We often try hard to stay connected to others (e.g., to friends and family). But how do we stay connected to ourselves? Self-connection is a new, important concept, one which I will discuss in the rest of this post. To do so, I describe a recent study by Klussman and colleagues on the development and validation of a new measure called the self-connection scale.
What is self-connection?
Self-connection has three components. These consist of self-awareness, self-acceptance, and self-alignment.
- Self-awareness: Awareness of one’s internal experiences, thoughts, emotions, sensations, preferences, values, intuitions, resources, goals, etc.
- Self-acceptance: Full acknowledgment and acceptance, without judgment, of self-relevant characteristics and experiences. And seeing them as part of us and belonging to us.
- Self-alignment: Using self-knowledge to behave in ways that authentically reflect oneself and fulfill one’s psychological needs (e.g., autonomy).
And mindfulness is closer in meaning to a combination of self-awareness and self-acceptance, but not self-alignment. Let us take a brief look at the research by Klussman and colleagues on the measurement of self-connection.
Investigating the validity and reliability of the self-connection scale
Sample: 308 participants; 49 percent female; average age of 38 years old; 80 percent white; 45 percent with a bachelor’s degree or higher.
- Self-connection: A pool of 29 items
- Authenticity: Authenticity Scale
- Mindfulness: Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised
- Self-concept clarity: Self-Concept Clarity Scale
- Flourishing: Flourishing Scale
- Meaning: Presence of Meaning subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire
Sample: 164 participants; 39 percent female; average age of 36 years old; 77 percent white; 47 percent with a bachelor’s degree or higher.
- Self-connection: The Self-Connection Scale developed in the previous investigation
- Life satisfaction: “In general, how satisfied are you with your life?”
- Positive and negative affect: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
- Anxiety and depression: Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4)
- CDC health measures: CDC Healthy Days Questionnaire
- Health behaviors: Preventive Health Behaviors Scale
Sample: 992 participants; 56 percent female; average age of 34 years old; 72 percent white; 52 percent with a bachelor’s degree or higher.
- Anxiety and depression: PHQ-4
- Eudaimonic well-being: Flourishing Scale and Presence of Meaning subscale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire
- Hedonic well-being: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule
- Self-connection: The Self-Connection Scale
- Self-acceptance: The self-acceptance subscale of Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale
- Self-compassion: The Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form
The Self-Connection Scale demonstrated good reliability and validity. For instance, analysis of data showed it was related to similar constructs—authenticity, mindfulness, self-compassion, self-acceptance, self-concept clarity, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being—yet distinct from them.
In addition, the factor structure of the scale was confirmed.
Testing your self-connection
To determine your level of self-connection using the scale developed in the study, follow the instructions below.
Indicate your agreement with the items from the Self-Connection Scale—whether you strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), somewhat disagree (3), neither agree nor disagree (4), somewhat agree (5), agree (6), or strongly agree (7). The numbers in parentheses are the scores associated with each response. Note, Item 4 should be reverse-scored.
- I have a deep understanding of myself.
- It is easy for me to identify and understand how I am feeling in any given moment.
- I know myself well.
- I am often surprised by how little I understand myself.
- I try not to judge myself.
- When I find out things about myself that I don’t necessarily like, I try to accept those things.
- Even when I don’t like a feeling or belief that I have, I try to accept it as a part of myself.
- I can easily forgive myself for mistakes I have made.
- I find small ways to ensure that my life truly reflects the things that are important to me.
- I spend time making sure that I am acting in a way that is a reflection of my true self.
- I try to make sure that my actions are consistent with my values.
- I try to make sure that my relationships with other people reflect my values.
So, how did you do? Note: The first four scale items are related to self-awareness, the next four to self-acceptance, and the last four to self-alignment.
A high score suggests a high level of self-connection. A low score suggests you are either not self-aware, not accepting of yourself, or do not act in concert with your feelings, beliefs, values, goals, etc.
Needless to say, a high score is desirable. Indeed, research by the authors shows that self-connection is associated with a number of positive outcomes. These include positive emotions, life satisfaction, flourishing, clarity in life, and meaning in life.
Many of us commit to staying in touch with friends and coworkers, current events, the newest trends, and the latest cutting-edge technology, but rarely commit to staying in touch with ourselves—our changing feelings, sensations, thoughts, inner resources, goals, etc.
If you belong to this group and are disconnected from yourself, there are ways to remedy the situation. Simply pause a few times during the day and check how self-connected you feel. Ask: In the last little while…
- Have I been self-aware?
- Have I been self-accepting?
- Has my behavior reflected my true self?
Commit to getting to know yourself better and becoming your best friend. It may change your life.
By: Arash Emamzadeh
- The Cognitive Self: The Self-Concept – Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition”.
- Role of Affective Self-Regulatory Efficacy in Diverse Spheres of Psychosocial Functioning”
- Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental
- Teacher–child interactions: relations with children’s self-concept in second grade”.
- Classroom social experiences as predictors of academic performance”. Rejection sensitivity moderates the impact of rejection on self-concept clarity”.
- Rediscovering Rogers’s Self Theory and Personality”
- Child Development: A Thematic Approach
- Introduction to Behavioral Science in Medicine
- The Influence of Gender, Self-Identity and Organizational Tenure on Environmental Sustainability Orientation”
- Self-Concept and Masculinity/Femininity Among Normal Male Individuals and Males with Gender Identity Disorder”.
- When group membership gets personal: A theory of identity fusion”
- The Concept of Self in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christianity and Its Implication for Interfaith Relations
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