Teachers Are Not Prepared For Students With Special Needs

Students in Montclair State University’s dual-certification program (Jackie Mader / Hechinger Report)

Strong progress has been made to integrate students with disabilities into general-education classrooms. Educator instruction hasn’t kept up. When Mary Fair became a teacher in 2012, her classes often contained a mix of special-education students and general-education students. Placing children with and without disabilities in the same classroom, instead of segregating them, was a growing national trend, spurred by lawsuits by special-education advocates.

But in those early days, Fair had no idea how to handle her students with disabilities, whose educational challenges ranged from learning deficits to behavioral disturbance disorders. Calling out a child with a behavioral disability in front of the class usually backfired and made the situation worse. They saw it as “an attack and a disrespect issue,” Fair said.

Over time, Fair figured out how to navigate these situations and talk students “down from the ledge.” She also learned how to keep students with disabilities on task and break down lessons into smaller, easier bits of information for those who were struggling.

No one taught her these strategies. Although she earned a bachelor’s degree and teaching certificate in math instruction for both elementary and middle school, she never had to take a class about students with disabilities. She was left to figure it out on the job.

Many teacher-education programs offer just one class about students with disabilities to their general-education teachers, “Special Ed 101,” as it’s called at one New Jersey college. It’s not enough to equip teachers for a roomful of children who can range from the gifted to students who read far below grade level due to a learning disability.

A study in 2007 found that general-education teachers in a teacher-preparation program reported taking an average of 1.5 courses focusing on inclusion or special education, compared to about 11 courses for special-education teachers. Educators say little has changed since then.

A 2009 study concluded that no one explicitly shows teachers how to teach to “different needs.” Because of time constraints, the many academic standards that must be taught, and a lack of support, “teachers are not only hesitant to implement individualized instruction, but they do not even know how to do so,” the report stated.

Fair says teacher-preparation programs should be doing more. At the very least, “You should have a special-education class and an English language learner class,” she said. “You’re going to have those students.”

Between 1989 and 2013, the percentage of students with disabilities who were in a general education class for 80 percent or more of the school day increased from about 32 percent to nearly 62 percent. Special-education advocates have been pushing for the change—especially for students who have mild to moderate disabilities like a speech impairment—in some cases by suing school districts.

Some research shows as many as 85 percent of students with disabilities can master general-education content if they receive educational supports. Supports can include access to a special-education teacher, having test questions read aloud, or being allowed to sit in a certain part of the classroom.

Students with disabilities who are placed in general-education classrooms get more instructional time, have fewer absences, and have better post-secondary outcomes. Studies also show there is no negative impact on the academic achievement of non-disabled students in an inclusion classroom; those students benefit socially by forming positive relationships and learning how to be more at ease with a variety of people.

Alla Vayda-Manzo, the principal of Bloomfield Middle School about 30 miles outside of New York City, said she’s seen the benefit of inclusion for students. The school serves about 930 students, nearly 20 percent of whom have a disability, according to state data. When students with disabilities are included in classrooms with their peers, Vayda-Manzo said the high expectations and instructional strategies “lend themselves to those students being more successful than they would be had they been in a separate, self-contained environment.”“It’s not just getting a child included … that is only a small portion of the battle.”

But as more districts move to make classrooms inclusive, they’ve been caught flat footed when it comes to finding teachers prepared to make the shift. Academic outcomes for students with disabilities have remained stagnant for years, even as more students with special needs are integrated into general-education classrooms. Students with disabilities are less likely to graduate and more likely to earn an alternate diploma that is not equivalent to a general diploma in the eyes of many colleges and employers. And year after year, they score far lower than their peers on standardized exams.

Experts say the problem is that it takes much more than just placing students with disabilities next to their general-education peers: Teachers must have the time, support, and training to provide a high-quality education based on a student’s needs.

Mike Flom, a parent and co-founder of the advocacy group New Jersey Parents and Teachers for Appropriate Education, said many factors impact inclusion’s effectiveness. His twin sons, now in seventh grade, were placed in an inclusion classroom beginning in fifth grade. Initially, Flom said his sons had “mixed reviews” on whether inclusion was beneficial.

“I think the teachers were really motivated to be helpful,” Flom said. “I don’t know the extent to which they were permitted to do the things, or had enough training to do the things, that were required to be more effective.”“It’s not just getting a child included … that is only a small portion of the battle,” he added.

These days, Mary Fair navigates her classrooms with ease. She has learned through experience how to teach students with a variety of disabilities and works with a veteran special-education teacher to modify lesson plans and tests.

On a recent morning in a seventh-grade math-inclusion classroom at Bloomfield Middle School, Fair and her co-teacher, the special-education teacher Christina Rodriguez, started a lesson on the order of operations.

Fair stepped up to the front of the classroom as Rodriguez circulated to make sure students were on task.“We’re starting order of operations,” Fair said. “It’s something you did in sixth grade, but today we are doing it differently.”“Ms. Fair, I want to see if they remember,” Rodriguez said to Fair, who smiled and nodded.“Put your hand up if you remember what the order of operations is,” Rodriguez said.More than half of the students raised their hands

“Who remembers ‘PEMDAS’?” Rodriguez asked, referring to the mnemonic device used to remember order of operations (Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication and Division, Addition and Subtraction). More students eagerly shot their hands in the air.

Fair cut in and explained that although they learned PEMDAS in sixth grade, they were going to learn a new rule about the order of operations today. “Take your yellow paper and fold it horizontally,” Fair said, referring to a yellow sheet of paper that sat on each student’s desk.“Like this,” Rodriguez said, holding up a piece of paper and demonstrating how to fold it horizontally.“Like a hamburger,” Fair added.

To an outsider, it’s impossible to tell who is the general-education teacher and who is the special-education teacher. Both Fair and Rodriguez have desks at the front of the room. They switch off during lessons, effortlessly picking up where the other has left off. They both give directions and explain content. They are careful not to fall into what educators say is a common trap: seeing general-education students as the responsibility of one teacher, and special-education students as the responsibility of the other.

That’s how a good inclusion class should be, Rodriguez said, but it takes practice and time. Like Fair, Rodriguez didn’t receive any training in special education before she entered the classroom. She became a teacher through an alternate program. When she got a job teaching special education six years ago, she relied on strategies she learned while working as an aide in a class for students with autism. In 2014, she received her master’s degree in teaching students with disabilities from New Jersey City University; she now teaches a class for Montclair State University’s dual-certification teacher-preparation program.

Although most traditional teacher-preparation programs nationwide do include some training on students with disabilities, usually in the form of one course over the entirety of the program, educators say this course is often generic and perfunctory. Aspiring teachers also may be given assignments in other classes that require them to adapt a lesson for a hypothetical special-education student.

Fair said she had some assignments like those, but “we didn’t really know what we were talking about, because we weren’t taught it.” Her colleague, the science teacher Jessica Herrera, said she was only offered one class in special education—called “Special Education 101”—when she went through a traditional teacher-preparation program in New Jersey.

“A lot of my training was for that ‘middle of the road’ kind of kid,” Herrera said. “I was prepared for the regular ed student.” In her 13 years as a teacher, Herrera has taught some inclusion classes; she said she picked up strategies from working with “good special-education teachers.” When she earned her master’s degree from Montclair State, she was finally taught how to teach a “range of learners,” she said.

Fair and her co-teacher Rodriguez say there are certain things they wish were included in all teacher-education programs, like an explanation of the different kinds of disabilities and ways to address the various struggles students may encounter. They also say teacher preparation should include more classroom management and “subtle ways” to keep students focused and on task.

Mimi Corcoran, the president of the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD), said teacher preparation should better address topics in special education. “We do a disservice to the teachers we’re sending [to schools] in the way we’re training, and we’re doing a disservice to kids,” Corcoran said. “We’ve got to step up to the plate and think differently and act differently, and that’s hard because everybody gets comfortable and systems are hard to change.”

Some teacher-preparation programs are trying to better prepare graduates to teach students with disabilities, especially in inclusion classrooms. At Syracuse University, George Theoharis, a professor and the chair of Teaching and Leadership, said the school’s elementary special-education program has been one of the leaders nationwide in training educators for inclusive education.

Every teacher who graduates from Syracuse’s Early Childhood or Elementary Education program is dual-certified in special education and spends time in inclusion classrooms. Theoharis says it’s an approach that more preparation programs should take. “All of our programs need to be inclusive,” Theoharis said, referring to teacher preparation. “Regardless of what job teachers get, people need to be prepared to work with all children and see all children as their responsibility.”

At Montclair State, students can receive a dual certification in special education and a subject-level or grade-level range. The school also offers a unique concentration in “inclusive iSTeM,” which specifically prepares science, technology, engineering, and math teachers for inclusion classrooms. Students in the program receive a Master of Arts in Teaching, a certification in math or science, and are endorsed by the state as a teacher of students with disabilities.

Jennifer Goeke, a Montclair State professor and the program coordinator, said the dual-certification program prepares teachers to be hired as either a general- education or special-education teacher. “They know how to perform both roles easily and effectively,” Goeke said.

On a recent afternoon, Goeke was holding class in the Bloomfield Middle School media center. She asked her 17 students to first discuss issues they were having in their “fieldwork classrooms,” where they are currently observing and working with general- and special-education teachers. She listened to a few descriptions of struggles and then reminded her students that part of their job is to be an example for other teachers.

“I’m not trying to minimize or trivialize what you might be learning in your content area,” Goeke said. “It’s very important that you have a strong grounding in the methodology and the philosophy of your discipline … and know how to teach your content.” But, Goeke added, “You have to remember that most people do not have any diverse learners in mind. Their training did not teach them to take those students into account.”

In Montclair’s program, students work with two mentor teachers for a year in an inclusion classroom and in small-group settings. They receive extensive training in how to work with students with disabilities as well as how to effectively teach content, like math and science, or grade levels, like early education or elementary education.

Bloomfield chose to partner with the iSTeM program in 2012, and has hired two graduates of the program, and offered teaching positions to several more, who eventually chose jobs in other districts. The Bloomfield Principal, Vayda-Manzo, says the graduates of the program are “like unicorns in the field,” as it’s rare to find teachers who are dual-certified in general and special education.

Current teachers at Bloomfield have also benefited from iSTeM, Vayda-Manzo said. The program provides professional development for inclusion teachers at the school who agree to be mentor teachers for iSTeM students, and those teachers also observe each other and work with professors from Montclair State. Vayda-Manzo said the school makes sure co-teachers have the same planning periods so they have time to plan lessons together each day.

Herrera, who mentors iSTeM teachers, said the professional development provided through the program has improved her ability to teach students with disabilities. “I feel like I got a lot of additional strategies through that,” Herrera said.

On-the-job training is essential to ensure teachers have the skills needed to teach all students in their classroom, especially those teachers who may have attended teacher preparation years ago or missed out on training about disabilities, according to Mimi Corcoran of NCLD. “We have to be fair for the educator,” Corcoran said. For “many that are already in field, the concepts of special education and how to include kids has shifted, and [teachers] need the supports.”

Vayda-Manzo said it has been an easy choice to continue the program.“I saw the impact that it made in our inclusion classes,” Vayda-Manzo said. “We saw tremendous gains.”

By Jackie Mader

Source: Teachers Are Not Prepared for Students With Special Needs – The Atlantic

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Empathy Maps: How To Understand Your Customer

An empathy map helps you identify with a customer’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Product teams often use empathy mapping to improve the user experience. In this article, learn how to build an empathy map and use it to improve your business strategy.

Have you heard the saying, “take a walk in my shoes?” That’s empathy in action. When you foster empathy, you visualize yourself living someone else’s life. This soft skill improves your understanding of how others navigate the world.

Empathy mapping is also useful to identify customer needs. By creating a detailed user persona and imagining yourself as that user, you can gain valuable insights about the customer experience. These insights can translate to product improvements and a stronger sales strategy.

What is an empathy map?

An empathy map is a tool that helps you discover how your target audience thinks, feels, and behaves so you can better understand their wants and needs. The map typically includes four quadrants: think and feel, say and do, see, and hear.

Before you can use this tool, you must first build a user persona or scenario to represent one of your target audiences. There are two main “methods” to persona creation. One is a persona description. For example, you might have the “confident shopper” or the “curious buyer.” This type of persona explains, in broad strokes, what motivates someone. It can help product, marketing, and sales teams understand their overall audience.

The second type of persona is a specific person, and this is the type you’ll use for your empathy map. This persona is a made up person that has a name, an age, likes, and dislikes. Putting a specific name, face, and age to a persona makes it easier to empathize with them.

When to use an empathy map

You can use empathy maps any time you want to learn more about your audience and gain perspective into how they think. Empathy maps are most helpful during product planning, but you can also use them to improve a product once you’ve created it.

Empathy maps also serve as a reflective tool for marketing campaigns or sales strategies. Whether you’re starting from scratch or looking for gaps in your current strategy, an empathy map will offer guidance and support.

Who uses empathy maps?

  • Product teams to ensure they’re keeping the end user in mind during the design process.
  • Marketing teams to improve business strategy by identifying customer pain points and desires.
  • Design and developer teams to gain insight into user experience (UX) and user interface (UI)

Empathy mapping should be a group activity—you and your team members can brainstorm what the user experience may be like and streamline your ideas into the most accurate portrayal.

Read: 4 types of concept maps (with free templates)

4 elements of an empathy map

An empathy map has four quadrants that work together to get you into the mind of your end user. In addition to those four quadrants, you’ll also describe your persona’s pains and gains—or customer needs and expectations. The pains and gains will serve as a guide, while the remaining four elements help you explore a customer’s life from their point of view.

Pains: What are the pain points in the user’s life? What are their needs?

Gains: What are the user’s expectations for meeting their needs?

  1. Think and feel: What are the user’s major worries and aspirations? What are their values? What preoccupies their mind?
  2. Hear: Who are the user’s main influences in their life?
  3. See: What does the user see in their environment that influences them?
  4. Say and do: What does the user say and do to meet their needs?

To make filling out your empathy map easier, pair it with a user persona. That way, you know who your customer is before assessing what their life may look like. Remember that in order for your empathy map to be effective, you need to pair it with a user persona that describes a fictional individual. If you don’t already have a customer persona in mind, briefly describe the persona above the empathy map.

How to build an empathy map

Your company likely has more than one customer persona. To understand them all, create separate empathy maps for each persona. Use the steps below to build an empathy map, then incorporate the process into your workflow so team members can repeat it as needed….Read more

By: Team Asana

Source: Empathy Maps: Understand Your Customers [Free Template] • Asana

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Related contents:

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CRM software revenue worldwide 2010-2020″.“Market Share: Customer Experience and Relationship Management, Worldwide, 2020”.“CRM History: The Evolution Of Better Customer Service”. http://www.streetdirectory.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020.

“Software survey: CRM systems in 2021”. 27 May 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2021.“How Context Sits at Intersection of CRM, ACD”. Retrieved 8 June 2017.“SAP R/3 SD Wiki”. Retrieved 7 January 2019.“It’s official: Oracle closes on PeopleSoft acquisition”. Computerworld. 10 January 2005. Retrieved 18 August 2021.

“Navision 3.0”. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2019.“History of CRM Software”. comparecamp.com. Retrieved 8 February 2017.Jha, Lakshman (2008). Customer Relationship Management: A Strategic Approach. ISBN 9788190721127. Retrieved 8 June 2017.

“Gartner Announces Customer Relationship Management Summit 2009”. gartner.com. 5 August 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2017.“Industry Specific/Vertical Market CRM Solutions”. smallbizcrm.com. Retrieved 8 February 2017.

The Forrester Wave: CRM Suites For Enterprise Organizations, Q4 2016, Forrester, 21 November 2016, retrieved 13 September 2017Buttle, Francis; Maklan, Stan (11 February 2015). Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Technologies. ISBN 9781317654766.

Feiz, Ghotbabadi, Khalifah, (2016-01) Customer Lifetime Value in Organisations“Types of CRM and Examples | CRM Software”. http://www.crmsoftware.com. Retrieved 22 November 2015.“What is sales force automation (SFA)? – Definition from WhatIs.com”. WhatIs.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.

Buttle, Francis (2003). Customer relationship management. London: Routledge. ISBN 9781136412578.“What is customer relationship management (CRM) ? – Definition from WhatIs.com”. SearchCRM. Retrieved 22 November 2015.Josiah, Ahaiwe; Ikenna, Oluigbo (February 2015). “Role of Technology in Accounting and E-accounting”. International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing. 4 (2): 208–215. Retrieved 27 October 2018.

“Definition – www.smartcrm.com”. http://www.smartcrm.com. Retrieved 26 November 2015.Tavana, Ali Feizbakhsh.; Fili, Saeed.; Tohidy, Alireza.; Vaghari, Reza. & Kakouie, Saed. (November 2013).Greenberg, Paul (13 February 2017). “How customer data platforms can benefit your business”. ZDNet.Reinartz, Werner; Krafft, Manfred; Hoyer, Wayne D. (August 2004).

“The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance”. Journal of Marketing Research. 41 (3): 293–305. doi:10.1509/jmkr.41.3.293.35991. S2CID 167683988.“What’s Your Relational Intelligence?”. strategy+business. Retrieved 23 November 2015.Avery, Jill; Fournier, Susan; Wittenbraker, John (July 2014). “Unlock the Mysteries of Your Customer Relationships”. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 22 November 2015.

Zeng, Yun E; Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C (1 March 2003). “Customer relationship management (CRM) in business‐to‐business (B2B) e‐commercenull”. Information Management & Computer Security. 11 (1): 9–44. doi:10.1108/09685220310463722. ISSN 0968-5227.“The story behind successful CRM – Bain & Company”. http://www.bain.com. June 2002. Retrieved 23 November 2015.

DeVault, Gigi (28 March 2012). “Wondering How to Create the Ideal Consumer Profile? Learn the Basics”. The Balance Small Business. Retrieved 15 August 2018.“A Dozen Simple Ways to Improve Customer Relations – Enterprise Apps Today”. http://www.enterpriseappstoday.com. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2015.“A CRM success story”. Computerworld. 7 November 2002. Retrieved 23 November 2015.

https://hbr.org/2014/07/unlock-the-mysteries-of-your-customer-relationships Retrieved: 20 November 2015“9 Ways to Improve Your Company’s CRM System”. CIO. Retrieved 23 November 2015.SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers? Archived 16 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine

Genesys. “What Is Contact Center CRM?”.“The contact center and CRM collision leads to a new dominant species”. Network World. 2 March 2017.“Gamification Comes to the Contact Center”. CRM Magazine. Retrieved 26 November 2015.“CRM in Customer Service”. CRM Magazine. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015.

“Contact center automation takes flight”. SearchCRM. Retrieved 26 November 2015.“7 Ways CRM Can Increase Your Sales [Infographic]”. Salesforce Blog. Retrieved 23 November 2015.Roberts-Phelps, Graham (2001). Customer Relationship Management: How to Turn a Good Business Into a Great One!. Thorogood. p. 140. ISBN 978-1854181190.

Rebekah Henderson, B2B Insights (2013) How to build a B2B-friendly CRM Archived 28 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine“B2B Marketing: What Makes It Special? | B2B International”. B2B International. Retrieved 22 November 2015.CRM Trends in Insurance Industry Archived 17 July 2021 at the Wayback MachineCRM Trends in Insurance Industry: April 2010

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Profile mate    https://jvz4.com/c/202927/358049
Promovidz   https://jvz8.com/c/202927/375692/
Push Button Traffic   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/301402
QR Verse   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383865/
Quintex Capital     https://quintexcapital.com/?ref=arminham
Quit Smoking    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/359081/
QuizMatic   https://jvz6.com/c/202927/387116/
Reputor   https://jvz8.com/c/202927/380159/
ReVideo  https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381761
ReviewReel   https://jvz6.com/c/202927/382663/
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RSI SEO   https://jvz6.com/c/202927/384381/
Scriptdio   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/385387/
Seniors Income    https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383888/
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ShopABot   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/291955
ShopFunnels   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/384069/
SocialAgency360   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/385357/
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SociJam  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/309649
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Trendio  https://jvz3.com/c/202927/381003/
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TV Boss Fire  https://jvz6.com/c/202927/379480/
Ultrafunnels A.I   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381129/
VIADZ Ad Template  https://jvz4.com/c/202927/379307/
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Video Campaignor      https://jvz4.com/c/202927/387058/
Video Games   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/184902/
VideoEnginePro     https://jvz2.com/c/202927/372916
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Viral Quotes      https://jvz2.com/c/202927/386984/
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Vocalic  https://jvz2.com/c/202927/383848/
VoiceBuddy    https://jvz1.com/c/202927/342854
WebCop  https://jvz4.com/c/202927/378683/
Webinarkit   https://jvz3.com/c/202927/383937/
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WordPress Mastery   https://jvz1.com/c/202927/386249/
WowBackgraounds   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381556/
WP GDPR    https://jvz8.com/c/202927/299907
WP Simulator    https://jvz3.com/c/202927/46987/
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XFUNNELS   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/310335
Xinemax  https://jvz1.com/c/202927/381749/
YoDrive   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/384700/
YoSeller   https://jvz4.com/c/202927/387544/
Your 3DPal   https://jvz2.com/c/202927/381685/
YTSuite   https://jvzoo.com/c/202927/381179
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