Amid Chaos, IRS Attempts A Return To Normal

E-filing of individual tax returns for the 2022 filing season opens on January 24. The start of e-filing and the April tax filing deadline return to an almost normal schedule while ongoing issues make filing season realities hard to predict.

In 2021 individual e-filing didn’t open until February 12. In 2020 it opened on January 27. This year’s opening appears to be moving the needle back toward the more normal mid-January opening. The April 18th filing deadline is also a return to normal after the July 17, 2020 and May 17, 2021 extended deadlines. Friday, April 15, 2022 is the Emancipation Day holiday in Washington, D.C. which is why the deadline has been moved forward to Monday April 18. It almost seems normal. Almost.

While the start and finish lines to filing season 2022 have a whiff of normalcy about them, everything in between stinks. It stinks of expectations bordering on the delusional and it stinks of IRS rot. When it comes to considering “known unknowns” such as the effects of reconciling economic impact payments (stimulus money) and advance payments of the Child Tax Credit (CTC), the IRS doesn’t seem delusional.

The Commissioner is taking every chance he is offered to urge taxpayers and tax practitioners to file accurately and electronically. The IRS is using every channel it has to remind taxpayers to watch for Letters 6419 and 6475 (which provide the amounts of the advance CTC payments and EIPs, respectively). It’s the Commissioner’s apparent failure to consider the “unknown unknowns” that reeks of delusion.

While the IRS Commissioner (in a recent statement) and the National Taxpayer Advocate (in her most recent report) have been open about anticipating another difficult filing season, they have not seemed to consider the potential for natural disasters to create yet another patchwork of filing deadlines. In 2021 the May 17th deadline wasn’t the deadline for Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana due to winter storms.

Louisiana’s deadline was re-adjusted after Hurricane Ida. In late April 2021 the May 17, 2021 deadline was extended for some Kentucky counties due to storm effects and the list of affected counties continued to be adjusted until June 28, 2021 (two days before the extended June 30 filing deadline). At the end of April 2021 Alabama taxpayers got an extension until August 2. In September New York and New Jersey got their deadline extended because of Hurricane Ida. That’s just a sample; the list goes on.

The other unknown unknown the Commissioner has failed to consider is the ongoing effects of the pandemic. His statement was issued January 10, 2022 amid the omicron variant surge. At this time it is unclear if that surge has peaked and it is even more unclear what effects the current surge will have on IRS staffing levels during filing season. Whatever the effects are, it is unlikely they will improve return processing or response times.

It’s early January 2022. It’s unlikely that the pace of natural disasters will abate and predicting pandemic surges has proved elusive, so why not plan for the worst and issue a pre-emptive extension of the filing deadline until July? Early filers will still file early. Procrastinators will still procrastinate. Extending the deadline until mid-year would simply mitigate some of the confusion resulting from yet another reactive patchwork of federal deadlines due to yet another bad weather year or more Covid-related staffing issues.

And then there’s the rot. Yes, the IRS has been underfunded for years. Yes, experienced people retired and because of funding cuts, they were never replaced. Yes Congress continues to ask the IRS to do more with less. But at some point the IRS needs to acknowledge certain systemic failures in its procedures and possibly its culture.

One such systemic failure was the continuation of automated notice processing despite the mail and phone backlog. Taxpayers and tax practitioners continue to receive second and third notices, each more aggressive than the last, about issues that were addressed by a mailed response to the first notice that has remained either unopened or unprocessed by the IRS. That’s a procedural failure.

The cultural failure is the idea that temporarily stopping automated notices or providing some sort of blanket penalty relief or temporarily giving more experienced customer service reps (or their supervisors) more autonomy to abate penalties until the IRS clears its mail backlog is some sort of abject moral failing that will result in massive taxpayer noncompliance. It’s the idea that cutting taxpayers some slack in the middle of yet another chaotic filing season will turn otherwise law abiding taxpayers into tax protesting scofflaws.

It’s the idea that their kindness will be considered weakness. Perhaps that is the case, but the fact of the matter is that our tax system is based on voluntary compliance and the complete inability to get assistance when trying to comply voluntarily with one’s tax obligations or exercise one’s rights under the tax laws could be as much (or more) of a disincentive to compliance as lack of enforcement. Unfortunately, heading into the third filing season under pandemic rules it seems we have yet to find rock bottom and a path out of this abyss.

Follow me on Twitter.

I own Tax Therapy, LLC, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. I am an Enrolled Agent and non-attorney practitioner admitted to the bar of the U.S. Tax Court. I work as a tax general practitioner preparing returns for individuals and (really) small businesses as well as representing individuals before the IRS and, occasionally, the U.S. Tax Court. My passion is translating “taxspeak” into English for taxpayers and tax practitioners. I write to dispel myths with facts and to explain “the fine print” behind seemingly simple tax concepts. I cover individual tax issues and IRS developments with a focus on items of interest to taxpayers and retail tax practitioners. Follow me on Twitter @taxtherapist505

Source: Amid Chaos, IRS Attempts A Return To Normal

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Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Publication 15, which includes withholding tables for income tax. State requirements vary by state; for an example, see the New York state portal for withholding tax.

Canada Revenue Agency Publication T4001. Canada Revenue Agency also provides significant online guidance accessible through a web index, including an online payroll tax calculator.

IRS Form W-4.

HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) PAYE for employers: the basics

PAYG withholding web page for details and tools.

Deposit Interest Retention Tax.

26 USC 3406, Backup Withholding.

Dividend Allowance factsheet HMRC, 17 August 2015

PwC Global Tax Summaries: Rwanda, Corporate – Withholding taxes”. 26 July 2018.

What Crypto Investors Need To Know About Charitable Tax Planning

Ah, December. It always feels like this month sneaks up on us. For many, it is the last chance to impact their tax planning. But in the year end rush, there is a lot to consider.

The past 18 months have been a wild ride in the capital markets. From the lows of March 2020 to the highs of the recent months, investors have done incredibly well. Further investors who fearlessly entered the crypto market a few years back might find themselves with significant gains.

And that is where taxes can become tricky. “Think of cryptocurrency like a stock. Sell it in less than a year at a gain, and it is ordinary income. More than a year, and it’s taxed at long-term capital gains rates,” explains Adam Markowitz, EA and Vice President, Howard L Markowitz PA, CPA

While recognizing a gain might seem like the only option available to crypto investors, a unique tax planning opportunity is available:  the ability to use your cypto holdings to donate to charity. As crypto becomes commonplace in investment portfolios, more donor advised funds (DAFs) and charities are accepting these holdings in their donations.

For many this will be a significant planning opportunity, but just because it is permissible, doesn’t mean it’s straightforward. There are a few rules of the road that crypto investors must consider when donating to charity.

Tax Mechanics

Before we get into how crypto can be donated, it is important to understand the mechanics of donating noncash assets to charities.

“In addition to cash donations, individuals, partnerships and corporations are allowed a charitable deduction on their tax returns for donated property,” explains Lorilyn Wilson, CPA & CEO of Lookahead LLC and DueNorth PDX.

Publicly traded securities are commonly-donated non-cash items. In this situation, investors can get a special two-part tax benefit. First, they do not have to recognize the capital gain; second, they get a charitable deduction when the holdings go to the charity or donor advised fund.

“But there are rules. For property donated with a combined worth of more than $500 (think Goodwill donations, cars, etc.), an additional form called Form 8283 must be filed as well,” says Wilson. For publicly traded holdings, only Part I of the form is required.

“The IRS requires you take the charitable deduction at the fair market value of the property being donated – and this is the form used to do just that,” says Wilson.  “Questions such as the name of the organization donated to, property description, date property was acquired and contributed, how much it cost, and what the resale value is – is all information gathered on this form.”

Donating stocks can be a powerful tax management tool, but charities and DAFs have historically been nervous about crypto. Things are changing and the door for donating crypto is now open.

Be Aware of Appraisal Rules

Donating crypto is not as straightforward as donating publicly traded stocks. The world of crypto has not been transparent and the rules around donations reflect that.

“Now let’s say someone has decided to donate their crypto or other non-publicly traded securities. Could they artificially inflate the value of their donated property to get a higher deduction and pay less in taxes? As usual, the IRS is one step ahead of them,” says Wilson.

That’s why it is important to be aware of another set of rules surrounding Form 8283. Unlike publicly traded securities, a donation of cyrpto currency that exceeds $5,000 will require a qualified appraisal.   Wait, aren’t crypto currencies actively traded, with the ups and downs of their prices making headlines? The answer is that neither the IRS nor the SEC has taken any official position to treat cryptocurrencies as securities. In fact, the IRS has designated cryptocurrency as property and not currency.

A qualified appraisal must meet IRS requirements, including the need to use a qualified appraiser who has met education and experience requirements. Qualified appraisers are usually licensed or certified in the state in which the property is located.

Further, the appraisal must be done no more than 60 days prior to the donation and no later than the due date of the tax return including extensions. The appraisal is reported on Form 8283 and the appraiser is required to sign the form. No appraiser? No deduction.

It can be challenging to find a crypto appraiser, but as the technique is in greater demand, there are more resources available. Investors who use a donor advised fund like Schwab Charitable or Fidelity Charitable, may also be able to draw on their expertise.

Investors should anticipate that they will spend approximately $500 to $1,000 on appraisal fees, but the tax benefit may be worth it.

Check With Your Tax Professional

Ultimately, crypto investors should seek help from their tax professional to make sure that they take the appropriate steps in donating crypto to a DAF. It could mean the difference between a great tax planning experience and the disappointment of a disallowed deduction.

Follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out my website.

Ever since my first tax class in law school, I have been fascinated by wealth and the journey one takes to achieve it.

Source: What Crypto Investors Need To Know About Charitable Tax Planning

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Just How Valuable Is Tax-Loss Harvesting?

1

Investors looking to improve their overall portfolio returns often turn to tax-loss harvesting at the end of the year. This amounts to selling some stocks or assets that have fallen in value and using the losses to help offset capital-gains tax liability, reducing one’s overall tax bill.

But how much can you actually add to your returns by tax-loss harvesting?

My research assistant Kanwal Ahmad and I decided to tackle this question by running simulations over different tax regimens, portfolio sizes and holding periods. We found that on average an investor facing a capital-gains tax rate of 25% can juice an equity portfolio’s annual return by 1.10 percentage points to 1.42 percentage points with tax-loss harvesting.

The value that can be added is even greater when markets are more volatile, thus producing a bigger number of loser stocks, or when capital-gains tax rates are high, either because the federal government raised rates or an investor is selling short-term holdings.

To explore this issue, we pulled data on all publicly traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq and the old American Stock Exchange (which was acquired by the NYSE) going back to 1930. We then created value-weighted portfolios to mimic how most people invest, and ran extensive simulations of each portfolio on how to best tax-loss-harvest. 

Each simulation we ran sold off particular positions that had incurred losses according to various cutoffs. If a losing position was harvested, we added a similar asset to maintain the portfolio’s asset-allocation mix and risk level — though any position that was tax-loss-harvested wasn’t allowed to re-enter the portfolio until a month later in line with the IRS’s wash-sale rule, which says if an investment is sold at a loss and then repurchased within 30 days, the initial loss cannot be claimed for tax purposes.

We then calculated the value of tax-loss harvesting to an investor on a yearly basis as the capital-gains tax rate multiplied by the return of the stock that was cut from the portfolio, adding this up over all stocks that were harvested that year. Averaging this over all simulations and over all years, we were able to come to a maximum estimate for the value of tax-loss harvesting.

To make it a bit more realistic, we put in a condition that no more than half the portfolio could be harvested in a particular year — this we defined as our “conservative” estimate of tax-loss harvesting benefits.

Our first interesting finding is that conservatively, investors can juice their returns 1.10 percentage points a year on average, assuming a 25% tax rate. If investors are pushing it in terms of taking advantage of every tax-loss harvesting opportunity, they can add as much as 1.42 percentage points a year to their portfolio’s return.

Fund investors often debate: Should I entrust my money to an experienced fund manager with a record over many different market cycles, or should I go with an upstart manager who might have fresh ideas on how to generate gains?

My research suggests that if you want a fund that will track an index better and provide superior posttax returns, the more-seasoned fund manager is likely your best bet. If, on the other hand, you are looking for outsize bets and potential home runs, a short-tenure manager may be the way to go.

To examine the relationship between fund-manager tenure and performance, my research assistant, Ioana Baranga, and I collected data on all actively managed mutual funds between 2010 and 2020. We then partitioned all fund managers by their tenure at the fund, using a range of zero to three years to define “short tenure” managers, and six years and greater to define the “long tenure” managers. If there were multiple fund managers within the same fund, we opted to use the oldest fund manager’s tenure to define our partition.genesis3-2-1-1-1-1-1-2-1-1-2-2-1-1

Next, we explored how these fund managers differ in their returns and investment decisions. The results associated with managers in the large-cap U.S.-stock category highlight the results well. On a pretax basis, the average long-tenure manager underperforms the average short-tenure manager by 0.03 percentage point a year (12.39% average annual return for long-tenure managers versus 12.42% average annual return for short-tenure managers).

Yet this result flips when we examine posttax returns — it is actually long-tenure managers outperforming short-tenure managers by 0.14 percentage point a year, on average (9.15% average posttax annual return for long-tenure managers versus 9.01% average posttax annual return for short tenure managers).

Research Shorts

By: Derek Horstmeyer

Read more : https://www.wsj.com/

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IRS Announces 2022 Tax Rates, Standard Deduction Amounts And More

The Internal Revenue Service has announced annual inflation adjustments for tax year 2022, meaning new tax rate schedules and tax tables and cost-of-living adjustments for various tax breaks. Most numbers are up more than in recent years because of higher inflation. Note, these numbers, for the tax year beginning January 1, 2022, are what you’ll use to prepare your 2022 tax returns in 2023. (You can find the numbers and tables to prepare your 2021 tax returns here.)

If you don’t expect your income or life to change significantly—by getting married or starting a gig job, for example—you can use the new numbers to estimate your 2022 federal tax liability. If you’re expecting major changes, make sure you check your tax withholding and/or make quarterly estimated tax payments.

All the details on tax rates are in Revenue Procedure 2021-45. We have highlights below. We also cover the new higher retirement accounts limits for 2022.

There’s one big caveat to these 2022 numbers: Democrats are still trying to pass the now $1.85 trillion Build Back Better Act, and the latest (November 3) legislative text includes income tax surcharges on the rich as well as an $80,000 cap—up from $10,000—for state and local tax deductions. Earlier versions included cutting the estate tax exemption in half and increasing capital gains taxes. So stay tuned.

2022 Tax Bracket and Tax Rates

There are seven tax rates in 2022: 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%. Here’s how they apply by filing status:

2022 Standard Deduction Amounts 

The standard deduction amounts will increase to $12,950 for individuals and married couples filing separately, $19,400 for heads of household, and $25,900 for married couples filing jointly and surviving spouses.

The additional standard deduction amount for the aged or the blind is $1,400 for 2022. The additional standard deduction amount for increases to $1,750 for unmarried aged/blind taxpayers.

The standard deduction amount for 2022 for an individual who may be claimed as a dependent (including “kiddies”) by another taxpayer cannot exceed the greater of $1,150 or the sum of $400 and the individual’s earned income (not to exceed the regular standard deduction amount).

Personal Exemption Amount

The personal exemption amount remains zero in 2022. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act suspended the personal exemption through tax tax year 2025, balancing the suspension with an enhanced Child Tax Credit for most taxpayers and a near doubling of the standard deduction amount.

Alternative Minimum Tax Exemption Amounts

Here’s what the alternative minimum tax (AMT) exemption amounts look like for 2022, adjusted for inflation:

Kiddie Tax 

A child’s unearned income is taxed at the parent’s marginal tax rate; that tax rule has been dubbed the “kiddie tax.” The kiddie tax applies to unearned income for children under the age of 19 and college students under the age of 24. Unearned income is income from sources other than wages and salary. For example, unearned income includes dividends and interest, inherited Individual Retirement Account distributions and taxable scholarships.

For 2022, the standard deduction amount for an individual who may be claimed as a dependent by another taxpayer cannot exceed the greater of (1) $1,150 or (2) the sum of $400 and the individual’s earned income (not to exceed the regular standard deduction amount).

If your child’s only income is unearned income, you may be able to elect to include that income on your tax return rather than file a separate return for your child. This is allowed for 2022 if the child’s gross income is more than $1,150 but less than $11,500. But the tax bite may be less if your child files a separate return.

Capital Gains Tax

Capital gains tax rates remain the same for 2022, but the brackets for the rates will change. Here’s a breakdown of long-term capital gains and qualified dividends rates for taxpayers based on their taxable income:

Section 199A deduction (also called the pass-through deduction)

As part of the Tax Cuts & Jobs Act, sole proprietors and owners of pass-through businesses are eligible for a deduction of up to 20% to lower their tax rate for qualified business income. Here are the threshold and phase-in amounts for the deduction for 2022:

Federal Estate Tax Exemption

The federal estate tax exemption for decedents dying in 2022 will increase to $12.06 million per person or $24.12 for a married couple.

Gift Tax Exclusion

The annual exclusion for federal gift tax purposes jumps to $16,000 for 2022, up from $15,000 in 2021.

Further Reading:

IRS Announces Higher 2022 Retirement Account Contribution Limits For 401(k)s, Not IRAs

Follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn.

I cover personal finance, with a focus on retirement planning, trusts and estates strategies, and taxwise charitable giving. I’ve written for Forbes since 1997. Follow me on Twitter: @ashleaebeling and contact me by email: ashleaebeling — at — gmail — dot — com

Source: IRS Announces 2022 Tax Rates, Standard Deduction Amounts And More

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Beyond Evergrande, China’s Property Market Faces a $5 Trillion Reckoning

As many economists say China enters what is now the final phase of one of the biggest real-estate booms in history, it is facing a staggering bill: According to economists at Nomura, $ 5 trillion plus loans that developers had taken at a good time. Holdings Inc.

The debt is almost double that at the end of 2016 and last year exceeded the overall economic output of Japan, the world’s third-largest economy.

With warning signs on the debt of nearly two-fifths of growth companies borrowed from international bond investors, global markets are poised for a potential wave of defaults.

Chinese leaders are getting serious about addressing debt by taking a series of steps to curb excessive borrowing. But doing so without hurting the property market, crippling more developers and derailing the country’s economy is turning into one of the biggest economic challenges for Chinese leaders, and one that resonates globally when mismanaged. could.

Luxury Developer Fantasia Holdings Group Co. It failed to pay $206 million in dollar bonds that matured on October 4. In late September, Evergrande, which has more than $300 billion in liabilities, missed two interest-paying deadlines for the bond.

A wave of sell-offs hit Asian junk-bond markets last week. On Friday, bonds of 24 of 59 Chinese growth companies on the ICE BofA Index of Asian Corporate Dollar Bonds were trading at over 20% yields, indicating a high risk of default.

Some potential home buyers are leaning, forcing companies to cut prices to raise cash, and could potentially accelerate their slide if the trend continues.

According to data from CRIC, a research arm of property services firm e-House (China) Enterprise Holdings, overall sales among China’s 100 largest developers were down 36 per cent in September from a year earlier. Ltd.

It revealed that the 10 largest developers, including China Evergrande, Country Garden Holdings Co. and china wenke Co., saw a decline of 44% in sales compared to a year ago.

Economists say most Chinese developers remain relatively healthy. Beijing has the firepower and tighter control of the financial system needed to prevent the so-called Lehman moment, in which a corporate financial crisis snowballs, he says.

In late September, Businesshala reported that China had asked local governments to be prepared for potentially intensifying problems in Evergrande.

But many economists, investors and analysts agree that even for healthy enterprises, the underlying business model—in which developers use credit to fund steady churn of new construction despite the demographic less favorable for new housing—is likely to change. Chances are. Some developers can’t survive the transition, he says.

Of particular concern is some developers’ practice of relying heavily on “presales”, in which buyers pay upfront for still-unfinished apartments.

The practice, more common in China than in the US, means developers are borrowing interest-free from millions of homes, making it easier to continue expanding but potentially leaving buyers without ready-made apartments for developers to fail. needed.

According to China’s National Bureau of Statistics, pre-sales and similar deals were the region’s biggest funding sources since August this year.

“There is no return to the previous growth model for China’s real-estate market,” said Hous Song, a research fellow at the Paulson Institute, a Chicago think tank focused on US-China relations. China is likely to put a set of limits on corporate lending, known as the “three red lines” imposed last year, which helped trigger the recent crisis on some developers, he added. That China can ease some other restrictions.

While Beijing has avoided explicit public statements on its plans to deal with the most indebted developers, many economists believe leaders have no choice but to keep the pressure on them.

Policymakers are determined to reform a model fueled by debt and speculation as part of President Xi Jinping’s broader efforts to mitigate the hidden risks that could destabilize society, especially at key Communist Party meetings next year. before. Mr. Xi is widely expected to break the precedent and extend his rule to a third term.

Economists say Beijing is concerned that after years of rapid home price gains, some may be unable to climb the housing ladder, potentially fueling social discontent, as economists say. The cost of young couples is starting to drop in large cities, making it difficult for them to start a family. According to JPMorgan Asset Management, the median apartment in Beijing or Shenzhen now accounts for more than 40 times the average family’s annual disposable income.

Officials have said they are concerned about the risk posed by the asset market to the financial system. Reinforcing developers’ business models and limiting debt, however, is almost certain to slow investment and cause at least some slowdown in the property market, one of the biggest drivers of China’s growth.

The real estate and construction industries account for a large portion of China’s economy. Researchers Kenneth S. A 2020 paper by Rogoff and Yuanchen Yang estimated that industries, roughly, account for 29% of China’s economic activity, far more than in many other countries. Slow housing growth could spread to other parts of the economy, affecting consumer spending and employment.

Government figures show that about 1.6 million acres of residential floor space were under construction at the end of last year. This was roughly equivalent to 21,000 towers with the floor area of ​​the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, the tallest building in the world.

Housing construction fell by 13.6% in August below its pre-pandemic level, as restrictions on borrowing were imposed last year, calculations by Oxford Economics show.

Local governments’ income from selling land to developers declined by 17.5% in August from a year earlier. Local governments, which are heavily indebted, rely on the sale of land for most of their revenue.

Another slowdown will also risk exposing banks to more bad loans. According to Moody’s Analytics, outstanding property loans—mainly mortgages, but also loans to developers—accounted for 27% of China’s total of $28.8 trillion in bank loans at the end of June.

As pressure on housing mounts, many research houses and banks have cut China’s growth outlook. Oxford Economics on Wednesday lowered its forecast for China’s third-quarter year-on-year GDP growth from 5% to 3.6%. It lowered its 2022 growth forecast for China from 5.8% to 5.4%.

As recently as the 1990s, most city residents in China lived in monotonous residences provided by state-owned employers. When market reforms began to transform the country and more people moved to cities, China needed a massive supply of high-quality apartments. Private developers stepped in.

Over the years, he added millions of new units to modern, streamlined high-rise buildings. In 2019, new homes made up more than three-quarters of home sales in China, less than 12% in the US, according to data cited by Chinese property broker Kei Holdings Inc. in a listing prospectus last year.

In the process, developers grew to be much bigger than anything seen in the US, the largest US home builder by revenue, DR Horton. Inc.,

Reported assets of $21.8 billion at the end of June. Evergrande had about $369 billion. Its assets included vast land reserves and 345,000 unsold parking spaces.

For most of the boom, developers were filling a need. In recent years, policymakers and economists began to worry that much of the market was driven by speculation.

Chinese households are prohibited from investing abroad, and domestic bank deposits provide low returns. Many people are wary of the country’s booming stock markets. So some have poured money into housing, in some cases buying three or four units without the intention of buying or renting them out.

As developers bought more places to build, land sales boosted the national growth figures. Dozens of entrepreneurs who founded growth companies are featured on the list of Chinese billionaires. Ten of the 16 soccer clubs of the Chinese Super League are wholly or partially owned by the developers.

Real-estate giants borrow not only from banks but also from shadow-banking organizations known as trust companies and individuals who invest their savings in investments called wealth-management products. Overseas, they became a mainstay of international junk-bond markets, offering juicy produce to snag deals.

A builder, Kaisa Group Holdings Ltd. , defaulted on its debt in 2015, was still able to borrow and later expand. Two years later it spent the equivalent of $2.1 billion to buy 25 land parcels, and $7.3 billion for land in 2020. This summer, Cassa sold $200 million of short-term bonds with a yield of 8.65%.

By: Quentin Webb & Stella Yifan Xie 

Source: Beyond Evergrande, China’s Property Market Faces a $5 Trillion Reckoning – WSJ

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