’s holding you back.

The enemy of good

Psychologists have various tools to measure indecisiveness. One of the most common questionnaires – the Frost Indecisiveness Scale – asks participants to rate a series of statements on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). They include:

  • I try to put off making decisions
  • I have a hard time planning my free time
  • I often worry about making the wrong choice
  • It seems that deciding on the most trivial thing takes me a long time

Using this scale, psychologists have shown that indecisiveness is often a product of perfectionism. Perfectionists are scared of the shame or regret that may come with making the wrong choice – and so they put off making decisions until they feel certain they are doing the right thing. (And in some cases, of course, they simply never reach that level of confidence.)

The frustration this brings can be a barrier to happiness; in general, the higher someone scores on the scale above, the lower they will score on measures of life satisfaction, according to a study by Eric Rassin, a professor of psychology at Erasmus University, in the Netherlands. They are less likely to endorse statements such as “the conditions of my life are excellent”, for example, or “if I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing”.

Jumping to conclusions 

From these results, indecisiveness would seem like a wholly undesirable trait. Recent research, however, suggests that the struggle to come to a quick conclusion – as uncomfortable as it may be – can also have an upside, since it protects people from some important cognitive biases. 

Evidence for these benefits comes from a recent paper by Jana-Maria Hohnsbehn, a doctoral researcher, and Iris Schneider, a professor of social psychology, at the TU Dresden (Technische Universität Dresden).

Rather than using the Frost Indecisiveness Scale, Hohnsbehn and Schneider focused on a measure of “trait ambivalence”, which looks more specifically at the thoughts and feelings underlying someone’s judgement and decision-making (or lack thereof). For example, people are asked to rate statements such as:

  • My thoughts are often contradictory
  • I often feel torn between two sides of an issue
  • Sometimes when I think about a topic, it almost feels like I am physically switching from side to side

“If these statements resonate with us, then we are probably high in trait ambivalence,” says Hohnsbehn.

As you might expect, those high in trait ambivalence take a longer time to make decisions. But Hohnsbehn and Schneider found that they are also less prone to bias when coming to their judgements.

For example, in one experiment, she asked her participants to read a series of scenarios, such as:

You meet a person, and you would like to find out whether he/she is an introvert or extrovert. You guess that the person is an extrovert. Which of the following two questions would you ask?

  • Do you like spending time at home alone?
  • Do you like going to parties?

Many people pick the second question, but this is a sign of confirmation bias – you are only looking for the information that agrees with your assumption, rather than looking for evidence that you may be wrong. Hohnsbehn and her colleagues found that people with high trait ambivalence were less likely to do this. Instead, they chose to interrogate their assumption, in order to make sure they had the information they needed to come to a correct answer.

For another experiment, the participants read about an employee, Mr Müller, who was seeking to get his contract renewed. After making a preliminary decision about whether to allow Mr Müller to continue in the role, the participants were given some additional statements, which were ostensibly from industry experts about Mr Müller. Some of these statements agreed with the participants’ initial decisions, while others disagreed.

The participants’ task was to rate the credibility and importance of each one. Hohnsbehn and Schneider found that the people scoring high on ambivalence tended to be more open-minded to the statements that disagreed with their initial point of view, and rated them more highly for their credibility and importance – whereas those who showed little trait ambivalence were more likely to discount them.

These findings are important, since confirmation bias is one of our most common cognitive errors, preventing us from analysing evidence rationally in everything from our personal relationships to our political views. Trait ambivalence helps protect us from this kind of oversimplistic thinking – and may also help us with other forms, too.

Studies by Schneider, for instance, suggest that people with high trait ambivalence are also less prone to “correspondence bias”, which is a tendency to ignore the context of someone’s behaviour and to instead attribute any failures and successes directly to the person themselves. To give a straightforward example: if someone slips over, correspondence bias might lead us to conclude that they are inherently clumsy (an internal factor), rather than recognising the slipperiness of the floor (an external factor).

Correspondence bias might also lead us to assume that someone struggling in their education simply lacks intelligence, rather than considering the strains of their financial difficulties or their responsibilities within the family. People with high trait ambivalence are more likely to recognise those other factors than people who form quick and confident judgements.

Action over inaction 

Hohnsbehn’s research should be good news if you’ve ever felt impatient with your inability to come to a quick decision. “The general experience of being ambivalent needs to be embraced,” she suggests. “It can give us necessary pause, signalling to us that things are complex and that we need more time to engage in more careful thought about our decision.”

It is only when this becomes excessive that we face problems. “As with most things, there is a balance that needs to be struck,” adds Hohnsbehn. That might explain why indecisive people often score lower on those measures of life satisfaction – their ambivalence, when facing important choices, has become overwhelming.

One simple step might be to set a time limit for your final decision so that you do not spend too much time ruminating on the different options without actually gaining any new insights. Depending on the type of problem you are facing, Hohnsbehn suggests you might even consider turning it into a series of tasks – such as devoting two hours to the search for new information, for example, before spending a certain amount of time deliberating.

If you still feel paralysed, you might find inspiration in a study by Steven Levitt, an economist at the University of Chicago, which examined people’s overall happiness after making important life changes.

Levitt, who is a co-author of the book Freakonomics, set up a website where people described various dilemmas they were facing in their lives – from getting a tattoo to moving house, returning to education or quitting their jobs. The participants were then asked to flip a coin, the outcome of which would tell them whether or not to make the change. 

Following up with the participants over the following months, Levitt found many people had taken the plunge; if the coin toss had told them to take action, they were more likely to make the life change. And they reported being significantly happier than those who had simply carried on as before (regardless of whether the coin had told them to or not), without quitting, moving or getting that tattoo.

We can guess that, before the study, most of these participants had already been thinking carefully about the situation at hand, but their worries about making the wrong choice had prevented them from taking the plunge. The coin had simply acted as a small nudge to finally overcome their ambivalence.

The moral of the study, then, is not that we should make all decisions on the whim of a tossed coin. It is that breaking through your hesitancy and doubt will leave you happier than you might imagine. “A good rule of thumb in decision making is, whenever you cannot decide what you should do, choose the action that represents a change, rather than continuing the status quo,” concluded Levitt.

Like Chidi in The Good Place, we can weigh up all the pros and cons of every situation – and that ambivalence will help us to make wiser choices. Once that ambivalent thinking has served its purpose, however, you must learn to cast it aside – safe in the knowledge that any decision is often better than making no choice at all.

By David Robson

David Robson is a science writer and author of The Expectation Effect: How Your Mindset Can Transform Your Life, published by Canongate (UK) and Henry Holt (USA) in early 2022. He is @d_a_robson on Twitter.

Source: Why indecision makes you smarter – BBC Worklife

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Related contents:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM 5 diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. In DSM 5 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

Appel, H., Englich, B., & Burghardt, J. (2021). “I Know What I Like”–Indecisiveness Is Unrelated to Behavioral Indicators of Evaluation Difficulties. Frontiers in psychology, 4042.

irn, R. M., Roeber, B. J., & Pollak, S. D. (2017). Early childhood stress exposure, reward pathways, and adult decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(51), 13549-13554.

Cavedini, P., Gorini, A., & Bellodi, L. (2006). Understanding obsessive–compulsive disorder: focus on decision making. Neuropsychology review, 16(1), 3-15.

Ferrari, J. R., & Olivette, M. J. (1993). Perceptions of parental control and the development of indecision among late adolescent females. Adolescence, 28(112), 963-970.

Hartley, C. A., & Phelps, E. A. (2012). Anxiety and decision-making. Biological psychiatry, 72(2), 113–118.Kaur, R., & Singh, S. (2019).

A Study Of Relationship Between Career Decision Making And Parenting Style Among Adolescents. Editorial Board, 8(12), 61.Lauderdale, S. A., Martin, K. J., & Moore, J. (2019).

Aversive indecisiveness predicts risks for and symptoms of anxiety and depression over avoidant indecisiveness. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 37(1), 62-83.Leykin, Y., Roberts, C. S., & DeRubeis, R. J. (2011).

Decision-making and depressive symptomatology. Cognitive therapy and research, 35(4), 333-341.Murphy FC, Rubinsztein JS, Michael A, Rogers RD, Robbins TW, Paykel ES, et al. (2001).

Decision-making cognition in mania and depression. Psychological Medicine. 31:679–693.Nielen, M. M. A., Veltman, D. J., De Jong, R., Mulder, G., & Den Boer, J. A. (2002).

Decision making performance in obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 69(1-3), 257-260.Pushkarskaya, H., Tolin, D., Ruderman, L., Kirshenbaum, A., Kelly, J. M., Pittenger, C., & Levy, I. (2015).

Decision-making under uncertainty in obsessive–compulsive disorder. Journal of psychiatric research, 69, 166-173.Yates, J. F., Ji, L. J., Oka, T., Lee, J. W., Shinotsuka, H., & Sieck, W. R. (2010).

Indecisiveness and culture: Incidence, values, and thoroughness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41(3), 428-444.

Overthinking: Definition, Causes, & How to Stop

Self-Doubt: Definition, Causes, & How to Overcome It

Acceptance: Definition, Theory, & Tips

Negativity: Definition, Bias, & Tips to Stop It

19 Ways To Be Your Authentic Self

Mindlessness: Definition, Theory & Examples

​Ambivalence: Definition, Examples, & Tips​​

How to Make Better Decisions: 14 Smart Tactics for Curbing Your Biases, Managing Your Emotions, And Making Fearless Decisions in Every Area of Your Life!

Overcoming Anticipatory Anxiety: A CBT Guide for Moving past Chronic Indecisiveness, Avoidance, and Catastrophic Thinking

​Overcoming Indecisiveness: The Eight Stages of Effective Descision-Making

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Here’s How To Stop Succumbing To Financial Peer Pressure

Photo: Rawpixel.com (Shutterstock)

No one wants to be the friend who always has to miss dinners, concerts, and vacations because of their strict budget. Maybe you’re unexpectedly tight on cash all of a sudden, or maybe your friend group has slowly but surely fallen victim to lifestyle creep. Whatever your reasons, saying “no” to well-intentioned friends and family is one of the most challenging aspects to keeping your spending in check.

If you’ve noticed that you’re spending more than you’d like to be because of the company you keep, here are some tips to resist financial peer pressure without tarnishing your relationships.

 

Be transparent about your budget

There are two main perks to letting those around you know that you’re sticking to a budget. First off, good friends will respect your boundaries and be less likely to pressure you into spending more than you’re comfortable with.

Secondly, you’ll be more likely to hold yourself accountable. Rather than feeling the pressure to spend, you’ll feel pressure to save. The key here is to be casual, but firm. You don’t want others to feel like you’re complaining, asking for help, or passing judgment on their spending habits.

Be prepared to say no

If you struggle to say no to someone’s face, it helps to prepare for situations where you know there’s likely to be financial peer pressure. Write yourself a tentative script, e.g. “I can’t afford that right now, what about [alternative solution]?”

Think up activities or propose locations that you know are within your budget. If possible, it also helps to take initiative with choosing restaurants and making plans, so you can avoid having to reject someone else’s expensive ideas. Here’s a list of ideas for social plans that won’t break the bank.

If your friends insist on something you can’t afford at the moment, be ready to stick to your “no.” And if you’re constantly finding yourself in this uncomfortable position, it might be time to find new friends.

Find new friends

If you’re being priced out of your friend group, it’s time to rethink who you spend your time around. It sounds harsh, but real friends will spend time with you for cheap.

People don’t need to share your exact spending habits in order to respect your budget and your boundaries. If someone in your life doesn’t want to make time to get together without the pressure to spend money, that might be a friendship you’re outgrowing.

By Meredith Dietz

Source: Here’s How to Stop Succumbing to Financial Peer Pressure

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Critics by

Studies have shown that credit card spenders are willing to pay almost twice more than those who are paying with cash. This means we are willing to spend more when using credit cards.This can be explained by what psychologists call, “the pain of paying”. Whenever we make a purchase, this activates the pain processing regions in our brain. They light up even with the anticipation of making the decision to purchase something.

Paying with credit cards reduce the “pain of paying” because it makes money less tangible than when paying with cash. This is because when you pay with cash, you’re actually handing the money over and watching it disappear. Ouch!But when using a credit card, the card is always returned to the customer or the customer just taps the card to pay, so you don’t see the money disappear.

Switching to a cash-only budget can be a great way to keep your spending on track as you work towards your financial goals.This means you’ll use cash for all of your spending needs. If this is not realistic for your lifestyle, then consider moving to a cash-only budget for spending categories that tend to bust your budget. 

Commons spending categories that many people struggle includes groceries, restaurants, clothing, beauty & makeup, entertainment, and kids’ stuff.For example, if you’re spending too much money on clothes each month or have trouble cutting back on eating out, then withdraw a certain amount of cash each week for these spending categories.

his means you’ll only use cash when spending in this specific budget category, such as $50 per week for clothing. Once the cash is gone from your envelope, it’s gone! Don’t be tempted to move money around from different spending categories to cover clothing costs. Wait until next week when you can refill your envelope with $50 to pay for clothing.

You can use cash envelopes for ANY category to help you tack back control of your spending. It’s a fun and simple way to stick to your budget. Below is an in-depth guide on how to get started with cash envelopes.

How to follow the cash envelope method without cash

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Related contents:

Truss sought personal trainer to help her through her mini budget stress Mail Online

Looking for a Budget Rescue? A Personal Loan Could Be the Answer The Motley Fool

What Is a Personal Inflation Rate And How Can It Help You Budget As a Recession Looms? NasdaqHave you got a budget? If not, it’s probably time to start budgeting and here are some tips, says SIMON LAMBERT This is Money

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How To Avoid Common Thinking Traps

The mind is a tricky thing. It can lead us to believe that we can confidently sing “Bohemian Rhapsody” at karaoke even though we haven’t heard the song in years, or that one terrible review on Yelp is reason enough not to go to a 4-star rated restaurant.

These thinking errors are what people in the psychology community call cognitive biases. And that’s the focus of a new book out this month, Thinking 101: How to Reason Better to Live Better, by Yale psychology professor Woo-kyoung Ahn. In the book, Ahn highlights some of the most pernicious cognitive slip-ups we make — and how biases can cloud our judgment and affect the people around us.

Researchers suspect that many of these biases are evolutionary, says Ahn. During times of scarcity, our ancestors had to make quick judgments in order to survive among predators or thrive in a difficult environment. But in a time of abundance, she adds, these quick judgments don’t always do us good.

However, we can do our best to try to correct these thinking traps, says Ahn, which she teaches her students how to do in her popular undergraduate course at Yale. In general, she says, the key is to pause before making assumptions — and be aware of our tendencies for different kinds of bias.

Ahn talks to Life Kit about three common cognitive biases and how to counteract them.

This is known in the field of psychology as an “illusion of fluency,” which describes our tendency to be overconfident in our abilities without sufficient evidence. This can lead us, for example, to bungle career-altering presentations because of inadequate preparation, or dramatically underestimate the time it takes to complete projects.

In her class at Yale, Ahn uses an experiment to illustrate this phenomenon with her students. She shows them a dance clip from the song “Boy with Luv” by the K-pop group BTS. After watching six seconds of the easiest choreography moves over and over again, she invites the students who believe they have the dance down to do it themselves. One after another stumbles.

“People can have overconfidence about what they can accomplish by watching other people do it so fluently,” Ahn says. When the pros dance in a way that looks effortless, they think they can do it effortlessly too.

How to counteract it: You can correct this bias, she says, by doing what the Yale students did: Try it out yourself. It will quickly put any feelings of overconfidence to rest.

You can also fight this tendency by over-preparing and considering potential obstacles beforehand, says Ahn. For example, if you’re working on a home remodeling project for the first time and have no idea how long it will take, don’t try to guess. Talk to friends who went through a recent remodel or consult with a few contractors to understand how long the project might take and what problems may arise. The more information you have, the better and more accurately you can assess a situation.

The bias: We tend to fixate on the negative

The concept of “negativity bias” illustrates our propensity to weigh negative events a lot more heavily than an equal amount of positive events. It explains why a friend’s unenthusiastic review of an Oscar-nominated movie, for example, might spur you to watch something else. Or why you might be less inclined to hire a potential employee after hearing one negative thing about them, despite positive referrals.

Negativity bias can be dangerous because it can lead us to make the wrong choices. It can hold us back from making a decision about something, say a big purchase like a house, or even a political candidate, out of fear there was once a negative event associated with an otherwise good choice.

How to counteract it: When making a choice, play up the positive attributes of your options, says Ahn. Marketers use this tactic all the time. For example, instead of saying that ground beef contains 11% fat, they label it is as 89% lean. These are both true and accurate descriptions of the same product, but flipping the framing of it can make it a more attractive choice for buyers concerned with fat intake.

The bias: We cherry-pick data to fit our worldview

Ahn considers “confirmation bias” — the tendency to seek out or interpret information to support what we already believe — the worst bias of all. That’s because of its potential to lead us to miss an entire range of possibilities for ourselves and others.

Ahn and Matthew Lebowitz, a psychology professor at Columbia University, conducted an experiment in 2017 to illustrate the pitfalls of this bias. They gathered a group of participants and told some of them they had a genetic predisposition to depression – even though they did not. The results of that group’s depression self-assessments showed much higher levels of depression than people in a control group who were told they did not have the predisposition.

Because of confirmation bias, the participants who were told they had a genetic risk of depression retrieved “only the evidence that fit with that hypothesis,” says Ahn. And in doing so, they managed to convince themselves that they were actually depressed. The study shows that if we believe something is a fact, even if it isn’t, our mind can find information to support those views.

Now imagine this bias at work on a societal level. Ahn says it can lead to under- or over-representation in say, leadership in politics, business and other industries, which can feed gender or racial inequality.

She shares an example. Let’s say you’re a male scientist and you’re looking to hire other scientists to join your company. Because you see that the most prominent scientists in your field are currently men, you’ve convinced yourself that the next generation of great scientists will also be men. This colors your decision-making in hiring — and so you fill the positions with men.

That choice will continue to have a ripple effect, says Ahn. For others looking at the new hires, it might perpetuate the idea that “only men can be great scientists — and that’s exactly how prejudice and stereotypes get formed in society.”

How to counteract it: Allow yourself to examine all possible explanations before you make a judgment. For example, if an actor landed a part but her parents were also in the entertainment business, many of us might attribute her employment to nepotism. Since we’ve seen many examples of parents giving their kids a leg up in business or politics, another example of a child benefiting from their parents’ success would fit that theory.

But could it also be true that she gave the best audition? By looking at the issue from many different viewpoints – not just your own – it challenges your confirmation bias. And you might realize that perhaps there is another side to the story.

By:

Source: A Yale psychologist explains how to avoid common thinking traps : Life Kit : NPR

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Critics by The Chelsea Psychology Clinic

Thinking traps are patterns of thought – usually with a negative swing – which prevent us from seeing things as they really are. Otherwise known as cognitive distortions, thinking traps are often deeply ingrained in our psyche. 

By twisting our thoughts, they can make us easily jump to conclusions and make bad decisions – preventing us from seeing the bigger picture. Like this, we can wind up trapped in a vicious cycle with the potential to alter both our mood and the way in which we experience the world around us.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy which holds that our moods and the way we feel day-to-day is impacted by our thoughts and behaviours. In other words, if we can change the way we think, we’re going to change our behaviour which has the power to alter our mood and the way we navigate the world.

Mastering our thoughts, then, is one of the most powerful things we can do if we want to take ownership over our lives. Let’s take a closer look at some of the most common thinking traps. Understanding what a thinking trap looks like is going to help you get better at identifying them.

Common thinking traps – examples of thinking errors 

1.All-or-nothing thinking – seeing everything as black and white. An example might be, “I got fired. I’m rubbish at everything”. In other words, if a situation doesn’t go exactly to plan, you immediately deem it a failure. The problem is, life isn’t black and white – it’s important to be able to see the shades of grey in between.

Replace this with: “Nothing in life is perfect. Even though I didn’t get the job, it doesn’t mean I’m a failure. There are better things to come”.

2. Emotional reasoning – believing emotions to be evidence of the truth. As we explained before, how you feel is normally closely tied to the way you think. So just because you’re feeling rubbish doesn’t mean life is rubbish. An example might be, “I feel useless, therefore I am useless”.

Replace this with: “My feelings are not objective evidence for reality. I can accept all of my feelings but still move forward”.

3. Mind-reading – immediately assuming that someone is thinking something negative about you without having any evidence for it. i.e. you’re jumping to conclusions. 

Replace this with: “I can’t read minds”.

4. Fortune-telling – predicting situations with only negative outcomes. An example might be, “I’m definitely going to fail the exam today”.

Replace this with: “No one can possibly predict the future”.

5. Labelling – wrongly attributing a negative label to either yourself or someone else. An example might be, “I’m a failure” instead of saying “I failed the exam”.

Replace this with: “No one deserves to be judged”.

6. Overgeneralisation – whenever something difficult happens you think it’s going to happen over and over again. An example might be saying, “why does this always happen to me?” This thinking trap particularly likes words like ‘never’, ‘every’ and always’ so look out for them.

Replace this with: “I’m overgeneralising here. It’s very possible that something different will happen next time”.

7. Personalisation – wrongfully assuming responsibility for something. An example might be, “It’s all my fault we didn’t have pudding because I forgot the ice cream”.

Replace this with: “It’s nobody’s fault”.

What if thinking and anxiety

Anxiety is very closely tied to a thinking trap known as catastrophising. Most people will catastrophise from time to time but this kind of thinking is going to be much more prominent in someone suffering from an anxiety disorder. Triggers often centre around ambiguity – perhaps receiving a vague text from a partner, getting ill and suspecting it’s something much worse etc.

This kind of thinking can often be traced back to childhood – for example, growing up with a lot of unpredictability and instability. CBT can be helpful in learning how to manage these thoughts but digging a bit deeper in longer-term therapy can also be beneficial in these cases.

Thinking traps psychology tools – steps to take

Acknowledge that difficult things happen in life – sometimes this acknowledgement alone can be liberating. We simply can’t control everything – ups and downs are an inevitable part of life – but what we can do is change the way we respond.

Identify your thinking traps – get really clear on the specific thinking traps you have a tendency to fall prey to. It can help to keep a mood diary to keep track of moments when you’ve been feeling happy/sad and what immediately preceded those feelings. 

Play devil’s advocate with yourself – ask as many questions as possible before jumping to conclusions. Ask yourself, “is this thought I’m having a fact or is it an opinion?” Most thoughts are actually opinions rather than fact. Not all thoughts need to be taken seriously.

Talk to yourself as you would a friend – most of us would never dream of speaking to a friend the way we speak to ourselves. Be kind to yourself, and try rooting for yourself in the same way you would do a friend. Try using a mantra like, “I believe in you” when self-doubt kicks in.

Say ‘stop’ when worry-ridden thoughts take over – when you notice yourself getting lost in anxious thoughts try saying ‘stop’ out loud as a cue to consciously interrupt your thoughts.

Practice self-care as much as possible – thinking traps tend to get worse the more rundown and tired we are. Make sure you’re doing things that top up your “energy bank” and fill you with a sense of enjoyment and wellbeing.

If left unchecked, thinking traps can spiral and play tricks on us – and leave us feeling trapped. If you’re feeling down or like you’ve fallen into a pattern of habitual negative thinking, it’s really important to seek help. A therapist can help you challenge and overturn thinking patterns that are holding you back so you can begin to realise your full potential.

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Ad Raven                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382796/
Ada leadz                           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376381
ADA Web                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383751/
AdRaven                          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/382851/
Adsense Machine                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/290487
Adtivate Agency                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383706/
AdzHero                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/366972/
AffiliateMatic                 https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381148/
Agency Client Finder                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384619/
AgencyScale                          https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383111/
Agencyscale                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/383113/
AIWA Commercial              https://jvz2.com/c/202927/365061
AIWA22                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377907/
ALL-in-One HD Stock                   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381560
Animaxime                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383307/
Appimize                            https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370227
Appoint B Agency                     https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384630/
Appointomatic               https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374258
Appowls                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381231/
AppOwls                https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381976/ Bundle
Art Of Living                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382425/
Audiencetoolkit              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/302715
Aweber Crash Course                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383057/
Backlinkindexer           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/88118
BevTraders                               http://www.bevtraders.com/?ref=arminham
Big Audio Club                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380087/
BigAudio Club                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380877/
Boost Optimism                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380692/
BrandElevate                  https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381812
BrandElevate                https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381807/
Bybit Crypto Trade                  https://www.bybit.com/en-US/invite?ref=ALEXP
CanvaKitz                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379051/
ChatterPal Commercial                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/324615
Clientfinda                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/370806
Clipsreel                             https://jvz3.com/c/202927/372682
Commission smasher          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/376879
Content Gorilla              https://jvz2.com/c/202927/330783
Content Tool Kit                     https://jvz3.com/c/202927/329145/
CourseAlly eLearning                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384759/
CourseReel                          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/355256/
CourseReel                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/355249
Courserious                       https://jvz8.com/c/202927/360397/
Coursova                         https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376527
Creaitecontentcreator          https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376986
Credit Repair                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/377815/
Crypto Kit                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383809/
Crypto Rocket                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378113/
Crypto Underworld                           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/374345/
Dealcheck                                  https://dealcheck.io?fp_ref=armin16
Design beast               https://jvz6.com/c/202927/371547
Designa Suite License                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/297271
Develop Self Empowerment                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383094/
DFY Content Club                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381337/
DFY Suite                                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/337292
DFY Suite                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381194/
DFY Suite                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381194/
Diabetes Guide                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/358870/
Diddly Pay’s DLCM                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/315596
Diet fitness diabetes              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/286851
Domainname                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377005
Dominate Email             https://jvz4.com/c/202927/386980/
Dropshiply                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383483/
DUX Forex Signals                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/128215/
EBook Agency                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384573/
Ejaculation Total                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/75989/
Email Monetizer                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386337/
EngagerMate                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/328172
EngageYard                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383051/
Extreme Adz                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379244/
Extreme Coupon                  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/216101/
EZ Local Appointmen                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385180/   t
Ezy                https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381935/
Ezy MultiStores               https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381935
Facebook Cash Machine                 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/382333/
Facedrip                          https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376325/
FaceSwap                 https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381768/
Fade To Black                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/344541
Fanpage                          https://jvz4.com/c/202927/144349
Fitness Nutrition                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353334/
Followup Builder                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386313/
Forex Atlatian                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/25069/
Forex Blizz                             https://jvz8.com/c/202927/144577/
Forex Blue Stark                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/47481/
Forex expert                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376877
Forex Hybrid Scalper                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/95037/
Forex Joustar                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381617/
Forex Joustar                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/381617/
Forex Mastery                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/144621/
Forex Scouts                         https://jvz6.com/c/202927/132677/
forrk                                              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/373449
FusionMT4                             https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372523/
FX Goldminer                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381439/
Galactic                         https://jvz1.com/c/202927/188236/
Gaming job                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/184902  s
Genesis Mining                         https://www.genesis-mining.com/a/2535466
Givvy Mobile Lottery             https://givvy-numbers.app.link/qNDZMGGbhsb
Gluten free                              https://jvz4.com/c/202927/296191
GMB Magic                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377194
Graphic Alta           https://jvz2.com/c/202927/324492/
Heal Your Emptiness                         https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384848/
High Converting Emails                  https://jvz3.com/c/202927/386305/
HostLegends                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/384755/
Hostley Domain Creator                        https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379223/
Human Synthesys Studio                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/367353/
ImageX                      https://jvz6.com/c/202927/363237/
IMSyndicator                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/370769
Inboxr                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/312692
Insta Keyword                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/351606/
Instant Website                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377557
InstantWebsiteBundle          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377557
iTraffic X                          https://jvz2.com/c/202927/320466
keysearch                                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/194909
Klippyo Kreators                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/327447
KoinCart                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383555/
Leadvalet                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/385580/
Levidio Royal Podcasting                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384025/
Linkable DFY                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385873/
Linkomatic                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380937/
LiteTrading                                 https://www.litefinance.com/?uid=929237543
Live Your Truth                       https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379020
Living An Intentional Life              https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/382455
Living an International Life                  https://jvz8.com/c/202927/382455/
Local Leader                   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383751/
Local Sites                  https://jvz4.com/c/202927/380543/
LocalAgencyBox                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/359468
LocalCentric                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/379339/
Marketingblocks             https://jvz6.com/c/202927/374934
MarketPresso                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/369837
Mat1 Simple Funnel                            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/380197/
Maxslides                         https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376842
Mech Forex Robot                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/383447/
MediaCloudPro                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/343635
Megasuite                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383953/
Mobi First                          https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353694/
Motion Kingdom Studio                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/383177/
Movid Animation                     https://jvz6.com/c/202927/380385/
MT4Code System                  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376925
My Passive Income                  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/384099/
MyMailIt                              https://jvz3.com/c/202927/292919
MyTrafficJacker               https://jvz2.com/c/202927/353558
Next Drive                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/371095/
NichBox               https://jvz2.com/c/202927/370705/
Organic Life Guide                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/366872/
Photokit                           https://jvz4.com/c/202927/373207/
PicsAds                         https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385468/
PigMoney Metho                     https://jvz4.com/c/202927/377665/   d
PigMoneyMethod                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/377665/
Pitchdeck                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/347847/
Pixal                     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/378775/
Pixivid                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/385213/
PlanB Muscle Growth              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/36517/
PlayerNeos                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/376962
Podcast Advantage                        https://jvz8.com/c/202927/379995/
Podcast Advantage              https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379995/
Podcast Masterclass               https://jvz3.com/c/202927/379998/
PodKastr                 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/369500/
Postradamus                              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/108695
Power Reviews                     https://jvz8.com/c/202927/384625/
Powrsuite                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/376361
PR Rage                        https://jvz4.com/c/202927/343405
prime stocks                              https://jvz8.com/c/202927/369164  prime stocks
Profile mate                           https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049
Promovidz                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/
Push Button Traffic         https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402
QR Verse                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/
Quintex Capital                         https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham
Quit Smoking                           https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/
Reputor                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380159/
ReVideo                     https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381761
ReviewReel                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382663/
Rewriter                      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/353373/
RSI SEO                              https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384381/
Scriptdio                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385387/
Seniors Income                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/
Senuke                                  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/279944
ShopABot                           https://jvz2.com/c/202927/291955
ShopFunnels                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384069/
SocialAgency360                 https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385357/
SociCake                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/321987
Socifeed                          https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375706
SociJam                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649
Soronity                                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/368736
SqribbleEbook                 https://jvz6.com/c/202927/283867
Stackable Picture                        https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385046/
Steven Alvey’s                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/351754
Stoodaio                                    https://jvz1.com/c/202927/372094
Storymate                         https://jvz3.com/c/202927/320972
StreamPilot                        https://jvz2.com/c/202927/385431/
Studioninja                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/374965
Sunday Freebie                             https://jvz1.com/c/202927/267113/
Super backdrop                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524
Superbackdrop                 https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376524
Survai                      https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380933/
Syndranker                          https://jvz3.com/c/202927/378143/
Talkingfaces                      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/375358
Talkingfaces                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/375550
The Internet Marketing                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/289944
Tonai Voice Content           https://jvz8.com/c/202927/383119/
Toon Video Maker                   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/357201
TrafficFor                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/381950/
TrafficForU                   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381950/
Trendio                       https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/
TubePal                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379863/
Tubeserp                        https://jvz3.com/c/202927/370472
TubeTargeter                   https://jvz6.com/c/202927/377211
TV Boss Fire                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/
Ultrafunnels A.I                 https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/
VIADZ Ad Template                    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/
Vidcentric                             https://jvz4.com/c/202927/376095
Viddeyo                                https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382326/
Videevolve                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/381011/
Video Campaignor      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/387058/
Video Games                            https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/
VideoEnginePro                https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372916
VideoGameSuite                     https://jvz3.com/c/202927/366537/
VideoRobot Enterprise                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/291061
VidKreate                        https://jvz6.com/c/202927/386029/
VidMingo                           https://jvz6.com/c/202927/378359/
VidSnatcher                           https://jvz3.com/c/202927/342585
VidVoicer                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379983/
Vidzura                       https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385754/
Viral dash                            https://jvz6.com/c/202927/375959
Viral Quotes            https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386984/
VirtualReel                       https://jvz8.com/c/202927/376849
Vocalic                    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/
VoiceBuddy                      https://jvz1.com/c/202927/342854
WebCop                         https://jvz4.com/c/202927/378683/
Webinarkit                       https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383937/
Webprimo                   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/379455/   Website Builder
WordPress Mastery                       https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/
WOW Backgrounds                      https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381615/
WowBackgraounds                       https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/
WP GDPR                                https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907
WP Simulator                    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/
Writer Arc           https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386602/
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