Mutations In a Father’s Sperm Could Predict Risk of Autism In Children, Study Finds

A new study from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine has found that 'de novo mutations' in a father's sperm can predict the risk of autism in a child (file image)

Mutations in a father’s sperm could predict the risk of a child being diagnosed with autism, a new study suggests. The genetic flaws, known as ‘de novo mutations’, can appear in a child’s DNA through problems with sperm production.

Researchers found that 15 percent of men with autistic children had these disease-causing mutations in their sperm.The team, from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine, says the findings could lead to test in which fathers have their sperm screened to determine their future children’s risk of the developmental disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder in which sufferers have a hard time communicating and with behavior.It encompasses several conditions – including autism and Asperger’s syndrome – and symptoms can range from mild to severe.

Children are usually diagnosed by age two after they exhibit signs such as reduced eye contact, not responding to their name and performing repetitive movements.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in 59 children has ASD.

Boys are much more likely – up to four times – to have the condition than girls. Despite decades of research, the causes of ASD remain a mystery. Both genetics and environmental factors are believed to play a role. However, recent studies have suggested that de novo mutations may be the cause of between 10 and 30 percent of ASD cases.

These mutations occur for the first time in a family member as the result of a mutation in the sperm or egg of a parent. For the study, published in the journal Nature Medicine, the team looked at the sperm of eight fathers who had children already diagnosed with ASD.

The sperm was analyzed for mosaicism, a condition in which a person has genetically different sets of cells within their body. ‘While medical textbooks teach us that every cell in the body has an identical copy of DNA, this is fundamentally not correct,’ said first author Dr Martin Breuss, an assistant project scientist at UC San Diego Health Sciences.

‘Mutations occur every time a cell divides, so no two cells in the body are genetically identical.’ Mosaicism occurs in an unborn baby’s early developmental stages after an error in cell division. ‘[It] can cause cancer or can be silent in the body. If a mutation occurs early in development, then it will be shared by many cells within the body,’ said Dr Breuss.

‘But if a mutation happens just in sperm, then it can show up in a future child but not cause any disease in the father.’Disease-causing mutations were found in about 15 percent of the fathers’ sperm cells, the researchers said.

‘My laboratory has a long-standing interest in understanding the origins of pediatric brain disease, and how mutations contributes to disease in a child,’ said co-senior study author Dr Joseph Gleeson, a professor of neuroscience at UC San Diego School of Medicine.

‘We previously showed that mosaicism in a child can lead to diseases like epilepsy. Here, we show that mosaicism in one of parents is at least as important when thinking about genetic counseling.’

The researchers say their findings could be developed into a clinical test that fathers could undergo to test the risk of recurrence in future children or for men who haven’t had children yet but want to know the risk.

By:  Mary Kekatos

Source: Mutations in a father’s sperm could predict risk of autism in children, study finds | Daily Mail Online

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PFAS Forever Chemicals Linked To Liver Cancer In First of Its Kind Study

New research has reported a link between elevated blood levels of perfluooctane sulfate (PFOS) and increased risk of liver cancer. The study is the first to directly associate exposure from this “forever chemical” to liver cancer in humans.There are thousands of different chemicals under the umbrella of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, or PFAS. These substances are often informally referred to as “forever chemicals” because they can persist in the environment for decades.

For much of the 20th century PFAS chemicals were used in a broad variety of manufacturing contexts. However, over the past 20 years an increasing body of evidence has revealed exposure to PFAS can contribute to a number of deleterious health effects, from low birth weight to hypothyroidism.

Following on from animal and lab-based studies suggesting PFAS exposure is potentially damaging to liver cells, this new research offers the first robust investigation into the relationship between the chemicals and liver cancer in humans.

The power of this new research is in its leveraging of data from a multi-decade health study following more than 200,000 people since the early 1990s. This allowed the researchers to look at historic blood levels of PFAS in subjects years before they presented with cancer.“Part of the reason there has been few human studies is because you need the right samples,” explained Veronica Wendy Setiawan, an author on the new study. “When you are looking at an environmental exposure, you need samples from well before a diagnosis because it takes time for cancer to develop.”

Several types of PFAS were found in blood samples from subjects who ultimately went on to develop liver cancer. But one particular chemical stood out, perfluooctane sulfate (also known as PFOS). Those subjects with the highest blood levels of PFOS were 4.5 times more likely to develop liver cancer compared to the group with the lowest PFOS blood levels.

The study also homed in on some potential mechanisms by which PFOS exposure could be causing liver cancer. Four particular metabolites were found to link PFOS levels with liver cancer: “glucose, butyric acid (a short chain fatty acid), α-Ketoisovaleric acid (a branched-chain α-keto acid), and 7α-Hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoate (a bile acid).”

“We believe our work is providing important insights into the long-term health effects that these chemicals have on human health, especially with respect to how they can damage normal liver function,” explained lead researcher on the project Leda Chatzi. “This study fills an important gap in our understanding of the true consequences of exposure to these chemicals.”

The new findings come just days after another study found levels of PFAS in rainwater often exceed new safety limits set by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA). That research called for a global phase-out of PFAS from all manufacturing contexts as soon as possible. An expert committee formed by the United Nations to review persistent pollutants in 2019 also called for the elimination of all use of PFAS chemicals to, “protect human health and the environment from its harmful impacts.”

Source: PFAS “forever chemicals” linked to liver cancer in first-of-its-kind study

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Could Contact Lenses Be The Ultimate Computer Screen?

Smart contact lenses promise to bring data directly into your field of view

Imagine you have to make a speech, but instead of looking down at your notes, the words scroll in front of your eyes, whichever direction you look in. That’s just one of many features the makers of smart contact lenses promise will be available in the future.

“Imagine… you’re a musician with your lyrics, or your chords, in front of your eyes. Or you’re an athlete and you have your biometrics and your distance and other information that you need,” says Steve Sinclair, from Mojo, which is developing smart contact lenses. His company is about to embark on comprehensive testing of smart contact lens on humans, that will give the wearer a heads-up display that appears to float in front of their eyes.

The product’s scleral lens (a larger lens that extends to the whites of the eye) corrects the user’s vision, but also incorporates a tiny microLED display, smart sensors and solid-state batteries. “We’ve built what we call a feature-complete prototype that actually works and can be worn – we’re soon going to be testing that [out] internally,” says Mr Sinclair.

“Now comes the interesting part, where we start to make optimisations for performance and power, and wear it for longer periods of time to prove that we can wear it all day.” Other smart lenses are being developed to collect health data. Lenses could “include the ability to self-monitor and track intra-ocular pressure, or glucose,” says Rebecca Rojas, instructor of optometric science at Columbia University. Glucose levels for example, need to be closely monitored by people with diabetes.

“They can also provide extended-release drug-delivery options, which is beneficial in diagnosis and treatment plans. It’s exciting to see how far technology has come, and the potential it offers to improve patients’ lives.”Research is underway to build lenses that can diagnose and treat medical conditions from eye conditions, to diabetes, or even cancer by tracking certain biomarkers such as light levels, cancer-related molecules or the amount of glucose in tears.

A team at the University of Surrey, for example, has created a smart contact lens that contains a photo-detector for receiving optical information, a temperature sensor for diagnosing potential corneal disease and a glucose sensor monitoring the glucose levels in tear fluid. “We make it ultra-flat, with a very thin mesh layer, and we can put the sensor layer directly onto a contact lens so it’s directly touching the eye and has contact with the tear solution,” says Yunlong Zhao, lecturer in energy storage and bioelectronics at the University of Surrey.

“You will feel like it’s more comfortable to wear because it’s more flexible, and because there’s direct contact with the tear solution it can provide more accurate sensing results,” says Dr Zhao.

Despite the excitement, smart lense technology still has to overcome a number of hurdles. One challenge will be powering them with batteries these will obviously have to be incredibly tiny, so will they deliver enough power to do anything useful? Mojo is still testing its product, but wants customers to be able to wear its lenses all day, without having to recharge them. “The expectation [is] that you are not consuming information from the lens constantly but in short moments throughout the day.

“Actual battery life will depend on how and how often it is used, just like your smartphone or smartwatch today,” a company spokesperson explains. Other concerns over privacy have been rehearsed since Google’s launch of smart glasses in 2014, which was widely seen as a failure. “Any discreet device with a forward-facing camera that allows a user to take pictures, or record video, poses risks to bystanders’ privacy,” says Daniel Leufer, senior policy Analyst at digital rights campaign group, Access Now.

“With smart glasses, there’s at least some scope to signal to bystanders when they are recording – for example, red warning lights – but with contact lenses it’s more difficult to see how to integrate such a feature.” Aside from privacy worries, makers will also have satisfy worries over data-security for the people wearing the lenses. Smart lenses can only fulfil their function if they track the user’s eye movements, and this plus other data could reveal a great deal.

“What if these devices collect and share data about what things I look at, how long I look at them, whether my heart rate increases when I look at a certain person, or how much I perspire when asked a certain question?” says Mr Leufer. “This type of intimate data could be used to make problematic inferences about everything from our sexual orientation to whether we’re telling the truth under interrogation,” he adds.

“My worry is that devices like AR (augmented reality) glasses, or smart contact lenses, will be seen as a potential trove of intimate data.” For its part, Mojo says all data is security-protected and kept private. Additionally there are concerns about the product that will be familiar to anyone who wears regular contacts. “Any type of contact lens can pose a risk to eye health, if not properly cared for or not fitted properly.

“Just like any other medical device, we need to make sure the patients’ health is the priority, and whatever device used has benefits that outweigh the risk,” says Ms Rojas, from Columbia University. “I’m concerned about non-compliance, or poor lens hygiene and over-wear. These can lead to further complications like irritation, inflammation, infections or risks to eye health.” With Mojo’s lenses expected to be used for up to a year at a time, Mr Sinclair admits this is a concern.

But he points out that a smart lens means it can be programmed to detect whether it’s being cleaned enough and even to alert users when it needs replacing. The firm also plans to work with optometrists for prescription and monitoring. “You don’t just launch something like a smart contact lens and expect everyone’s going to adopt it on day one,” says Mr Sinclair. “It’s going to take some time, just like all new consumer products, but we think it’s inevitable that all of our eye wear is eventually going to become smart.”

By : Emma Woollacott

Source: Could contact lenses be the ultimate computer screen? – BBC News

Related contents:

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Morgan, Philip B., et al. “International Contact Lens Prescribing in 2010”. Contact Lens Spectrum. October 2011.Agarwal, R. K. (1969), Contact Lens Notes, Some factors concerning patients’ motivation, The Optician, 10 January, pages 32-33 (published in London, England).Sokol, JL; Mier, MG; Bloom, S; Asbell, PA (1990). “A study of patient compliance in a contact lens-wearing population”. CLAO Journal. 16 (3): 209–13. PMID 2379308.

“Compare Contacts & Glasses”. ACUVUE® Middle East. Retrieved 22 November 2021.“Contact Lenses for Keratoconus”. National Keratoconus Foundation. 21 February 2018.Heitz, RF and Enoch, J. M. (1987) “Leonardo da Vinci: An assessment on his discourses on image formation in the eye.” Advances in Diagnostic Visual Optics 19—26, Springer-Verlag.

Leonard G. Schifrin and William J. Rich (December 1984). The Contact Lens Industry: Structure, Competition, and Public Policy. United States Office of Technology Assessment.Moreddu, Rosalia; Vigolo, Daniele; Yetisen, Ali K. (August 2019). “Contact Lens Technology: From Fundamentals to Applications” (PDF). Advanced Healthcare Materials. 8 (15): 1900368. doi:10.1002/adhm.201900368. PMID 31183972. S2CID 184488183.

Rajesh Sinha; Vijay Kumar Dada (31 January 2017). Textbook of Contact Lenses. JP Medical Ltd. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-93-86150-44-8.“The History of Contact Lenses.” Archived 11 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine eyeTopics.com. Accessed 18 October 2006.“History of Contact Lenses and Improved Technology”. Master Eye Associates. Master Eye Associates. Retrieved 14 September 2019.“Contact Lenses”. Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia. 2005. doi:10.1002/0471743984.vse2040. ISBN 0471743984.

Hellemans, Alexander; Bunch, Bryan (1988). The Timetables of Science. Simon & Schuster. p. 367. ISBN 0671621300.“Adolf Eugen Fick (1852–1937)”. Archived from the original on 17 May 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.Pearson, Richard M.; Efron, Nathan (September 1989). “Hundredth anniversary of August Müller’s inaugural dissertation on contact lenses”. Survey of Ophthalmology. 34 (2): 133–141. doi:10.1016/0039-6257(89)90041-6. PMID 2686057.

Robert B. Mandell. Contact Lens Practice, 4th Edition. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, 1988“Contact Lens for Eyes Now Common; It is Used as Substitute for Spectacles.” Nashua (IA) Reporter, 28 April 1937.Gyorgy, Salacz (January 2001). “Dr István Györffy, 1912–1999”. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye. 24 (4): 180–182. doi:10.1016/S1367-0484(01)80040-0.Contact Lens History: How Contact Lenses Have Developed Through the Years. EyeHealth Central. Retrieved from https://www.contactlenses.co.uk/education/history.htm

U.S. Patent No. 2,510,438, filed 28 February 1948.“The Corneal Lens”, The Optician, 2 September 1949, pp. 141–144.“Corneal Contact Lenses”, The Optician, 9 September 1949, p. 185.“New Contact Lens Fits Pupil Only”, The New York Times, 11 February 1952, p. 27.Rosenthal, J. William (1996). Spectacles and Other Vision Aids: A History and Guide to Collecting. Norman Publishing. p. 379. ISBN 978-0930405717.Smith, William D. (18 April 1971). “Soft‐Lens Clamor”. The New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2018.

“nytimes archive”. The New York Times. 6 December 1964. Retrieved 24 August 2018Pearce, Jeremy (23 September 2007). “Norman Gaylord, 84; helped develop type of contact lens”. (New York Times News Service). The Boston Globe. Retrieved 6 October 2007.Wichterle O, Lim D (1960). “Hydrophilic gels for biological use”. Nature. 185 (4706): 117–118. Bibcode:1960Natur.185..117W. doi:10.1038/185117a0. S2CID 4211987.“CONTACT LENS HISTORY – Otto Wichterle”. Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.

garwal Rishi K (1972). “Some Thoughts on Soft Lenses”. The Contact Lens. 4 (1): 28.“Editorial note”. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics. 65 (9): 744. 1988.Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta (1 May 2008). “Looking at Silicone Hydrogels Across Generations”. http://www.optometricmanagement.com. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2021.“Astigmatism”. http://www.aoa.org. Retrieved 6 August 2020.“Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Types of Contact Lenses”. http://www.aoa.org. Retrieved 6 August 2020.“A Complete Guide to Gas Permeable Contact Lenses”. EyeHealthWeb.com. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2020.

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What We Know About Long COVID So Far

While the World Health Organization says long COVID starts three months after the original bout of illness or positive test result, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sets the timeline at just after one month.

Among the many confounding aspects of the coronavirus is the spectrum of possible symptoms, as well as their severity and duration. Some people develop mild illness and recover quickly, with no lasting effects. But studies estimate that 10% to 30% of people report persistent or new medical issues months after their initial coronavirus infections — a constellation of symptoms known as long COVID.

People who experience mild or moderate illness, as well as those without any underlying medical conditions, can nonetheless experience some debilitating long-term symptoms, including fatigue, shortness of breath, an erratic heart rate, headaches, dizziness, depression and problems with memory and concentration.

Such lingering medical issues are so varied that one study by a patient-led research group evaluated 203 symptoms that may fluctuate or even appear out of the blue after people seem to have recovered.

As Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly, the chief of research and development at the VA St. Louis Healthcare System and a clinical public health researcher at Washington University in St. Louis, said, “If you’ve seen one patient with long COVID, you’ve seen one patient with long COVID.”

How doctors currently diagnose long COVID

There is little consensus on the exact definition of long COVID, also known by the medical term PASC, or post-acute sequelae of COVID-19. While the World Health Organization says long COVID starts three months after the original bout of illness or positive test result, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sets the timeline at just after one month.

Some researchers and health care providers use other time frames, making efforts to study and quantify the condition more difficult, said Al-Aly, who has conducted many studies on long-term post-COVID issues.

When patients experiencing persistent symptoms go to their doctors, tests like electrocardiograms, chest X-rays, CT scans and blood work don’t always identify physiological problems, Al-Aly said. Researchers are working to pinpoint certain biological factors, called biomarkers, that correlate with persistent COVID symptoms. These could include signs of inflammation or certain molecules produced by the immune system that might be measured by blood tests, for example.

Long COVID is defined as symptoms that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis and last at least two months following an initial COVID-19 infection. It is usually after three months (12 weeks) of persistent symptoms when a patient is suspected of having long COVID.

Long COVID can affect anyone of any age, including children and adolescents. Even if you had mild or no symptoms when you were first infected, you can be impacted by long COVID.

For some, long COVID symptoms can be more severe than the acute COVID-19 infection itself. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), symptoms can persist from the initial illness or begin after recovery, and they may come and go or improve over time.

Long COVID can interfere with a person’s ability to perform normal, everyday activities, like work and household chores. With children, it can affect their ability to do their schoolwork. While it cannot be predicted how long a given patient may experience long COVID, some research has shown that patients can get better over time.

Long COVID Symptoms

Long COVID symptoms are different from acute COVID symptoms. Conditions can include, but are not limited to:

  • Persistent cough
  • Loss of (or changes in) taste and smell
  • Depression
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Sleeping problems
  • Lightheadedness
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Anxiety
  • Chest pain
  • Palpitations
  • Headache
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Poor appetite

How Does Long COVID Affect Children?

Some common symptoms seen in children include fatigue, headache, trouble sleeping and concentrating, muscle and joint pain, and cough. As with other medical conditions, young children may have trouble describing the problems they are experiencing.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), information on long COVID in children and adolescents is limited, so it is possible other symptoms may be likely in younger age groups.

If your child is suffering from long COVID and is unable to complete their normal school assignments, it might be best to ask school administrators about accommodations such as extra time to complete tests and assignments, rest periods throughout the school day and modified class schedules, says the CDC.

What Causes Long COVID?

It is unknown why people experience long COVID. The cause is still an active area of research. Some experts believe the cause is potentially due to the body’s hyper-inflammatory immune response to a new germ.

By:

Source: What We Know About Long COVID So Far

More contents:

Scientists are Studying Blood Tests For Dementia

As pharmaceutical companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars on a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, other researchers are focusing on a more elemental question. How can you tell whether a family member or loved one has Alzheimer’s or another form of dementia?

These researchers say a new generation of blood tests could offer an easier and accurate way to detect signs of Alzheimer’s, a disease that afflicts an estimated 6.5 million Americans. New research found one blood test can detect hallmarks of the disease in older adults with memory problems. It is among more than a half dozen blood tests being developed and tested to detect early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

Experts say the tests are important because they would be easier, cheaper and available to more people than brain scans or spinal taps now used to detect biological hallmarks of the disease.

Developers of blood tests say the immediate payoff would be testing older adults with signs of memory loss as well as quickly screening large numbers of people necessary to test new drugs that aim to slow or halt Alzheimer’s disease. Eventually, the tests might be useful in detecting the earliest signs of disease, informing individuals of their risk years before memory and thinking problems take root.

Blood tests represent “a very early start to a new era of diagnosis for Alzheimer’s disease,” said Stephen Salloway, a professor of neurology and psychiatry at Brown University who directs a memory and aging program at Butler Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island. “I see them as being transformative for Alzheimer’s, because once we validate them a little bit further, and hopefully get coverage for them, we can use them both to screen for clinical trials and to screen for treatment.”

Diagnosing the disease is time-consuming and inaccessible to those who live far away from memory clinics or other specialists. Doctors might quiz a patient or family members about habits, changes in behavior or personality. Specialists conduct memory and cognitive tests and rule out other potential causes such as depression. Brain scans and spinal taps confirm biological signs of the disease.

One blood test, called the PrecivityAD test, which uses a technology called mass spectrometry, measures amyloid proteins and genetic risk for the disease. In two studies published April 21 in Journal of the American Medical Association Open, the test accurately detected the protein amyloid in 81% of samples when compared with a brain scan.

Amyloid accumulates and forms clumps in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Researchers and drug companies have spent hundreds of million of dollars over the past two decades on the theory that drugs clearing amyloid from the brain could slow memory decline, but those drugs have not proven to halt Alzheimer’s disease.

Other drug studies are now underway to administer amyloid-targeting drugs even earlier, before memory and thinking problems emerge. C2N Diagnostics CEO Joel Braunstein said the peer-reviewed study is an important step for doctors who want to see more evidence before recommending his company’s test to patients with memory and cognitive problems.

“Clinicians like to see evidence that a test works,” Braunstein said. “This was an important step forward because of the transparency of the scientific findings.”

The test, which has been available since 2020, is now mostly used to accelerate research for new drugs being studied to slow cognitive decline and memory loss in people with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. Braunstein believes more doctors will be willing to recommend the test as they grow comfortable from findings in the studies.

Blood tests promise quicker, cheaper diagnosis

Scans and spinal taps now used can be invasive and don’t work for all patients. For example, people who are on blood-thinning medication might not be able to get a spinal tap, Salloway said. In such cases, a validated blood test would be suitable replacement.

Blood tests also might be more affordable than positron emission tomography, or PET scans, which cost consumers $3,000 out of pocket, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Hospitals charge for administering a PET scan, which includes special chemical tracers to reveal the amyloid. Consumers also can expect a bill from an imaging specialist who interprets the results to verify whether a patient has amyloid.

The PrecivityAD test, which is not yet covered by Medicare or private insurers, costs $1,250. The company offers financial assistance for eligible consumers, Braunstein said, while it is “making progress” in efforts to get Medicare and private insurers to pay for the test.

The company is allowed to market the test under Food and Drug Administration rules because it’s performed at the company’s lab, which is certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, the federal laboratory law known as CLIA. Doctors or testing sites ship samples to the lab and the company completes the test within 10 days, Braunstein said.

Braunstein said the company’s lab has the capacity to handle tests performed within the United States and Canada. As the company seeks to offer the test overseas, it probably will partner with other labs that can perform the intricate measurements the test requires.

Another blood test developed by Eli Lilly detected signs of Alzheimer’s disease 20 years before cognitive problems were expected in a group of people who carry a rare genetic mutation, according to a study published in 2020 in JAMA. The p-tau217 test measured the tau protein on more than 1,400 people already enrolled in dementia studies in Sweden, Arizona and Colombia.

Eli Lilly used the test during a 257-patient Phase 2 study of its Alzheimer’s drug called donanemab. The drugmaker also will use the test to screen people for a prevention trial to test donanemab in at-risk patients who have not yet exhibited memory and thinking problems. Lilly plans to send mobile units to communities and use the test to screen people, which would expand the company’s efforts to recruit patients from diverse populations, a Lilly spokeswoman said.

Quest Diagnostics, a national lab company, launched a new blood test in March that measures two amyloid variants, a Quest spokeswoman said.

Advocacy organizations would like to see tests that are simple, inexpensive and accessible to doctors and their patients, said Heather Snyder, vice president of medical and scientific relations at the Alzheimer’s Association.

“We ultimately want to be at a place where we can identify an individual at the earliest possible point who may be at the greatest risk and may have initial changes associated with the disease,” Snyder said.

She said it’s important for the field to have “a toolbox of potential interventions” such as medications or lifestyle changes “that would allow us to stop or slow the progression of the underlying biology at that time.”

In 2021, the Food and Drug Administration approved Biogen’s Aduhelm, a $28,000-a-year drug that yielded mixed results in clinical trials, even though the agency’s own experts suggested the agency reject the application. The agency that oversees Medicare decided to pay for the drug only in clinical trials.

Aduhelm is part of class of Alzheimer’s drugs known as monoclonal antibodies, several of which could soon land before FDA decision-makers. Lilly expects to submit donanemab, a monoclonal antibody, for approval later this year. Roche’s Genentech has studied two Alzheimer’s drugs, gantenerumab and crenezumab, in late-stage clinical trials.

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Source: Scientists are studying blood tests for dementia: ‘A new era of diagnosis for Alzheimer’s disease’

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