Why Smart Marketers Are Using Nextdrive Cloud Storage Services To Securely Store Their Data

Data storage is a key component of a successful business. Storing, hosting files, and having an up-to-date backup are the most important parts of building an empire. It prevents you from re-doing tedious work. You can simply edit your past templates or reuse images and videos with ease. It’s also important that no ransomware or malware extorts money in exchange for your data.

You could be storing data on unreliable hard disks that take hours to transfer data and just crash at any point unexpectedly. Also, you cannot simply just put your data in your computer or laptop because It Takes So Much Of Your Space You Can Lose Or Damage Your Device. It Can Get Infected With Virus Or Malware Attacks.

NextDrive is an all-in-one platform that allows users to store, backup, share & host UNLIMITED files, images & videos in the cloud for life – at an unbeatable one-time price. Thanks to the help of NextDrive, now you can host your videos, audios, and images and enjoy lightning-fast upload speeds for higher conversions.

Store/Backup your files or website in 3 simple steps with NextDrive:

  • Step 1: Login to NEXTDRIVE from any device of your choice without any restrictions!
  • Step 2: Drag and drop all files to NEXTDRIVE to start uploading. Watch your files upload in minutes with our ultra-fast compression technology.
  • Step 3: Now you can share your content (videos, audios, images, documents, graphics, and more) with anyone you like without ever losing it!

WHAT NEXTDRIVE CAN DO FOR YOU

  • Upload & Store Unlimited Files No Matter What Size Using their Cloud-Based Storage
  • Access Your Data From Anywhere In The World, Right At Your Fingertips
  • Just Login From Any Device Of Your Choice And Start Uploading In Minutes
  • Share Your Files With Friends & Family, Customers or Business Partners, On Social Media Platforms like Facebook & Twitter With Just 1 Click
  • Your Data Is 100% Secure With Us And So Well Encrypted Even They Can’t Read It
  • With NextDrive, You Can BACKUP All Your Files So You’ll NEVER Have The Fear Of Losing Them EVER AGAIN
  • Instantly Backup All Your Data Including Videos, Documents, Audios and Images So You Can Manage Them At One Place.
  • Drag & Drop File Manager Including Preview For Your Images, Documents, or Videos
  • Revolutionary Compression Algorithm Makes Upload & Download SUPER Fast And Storage a BREEZE
  • Never-Before-Seen Send Via Email Option For Uploaded Files To Make Everything Hassle-Free
  • Efficiently Manage Your Data And Segregate It Into Virtual Folders In Just One-Click
  • Effortless Background Uploading So You Continue Your Work While Files Are Being Uploaded
  • And A Lot More…

Is there a limit on storage? No, with NEXTDRIVE, you will get unlimited cloud storage to save your files/folders with NO RESTRICTIONS on your data. Upload all your files, images, and videos and keep them here without ever paying for storage upgrades.

How many files can I upload? There are no limitations on the number of files you can upload to your NEXTDRIVE account. However, with this purchase, you can upload up to 100 files per day. If you need to upload more, you can purchase their PRO upgrade pack that removes all limitations from your NEXTDRIVE account.

How long will it take me to transfer files into NEXTDRIVE? It depends on file size, but their advanced upload technology works extremely fast. They understand that many don’t have the patience to wait for slow file transfers. So rest assured that it will exceed your expectations as well!

Are there any maintenance fees or annual renewal fees I should know about? No! Once you sign up for NEXTDRIVE and pay the one-time fee, you will never pay another fee for using the platform. Consider this your storage solution

What is the minimum experience and skills required to use this? You don’t have to be an expert marketer or a technical genius to upload your files. It is 100% newbie-friendly. Their automated software does everything for you. You simply profit!

Can I upload files from my mobile or computer? Yes, it is accessible on any device if you can access a browser on it. And you can upload and download files using it on any device.

Is training & support included? It comes fully loaded with tutorials and training material to help you store instantly. Their team is at your disposal round the clock for any concerns that you may have.

Source: https://getcourseally.com/nextdrive/ 

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Understanding 51% Attacks on Bitcoin and Blockchain

A 51% attack doesn’t mean the attacker can send BTC from your wallet or account; it only means the blockchain has been compromised, and double-spending of crypto is imminent. Blockchains like Bitcoin and its contemporaries, with larger mining nodes and hash power, are less likely to be attacked due to the financial cost involved.

Blockchain technology is no longer a new word in this digital era. The name prevalently comes to mind anytime Bitcoin cryptocurrency is mentioned in any discourse. Unfortunately, the connection between blockchain and Bitcoin can’t be ruptured because the Bitcoin cryptocurrency brought blockchain to the limelight in 2008.

For clarity’s sake, Bitcoin is a blockchain on its own, while its native cryptocurrency that is used to incentivize miners is BTC—Bitcoin cryptocurrency. The cryptocurrency was birthed through one of the several use cases of blockchain in the finance industry.

Consensus Mechanisms

A consensus mechanism is when the majority agrees on something or disagrees. Imagine you conduct a survey with 100 different people from different locations about how sweet a particular cookie is. If all 100 say it is sweet or otherwise, their opinion is unanimous, which marks a consensus.

The consensus mechanisms employed in all blockchain networks are similar to the example above. In the case of blockchain, miners replicate the audience that took the cookie survey. Back to Bitcoin mining.As mentioned earlier, the consensus mechanism of bitcoin is the PoW, where miners compete to solve complex cryptographic puzzles with their mining machines. Whoever can solve this puzzle faster and produces the winning hash wins the right to add the newly verified transaction data to a block.

Such a validator will be rewarded with the native crypto of the blockchain—BTC.What usually determines who wins the right to fill a new block with transaction data is having a mining machine with a high hash rate—i.e., machines that can produce more hashes per second. This can be achieved by having more machines and combining their mining power or getting machines with higher mining power to mine faster than your competitors.This suggestion can be likened to participating in a raffle where having more tickets increases your chances of winning. Now, what if an unscrupulous or malevolent actor has a higher mining power than other miners? Then, a 51% attack is imminent!

What Is a 51% Attack?

A 51% attack occurs when a malevolent miner in a blockchain network gains control of the blockchain mining power. This means that the miner—in this case, an attacker— will be able to mine faster than other miners because the attacker now controls more than 50% of mining power.

Having 51% control—which is the least percentage required to take over a blockchain network—is ominous.

Difference Between a 51% Attack and a 34% Attack

A 34% attack is known with the Tangle consensus algorithm. The attacker only falsifies the blockchain’s ledger by approving or disapproving transactions. In contrast, the 51% attack gives attackers control of a blockchain such that they can disrupt mining and the entire blockchain.

Implications of a 51% Attack on Blockchain and Bitcoin

When an attacker controls 51% mining power in a blockchain, then the security of such a blockchain has been compromised, leaving the attacker in control of transactions. Below are the implications of what’s bound to happen due to a 51% attack:

  1. Network Disruption by Delaying Validation of Transactions: The attacker disrupts the blockchain network by attacking the miner’s computing resources. In such a scenario, there’ll be a delay in the validation and storage of transactions in a block. As a result, the blockchain is hampered, causing the attacker to process transactions faster than the miners or even prevent another miner from adding blocks.
  2. Double Spending: Double spending occurs when miners spend their crypto twice on a particular blockchain network.How?
    Imagine if the attacker had previously purchased a Ferrari 250 GTO with 1,600 BTC; he paid for the car and got the delivery of the vehicle. During a 51% attack on the BTC blockchain, the attacker can reverse the 1,600 BTC transferred to the seller’s wallet such that he keeps the car and the BTC. The BTC can then be spent for another purpose. This is known as double-spending.
  3. Reduction in Miner’s Reward: Since miners are usually rewarded for validating transactions on a blockchain, in the wake of a 51% attack, the attacker steals the shares of other miners, making them earn less than what they’re supposed to earn.

Diminishes Blockchain’s Credibility

A 51% attack on a blockchain network will diminish the credibility of such a blockchain. Both miners and investors will not trust the security framework anymore. This might lead to abandoning the project or some exchanges delisting the crypto from their market.

Below are the examples of blockchains that have suffered a 51% attack:• BSV—Bitcoin Satoshi Vision—was attacked in August 2021• ETC—Ethereum Classic—was attacked thrice in August 2020

BTG—Bitcoin Gold— was attacked twice; once in 2018 and then in 2020

• GRIN was attacked in 2020, the attacker controlled about 58% of GRIN’s hash rate

VTC—Vertcoin—was also attacked twice in 2019

How to Prevent 51% Attack

i. Limited Hash Power – Blockchains running on the PoW mechanism should limit the hash power of each miner to 50% or lesser. This will pre-empt such an attackQuintex3-1-2-2-1-1-1-1

ii. Using PoS or DPoS A PoS- Proof-of-Stake- the mechanism is another consensus mechanism for validating blockchain transactions. It is eco-friendly because no power is needed, and it doesn’t require a sophisticated machine. PoS uses coin owners’ machines to mine crypto. Investors stake their coins in return for an opportunity to validate blocks.DPoS, on the other hand, means Delegated Proof-of-stake. It is a decentralized PoS where the crypto community appoints validators by voting. If a validator is perceived to be compromising the network, they are also voted out by the community.

Conclusion

A 51% attack doesn’t mean the attacker can send BTC from your wallet or account; it only means the blockchain has been compromised, and double-spending of crypto is imminent. Blockchains like Bitcoin and its contemporaries, with larger mining nodes and hash power, are less likely to be attacked due to the financial cost involved.

By Abubakar Maruf

Source: Understanding 51% Attacks on Bitcoin and Blockchain | HackerNoon

More contents:

LinkedIn Crypto Fraud: As FBI Deems It ‘Significant Threat,’ What Should You Watch Out For?

FBI warns crypto fraud on LinkedIn is a ‘significant threat’ Engadget

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More Than Half Of Ukraine’s Children Displaced By War

One month into a brutal war, Ukraine’s children are traumatized and in desperate need of assistance. UNICEF is on the ground in Ukraine and neighboring countries, working to provide lifesaving humanitarian aid to children and families.

Since the start of the war in Ukraine one month ago, 4.3 million children have been forced out of their homes. That’s over half the country’s estimated 7.5 million total child population.

More than 3.8 million people — including 1.8 million children — have crossed the border into Poland, Romania, Moldova and other neighboring countries to escape the ongoing violence since Feb. 24, according to UNHCR.

The rest of Ukraine’s children remain inside the country, trapped in a national nightmare.

“The war has caused one of the fastest large-scale displacements of children since World War II.”

UNICEF Executive Director Catherine Russell

“The war has caused one of the fastest large-scale displacements of children since World War II,” said UNICEF Executive Director Catherine Russell. “This is a grim milestone that could have lasting consequences for generations to come. Children’s safety, well-being and access to essential services are all under threat from nonstop horrific violence.”

93 children have been killed and 120 injured since the war began

Heavily populated civilian areas are increasingly being targeted, with children’s homes, hospitals, schools and orphanages coming under assault. The World Health Organization has confirmed 52 attacks impacting health care facilities across the country in the past four weeks, while Ukraine’s Ministry of Education and Science has reported damage to more than 500 education facilities.

According to the United Nations human rights office, OHCHR, 93 children have been killed and 120 injured since the war began. These figures represent only those reports that the United Nations has been able to confirm: the actual toll is likely far higher.

UNICEF is rushing medical supplies to children’s hospitals and maternity wards

UNICEF has 140 staff members on the ground in Ukraine, working around the clock from five regional offices on both sides of the contact line to provide urgent assistance to children and families in need.

In close collaboration with the Government of Ukraine, UN agencies and key humanitarian partners, UNICEF is scaling up emergency operations, including the delivery of medical supplies and equipment to dozens of hospitals across the country, where pediatricians and obstetricians are caring for injured children and delivering babies in basement hallways.

To aid mothers and children who have fled the country in search of safety, UNICEF has set up a network of Blue Dot refugee support centers where they can access emergency services.

Urgent assistance for families forced to leave everything behind

Strategically located along key transit routes, the Blue Dot support hubs provide health screenings, information on available accommodations and transportation, a safe place for children to play, registration for psychosocial support, counseling and protection services, and other vital forms of assistance.

Child-Friendly Spaces where kids can just be kids for a while

Staffed by social workers and psychologists and stocked with toys and games, the Blue Dot centers provide a sense of normalcy for children whose lives have been turned upside-down. “Mostly we do game therapy, but it will depend on the child, how ready he or she will be to play with us,” says psychologist Tatiana Andriesh, who works with children at a Blue Dot site in Palanca, Moldova.

“Somehow, the emotional state of the parents is passed on to the children. If a parent is hugging them very tightly, the child gets afraid. There are situations where the mothers are so emotionally affected that we have to work with the parents somehow, and after than we can give attention to the children.”

The threat of child trafficking is real and growing

More than 500 unaccompanied children were identified crossing from Ukraine into Romania between Feb. 24 and March 17. “The war in Ukraine is leading to mass displacement and refugee flows — conditions that could lead to a significant spike in human trafficking and an acute child protection crisis,” Afshan Khan, UNICEF Regional Director for Europe and Central Asia, warned on March 19. “Displaced children are extremely vulnerable to being separated from their families, exploited and trafficked.”

To protect the vulnerable, staff at Blue Dot centers are trained to identify unaccompanied and separated children and implement family tracing services so children can be reunited with their caregivers.

“Displaced children are extremely vulnerable to being separated from their families, exploited and trafficked.”

Afshan Khan, UNICEF Regional Director for Europe and Central Asia

UNICEF is urging the governments of neighboring countries and other countries of destination to strengthen child protection screenings at border crossings, especially those with Ukraine, to better identify at-risk children.

“In just a few weeks, the war has wrought such devastation for Ukraine’s children,” said Russell. “Children urgently need peace and protection. They need their rights. UNICEF continues to appeal for an immediate ceasefire and for the protection of children from harm.”

Sarah Ferguson is the Editorial Director for Content and Social Media at UNICEF USA. Her writing has appeared in The New York Times Book Review, The Guardian,

Source: More Than Half Of Ukraine’s Children Displaced By War

.

Critics:

Highlighting that nine in 10 of those fleeing unrelenting violence in Ukraine are women and children, Mr. Elder warned that youngsters are prey to traffickers, as they arrive in unfamiliar new surroundings. “To give a sense of the border that I used to visit – the main border, Medyka,  Poland to Ukraine – it is scores of people standing around buses and minivans calling out names of capital cities – or at least it was a week ago – people getting onto those,” he said.

“The vast, vast majority of course are people with wonderful intentions and great generosity, but there is no doubt given what we understand of trafficking in Europe, that that remains a very, very grave issue.” The development follows a warning from the UN Secretary-General, who on Monday said that Russia’s military offensive against civilians was “reaching terrifying proportions”.

Ane Lemche, a psychologist and child counselor with Save the Children, said children around the world might not fully understand what is happening in Ukraine and may have questions about the images, stories and conversations they are exposed to.   

Previous Save the Children research in conflicts such as Iraq and Syria has revealed heartbreaking accounts of children terrified by the shelling and airstrikes, anxious about the future, and distraught at not being able to go to school. The majority of children showed signs of severe emotional distress.

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Satoshi Nakamoto Collaborator Says His Bitcoin Fork, Zcash, Should Go Proof Of Stake And Wind Down Its Carbon Footprint

Zcash founder Zooko Wilcox might seem like an unlikely source to challenge Bitcoin’s ‘third rail’, its controversial, expensive, yet effective method of processing transactions, but in many ways he is the perfect candidate to offer an alternative.

After all, few know Bitcoin better than him.

An early and active participant on Bitcoin message boards, Wilcox frequently communicated and collaborated directly with the pseudonymous founder of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakomoto. In fact, he authored the very first blog post on bitcoin, which Satoshi linked to on the original Bitcoin.org website. That is the ultimate seal of approval when it comes to crypto.

However, in an interview with Forbes, Wilcox made it clear that for as far as Bitcoin has come it is far from a fully-formed project in many areas.

For starters, the pseudonymous nature of the blockchain, which hackers and criminals are slowly finding out is not nearly as private as they hoped, was not the desired end state. As Wilcox tells it, “The fact is, like, to basically 100% of all the early bitcoiners, including Satoshi and Hal (Finney) and Nick (Szabo) and Adam (Back), and everyone…Privacy was like the main value proposition.”

If nothing else, it was clear that it deserved central billing alongside independence from central banks, the more common narrative of Bitcoin’s origin story.

The proposed solution back in 2010 was something called zk-snarks (Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge). In short, zk-snarks can be used in a blockchain to hide not only the identities of the sender and receiver, but transaction amounts as well. Total privacy.

Back when Satoshi was actively developing bitcoin he had hoped to integrate zk-snarks into the network. However, by the time he stepped away in 2011 the technology was not advanced enough to install without slowing Bitcoin down (it is already slow even by crypto standards) or burdening it with too much data.

Wilcox was part of a team of scientists in 2012 who presented a proposal to integrate zk-snarks on top of Bitcoin at a conference in San Jose, but the core developers told them that the technology had to be proven on another blockchain before receiving serious consideration.

So that is exactly what Wilcox did – and a couple of years later Zcash was born.

It is also clear in his writings that Satoshi knew that bitcoin, if successful, would have a very large carbon footprint, something that my colleague Chris Helman pointed out in a recent article for Forbes, “It’s the same situation as gold and gold mining. The marginal cost of gold mining tends to stay near the price of gold. Gold mining is a waste, but that waste is far less than the utility of having gold available as a medium of exchange. I think the case will be the same for bitcoin. The utility of the exchanges made possible by bitcoin will far exceed the cost of electricity used.”

It is on this point that Wilcox wants to use Zcash to move crypto forward, starting today. In a forthcoming blog post shared exclusively with Forbes, he is advocating for Zcash to move away from the same energy-intensive ‘proof-of-work’ consensus mechanism as Bitcoin to a more eco-friendly ‘proof-of stake’ approach.

The implications of such a transition could be huge. Zcash is a close cousin of Bitcoin, its code is actually based on Bitcoin, and if successful it could open the door to Bitcoin possibly eschewing mining as well.

So what exactly is ‘proof-of-stake’? Rather than operating millions of dollars worth of energy-consuming computing hardware racing to solve complicated math problems in exchange for freshly-minted bitcoin, nodes on the network post holdings as collateral at risk of forfeiture should they act dishonorably. Proof-of-stake is lighter, faster, and in the words of Wilcox even more secure than proof-of-work.

“I think proof-of-work has some security flaws, as has been demonstrated by the 51% attacks that have occurred (when a miner controls a majority of computing power on the network and can steal tokens). And I think proof-of-stake can provide a much more powerful kind of security and at lower cost.”

He also pointed out that under proof-of-work setups users have little recourse if the network gets attacked. However, on a proof-of-stake network the bad actors can be identified and have their tokens revoked so that the rest of the network can go on operating as usual. In fact, this is similar to an argument offered by Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin, which is also going through an arduous transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, to justify the switch.

When asked why he is advocating for the transition now, Wilcox points to a few key reasons, most notably that the proof-of-stake is ‘proven’ and no longer experimental. As evidence he points to the successful launch of networks such as Algorand, Cardano, Cosmos, and Tezos.

In fact, environmental concerns do not seem to be a leading justification for the shift, but rather his belief that proof-of-stake is the better all-around approach moving forward. He also recognizes that right or wrong, people are increasingly worried about crypto’s carbon footprint. Switching to proof-of-stake in his mind is then a win for everyone.

That said, while Zcash is based on Bitcoin and shares many of the same characteristics, down to its hard limit of 21 million units, the two networks are in different universes from adoption and scale points of view. ZEC (Zcash’s native token) is currently priced at $111.55, while bitcoin is nearly 350x bigger at $38,709. Bitcoin processes around 250,000 transactions per day, while Zcash hovers around 4,000. Additionally, the bitcoin network’s hashrate of 102,631,000,000,000,000,000 hashes per second is orders of magnitude bigger than Zcash’s 4,992,000,000.

That said, Zcash has tripled Bitcoin’s returns to investors year to date.

So even if Zcash makes a successful transition, that does not mean that bitcoin could simply follow the same path. Plus, bitcoin’s community has historically been resistant to major change, understandable given its focus on security, and the necessity of proof-of-work has become a hardened part of its ideology.

A final reason why things are moving forward now is because as Wilcox tells it, we are entering an inflection point when it comes to protecting our privacy from governments and corporations alike, “We’re both simultaneously seeing mega corporations and governments seizing more and more control over everyone, both in the east and the west…And we’re simultaneously seeing people worldwide becoming more aware and valuing their privacy more, their autonomy, their human relationships.”

He also believes that the stakes are being raised when it comes to central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and fears of surveillance capitalism. That said, Wilcox would not be opposed to collaborating with banks around the world if they wanted to integrate Zcash and  zk-snarks, saying “We definitely could help them come up with improved or variants, zero knowledge proof that would serve their purposes. But we would do so only if that one they would feed back into ZEC, which is the engine of our mission, our mission is to empower and free everyone in the world.”

Follow me on Twitter or LinkedIn. Check out my website. Send me a secure tip.

I am director of research for digital assets at Forbes. I was recently the Social Media/Copy Lead at Kraken, a cryptocurrency exchange based in the United States. Before joining Kraken I served as Chief Operating Officer at the Wall Street Blockchain Alliance, a non-profit trade association dedicated to the comprehensive adoption of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies across global markets. Before joining the WSBA, I was the Lead Associate within the Emerging Technologies practice at Spitzberg Partners, a boutique corporate advisory firm that advises leading firms across industries on blockchain technology. Previously I was Vice President/Lead Strategy Analyst at Citi FinTech, where I drove strategic and new business development initiatives for Citigroup’s Global Retail and Consumer Bank business across 20 countries. I also served five years as a Senior Intelligence Analyst at Booz Allen Hamilton supporting the U.S. Department of Defense. I have a B.S. in Business Administration from the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University and a M.A. in International Affairs from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. Additionally, I am a Certified Information Privacy Professional (United States, Canada, and the European Union) and a Certified Information Privacy Technologist at the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP).

Source: Satoshi Nakamoto Collaborator Says His Bitcoin Fork, Zcash, Should Go Proof Of Stake And Wind Down Its Carbon Footprint

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Discrimination Against Fat People is So Endemic, Most of Us Don’t Even Realize It’s Happening

When we think of prejudice and discrimination, most of us tend to think of overt attacks, harassment, or discriminatory behavior. Blatant examples of prejudice do still occur with depressing frequency, but for most members of stigmatized groups, it is not these experiences that shape their daily lives. Rather, belonging to a socially stigmatized group means traveling through a world that is rife with multiple small, sometimes subtle or apparently inconsequential reminders of your devalued status, known as microaggressions.

As a weight stigma researcher, I focus on the experiences of fat people (many fat rights activists prefer the word “fat” and use it as a descriptive terms and not as an insult) but microaggressions define the lived experience of all groups devalued by society. Microaggressions can come from anywhere at any time. For a fat person, this might be:

  • When they get on a bus and the person sitting next to an empty seat scowls at them or pointedly places their bag on the seat;
  • People watching them while they’re eating in a restaurant or checking out the contents of their trolley in the supermarket;
  • A fat joke on TV or in a film;
  • A slimmer friend asking if she “looks fat in this”;
  • Hearing a group of children making fun of them;
  • Or even wondering whether they will be taken seriously when they go to the doctor with a sprained ankle, or just told to go away and lose some weight.

If you’re not a member of a stigmatised group, you might think that most of these examples sound relatively minor and could be easily ignored. But while any individual incident may be minor, it is the totality of stigma that defines our existence.

The cost of hostile environments

The pervasive hostile environment that marginalised people find themselves in serves as a source of constant physical and psychological stress. The body’s acute stress response involves the production of stress hormones and changes in cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems to deal with the threat.

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This is an adaptive response in the short term – that is, it aids with survival. But chronic exposure to stress is associated with increased rates of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and even some cancers. This is not limited to fat people. These findings are consistent when looking at people belonging to racial minorities, LGBTQ individuals and many others.

Critically, the harms associated with a hostile environment occur even in the absence of actual stigmatising incidents – stigmatised individuals go through their daily life anticipating, fearing, expecting and preparing for these events. This consumes an enormous amount of mental and emotional energy and is itself a form of chronic stress. Hostile environments also contribute indirectly to long-term health and life outcomes via impacts on educational and economic achievement.

Recognizing stigma

Microaggressions against fat people are so pervasive and normalised in modern society that people, even fat people, may not recognise them as stigmatising at all. The sometimes ambiguous nature of microaggressions means that the target may be unsure of the intent or underlying meaning, wondering if that person was actually stigmatising them or not, making it difficult to respond. What is more, fat stigma is so entrenched that many fat people are complicit in their own stigmatisation, believing that they deserve it, or that the perpetrator was just stating a fact (“fat people are ugly and disgusting”).

On the other hand, if they do challenge the stigma, at best, they may be told to ignore it; at worst, their experiences are invalidated. Victims of microaggressions are told they are just imagining the slight, that they are overly sensitive or even paranoid, or that they simply need to develop a sense of humour. Fat people may even be told to lose weight if they don’t like it. Most people would never tell a member of another stigmatised group that they should change themselves if they don’t want to be discriminated against.

Most of us like to think of ourselves as unprejudiced. We would never harrass a fat person in the street, beat them up, or give them inferior service in a shop.

But children as young as three exhibit anti-fat attitudes. They are not born with these beliefs – they are picking them up from the cues in their environment, for example from the attitudes and behaviours of parents and caregivers, or from ubiquitous anti-fat messaging and stereotyping in kids’ cartoons. If we genuinely want to be part of a kind and decent society, if we want our children to grow up in that world, it is up to us not to let hostility go unchallenged. Oppression comes in many forms, and we all have a role to play in addressing it.

By:

Angela Meadows does not work for, consult,own shares in or receive funding from any company or organization that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Source: https://theconversation.com/

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Critics:

This type of discrimination can take a number of forms, ranging from refusing to hire someone because they are considered to be too short or too tall, to treating overweight and underweight individuals with disdain. There aren’t currently any specific anti-discrimination laws that have been put in place to prohibit sizeism, despite the issue being extremely prevalent. Sizeist stereotypes (such as “overweight people are lazy” or “tall people can play basketball”) are often ingrained in modern society.

In the US, the list of anti-discrimination acts does not specifically include sizeism as an offense.The EOCC website states “Height and weight requirements tend to disproportionately limit the employment opportunities of some protected groups and unless the employer can demonstrate how the need is related to the job, it may be viewed as illegal under federal law. A number of states and localities have laws specifically prohibiting discrimination on the basis of height and weight unless based on actual job requirements.

Therefore, unless job-related, inquiries about height and weight should be avoided.” Therefore, size discrimination in the workplace is only illegal under federal law if it is not a job requirement. Sizeism can be based on height, weight or both, and so is often related to height and weight-based discrimination but is not synonymous with either. Depending on where in the world one is and how one lives his/her life, people may have a tendency to be especially tall, slender, short, or plump, and many societies have internalized attitudes about size.

Another manifestation of body variance is muscle mass and skeletal size, often with associations of degree of compliance to one’s born sex, but do not necessarily affect gender to deviate from sex. As a general rule, sizeist attitudes imply that someone believes that his or her size is superior to that of other people and treat people of other sizes negatively. Examples of sizeist discrimination might include a person being fired from a job for being overweight or exceptionally short though their work was unaffected.

Sizeism often takes the form of a number of stereotypes about people of particular heights and weights. Sizeist attitudes can also take the form of expressions of physical disgust when confronted with people of differing sizes and can even manifest into specific phobias such as cacomorphobia (the fear of fat people), or a fear of tall or short people. Sizeism, being a newly recognized discriminatory stance, is usually observed by those who are its targets.

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