Cancer Rules Rewritten By Air Pollution Discovery

Image source, Getty Images

The team at the Francis Crick Institute in London showed that rather than causing damage, air pollution was waking up old damaged cells. One of the world’s leading experts, Prof Charles Swanton, said the breakthrough marked a “new era”. And it may now be possible to develop drugs that stop cancers forming. The findings could explain how hundreds of cancer-causing substances act on the body.

The classical view of cancer starts with a healthy cell. It acquires more and more mutations in its genetic code, or DNA, until it reaches a tipping point. Then it becomes a cancer and grows uncontrollably. But there are problems with this idea: cancerous mutations are found in seemingly healthy tissue, and many substances known to cause cancer – including air pollution – don’t seem to damage people’s DNA.

So what is going on?

The researchers who also work at University College London, have produced evidence of a different idea. The damage is already there in our cell’s DNA, picked up as we grow and age, but something needs to pull the trigger that actually makes it cancerous.

The discovery came from exploring why non-smokers get lung cancer. The overwhelming majority of lung cancers are caused by smoking but still, one in 10 cases in the UK is down to air pollution. The Crick scientists focused on a form of pollution called particulate matter 2.5 (known as PM2.5), which is far smaller than the diameter of a human hair.

Through a series of detailed human and animal experiments they showed:

  • Places with higher levels of air pollution had more lung cancers not caused by smoking
  • Breathing in PM2.5 leads to the release of a chemical alarm – interleukin-1-beta – in the lungs
  • This causes inflammation and activates cells in the lungs to help repair any damage
  • But around one in every 600,000 cells in the lungs of a 50-year-old already contains potentially cancerous mutations
  • These are acquired as we age but appear completely healthy until they are activated by the chemical alarm and become cancerous

Crucially, the researchers were able to stop cancers forming in mice exposed to air pollution by using a drug that blocks the alarm signal. The results are a double breakthrough, both for understanding the impact of air pollution and the fundamentals of how we get cancer.

Dr Emilia Lim, one of the researchers who is based at the Crick and UCL, said people who had never smoked but developed lung cancer often had no idea why. “To give them some clues about how this might work is really, really important,” she said. “It’s super-important – 99% of people in the world live in places where air pollution exceeds the WHO guidelines so it really impacts all of us.”

Rethinking cancer

But the results also showed mutations alone are not always enough to cause cancer. It can need an extra element. Prof Swanton said this was the most exciting finding his lab had come across, as it “actually rethinks our understanding of how tumours are initiated”. He said it would lead to a “new era” of molecular cancer prevention.

The idea of taking a cancer-blocking pill if you live in a heavily polluted area is not completely fanciful. Doctors have already trialled an interleukin-1-beta drug in cardiovascular disease and found, by complete accident, they cut the risk of lung cancer. The latest findings are being presented to scientists at a conference of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

Speaking to the BBC from the conference, Prof Swanton said: “Pollution is a lovely example, but there are going to be 200 other examples of this over the next 10 years.”

And he said we needed to rethink how even smoking causes cancer – is it just the known DNA damage caused by the chemicals in tobacco or is the smoke causing inflammation, too? Curiously, the idea that mutated DNA is not enough and cancers need another trigger to grow was first proposed by scientist Isaac Berenblum in 1947.

“Philosophically, it’s fascinating. These incredible biologists have done this work 75 years ago and it’s largely been ignored,” said Dr Lim. Michelle Mitchell, chief executive of Cancer Research UK, stressed that “smoking remains the biggest cause of lung cancer”.

But she added: “Science, which takes years of painstaking work, is changing our thinking around how cancer develops. We now have a much better understanding of the driving forces behind lung cancer.”

By: James Gallagher

Source: Cancer rules rewritten by air-pollution discovery – BBC News

Critics by ESMO

A new mechanism has been identified through which very small pollutant particles in the air may trigger lung cancer in people who have never smoked, paving the way to new prevention approaches and development of therapies, according to late-breaking data [to be] reported at the ESMO Congress 2022 by scientists of the Francis Crick Institute and University College London, funded by Cancer Research UK.

The particles, which are typically found in vehicle exhaust and smoke from fossil fuels, are associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, accounting for over 250,000 lung cancer deaths globally per year. “The same particles in the air that derive from the combustion of fossil fuels, exacerbating climate change, are directly impacting human health via an important and previously overlooked cancer-causing mechanism in lung cells.

The risk of lung cancer from air pollution is lower than from smoking, but we have no control over what we all breathe. Globally, more people are exposed to unsafe levels of air pollution than to toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke, and these new data link the importance of addressing climate health to improving human health,” said Charles Swanton, the Francis Crick Institute and Cancer Research UK Chief Clinician, London, UK, who will present the research results at the ESMO 2022 Presidential Symposium on Saturday, 10 September.

The new findings are based on human and laboratory research on mutations in a gene called EGFR which are seen in about half of people with lung cancer who have never smoked. In a study of nearly half a million people living in England, South Korea and Taiwan, exposure to increasing concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM) 2.5 micrometres (μm) in diameter was linked to increased risk of NSCLC with EGFR mutations.

In the laboratory studies, the  Francis Crick Institute scientists showed that the same pollutant particles (PM2.5) promoted rapid changes in airway cells which had mutations in EGFR and in another gene linked to lung cancer called KRAS, driving them towards a cancer stem cell like state. They also found that air pollution drives the influx of macrophages which release the inflammatory mediator, interleukin-1β, driving the expansion of cells with the EGFR mutations in response to exposure to PM2.5, and that blockade of interleukin-1β inhibited lung cancer initiation.

These findings were consistent with data from a previous large clinical trial showing a dose dependent reduction in lung cancer incidence when people were treated with the anti-IL1β antibody, canakinumab. In a final series of experiments, the Francis Crick team used state-of-the-art, ultradeep mutational profiling of small samples of normal lung tissue and found EGFR and KRAS driver mutations in 18% and 33% of normal lung samples, respectively.

“We found that driver mutations in EGFR and KRAS genes, commonly found in lung cancers, are actually present in normal lung tissue and are a likely consequence of ageing. In our research, these mutations alone only weakly potentiated cancer in laboratory models. However, when lung cells with these mutations were exposed to air pollutants, we saw more cancers and these occurred more quickly than when lung cells with these mutations were not exposed to pollutants, suggesting that air pollution promotes the initiation of lung cancer in cells harbouring driver gene mutations.

The next step is to discover why some lung cells with mutations become cancerous when exposed to pollutants while others don’t,” said Swanton. Commenting on the results, Tony Mok, Chinese University of Hong Kong, not involved in the study, said: “This research is intriguing and exciting as it means that we can ask whether, in the future, it will be possible to use lung scans to look for pre-cancerous lesions in the lungs and try to reverse them with medicines such as interleukin-1β inhibitors.

We don’t yet know whether it will be possible to use highly sensitive EGFR profiling on blood or other samples to find non-smokers who are predisposed to lung cancer and may benefit from lung scanning, so discussions are still very speculative.” Like Swanton, he stresses the importance of reducing air pollution to lower the risk of lung diseases, including cancer.

“We have known about the link between pollution and lung cancer for a long time, and we now have a possible explanation for it. As consumption of fossil fuels goes hand in hand with pollution and carbon emissions, we have a strong mandate for tackling these issues – for both environmental and health reasons,” Mok concluded.

Related contents:

Legal Agreement Spurs EPA to Take Stronger Steps to Reduce Smog Pollution in Areas of Five States With Some of Nation’s … Center for Biological Diversity (Press Release)Air pollution worsen in Metro Manila The Manila Times

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8 Science-Backed Ways to Boost Your Immune System, According to Experts

Your immune system is your main line of defense against illness, so it only makes sense that you’d want to keep it in top shape. That’s especially true during cold and flu season—and with continued outbreaks of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) sweeping the country.

You’re born with your immune system and everyone’s is slightly different, but there are certain things you can do to try to bolster it, says Julia Blank, M.D., family medicine physician at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, CA. “Maintaining a healthy immune system requires that you take good care of your body,” she says.

How does the immune system work, exactly?

Your immune system is actually made up of “multiple layers of defense,” Dr. Blank says. This includes physical barriers like your skin, cilia (tiny, hair-like structures) that line your airways, and specialized cells that recognize and attack foreign substances like viruses and bacteria, she explains.

“Some of these immune cells are nonspecific and destroy anything that appears foreign. Other cells produce antibodies that recognize and target protein markers (called antigens) on the surface of germs,” Dr. Blank says.

Your immune system also has the ability to recognize pathogens you’ve come into contact with before and mount a quick response. “This is why we don’t usually get sick after being exposed to a germ we’ve already encountered and fought off in the past,” Dr. Blank says.

How to Boost Your Immune System

There are a few science-backed approaches you can take to boost your immune system, most of which are recommended for overall wellness:

1. Keep your alcohol intake in check.

High alcohol intake has been shown to suppress immune function,” says Jessica Cording, M.S., R.D., author of The Little Book of Game-Changers. Plus, booze “can be dehydrating, and hydration is really important for protecting yourself from illness.” When you’re dehydrated, your cells aren’t able to function at their optimal level—and that can open up the door for you to get sick, Cording explains.

If you don’t want to cut out booze completely, sip in moderation. That means having up to one drink a day for women and two drinks a day for men, according to the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

2. Reduce your stress levels.

Stress seems harmless enough once you get over whatever it is you’re anxious about, but studies show it can “compromise or suppress the immune system and make us more vulnerable to infection,” Dr. Blank says.

Specifically, research has found that stress causes a release of the hormone cortisol, which can boost inflammation, a precursor to many diseases, in your body. Chronic stress may also interfere with the infection-fighting ability of your white blood cells, making you more susceptible to contracting illnesses. (Can’t unwind? Check out these science-backed ways to relieve stress.)

3. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.

Putting a rainbow of fruits and vegetables on your plate can do your immune system a solid, says Beth Warren, R.D., founder of Beth Warren Nutrition and author of Secrets of a Kosher Girl. “Fruits and veggies help arm your body with antioxidants it needs to fight oxidative stress, which includes contracting a sickness, in your body,” she says.

Not sure how much you need? The U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends that people who eat 2,000 calories a day have 2 cups of fruit and 2.5 cups of vegetables a day. Some solid options: leafy greens, bell peppers,citrus fruits, sweet potatoes, and berries.

4. Load up on vitamin D.

Vitamin D plays an important role in supporting the immune system by helping your body produce antibodies, which can then fight illness, Cording says.

“Active vitamin D gets sent to different areas of your body, including your bones, intestines, colon, brain, and immune cells, where it binds with the receptors on these cells and ultimately turns them on,” adds Warren.

The kicker: Most people don’t get enough of it. Your body primarily produces vitamin D from the sun’s UV rays (it’s called the sunshine vitamin for a reason!), but you can also load up on vitamin-D rich foods to boost your intake, including fatty fish and seafood, mushrooms, eggs (don’t skip the yolk), and fortified foods, Cording says. If you suspect your vitamin D intake is low and would like to take a supplement, be sure to talk to your doctor. He or she can do a blood test to determine the appropriate dosage for you.

5. Prioritize sleep.

Spending more time snoozing is key, Dr. Blank confirms. “Getting enough sleep helps our bodies recover from everyday stress—both physical and mental—and promotes better functioning of our immune system,” she says.

When you don’t get enough shut-eye, your body may decrease the production of protective proteins called cytokines, which your immune response needs more of when it’s dealing with an infection or inflammation while under stress.

So just how much sleep are we talking about? The National Sleep Foundation says adults up to age 64 should snooze between seven and nine hours per night for, while adults 65 and up should aim between seven and eight hours. (Tossing and turning? Check out our full guide on how to sleep better every night.)

6. Wash your hands often.

Washing your hands regularly will help keep viruses and bacteria away from your eyes, nose, and mouth, which can do your immune system a solid, Dr. Blank says. “This reduces the variety and number of germs we are exposed to and keeps our immune system from getting overwhelmed,” she explains.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) specifically recommends washing your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or the amount of time it takes to hum the “Happy Birthday” song from beginning to end twice.

7. Keep up with a regular exercise routine.

Being physically active can help keep pathogens out of your lungs and airways, according to the National Library of Medicine, which can minimize your odds of getting a cold, the flu, or other illnesses. Exercise can also give antibodies and white blood cells a boost, causing them to circulate more widely throughout your body, where they might detect illnesses better than they would if you didn’t get moving.

8. Finally, quit smoking if you haven’t already.

You already know smoking is bad for your health in so many ways, but it can also wreak havoc and “cause direct damage” to parts of your immune system, Dr. Blank says.

For example, smoking immobilizes cilia, the hair-like structures in your airways that help “sweep” out bacteria. “These cilia form the first line of defense against respiratory infections,” Dr. Blank says. When they’re immobilized, germs have “much easier access” to your lungs, she explains. Cue the coughing and sneezing.

Adopting certain lifestyle habits can strengthen your immune system. Of course, you can do everything right and still get sick. But doing your best to boost your immune system now means your body will be that much more prepared for tackling whatever bugs may come your way later.

By: Korin Miller

Source: 8 Science-Backed Ways to Boost Your Immune System, According to Experts

Critics by: Carol DerSarkissian

You may have noticed you’re more likely to catch a cold or other infection when you’re not getting enough sleep. Studies help bear out that well-rested people who received the flu vaccine developed stronger protection against the illness. Not getting enough sleep can lead to higher levels of a stress hormone. It may also lead to more inflammation in your body.

Although researchers aren’t exactly sure how sleep boosts the immune system, it’s clear that getting enough – usually 7 to 9 hours for an adult – is key for good health. Try to get regular, moderate exercise, like a daily 30-minute walk. It can help your immune system fight infection. If you don’t exercise regularly, you’re more likely to get colds, for example, than someone who does. Exercise can also boost your body’s feel-good chemicals and help you sleep better. Both of those are good for your immune system.

Eating or drinking too much sugar curbs immune system cells that attack bacteria. This effect lasts for at least a few hours after downing a couple of sugary drinks. Eat more fruits and vegetables, which are rich in nutrients like vitamins C and E, plus beta-carotene and zinc. Go for a wide variety of brightly colored fruits and vegetables, including berries, citrus fruits, kiwi, apples, red grapes, kale, onions, spinach, sweet potatoes, and carrots.

Other foods particularly good for your immune system include fresh garlic, which may help fight viruses and bacteria, and old-fashioned chicken soup. If you do come down with a cold or the flu, a bowl of chicken soup can help you get well faster, one study shows. Some mushroom varieties — such as shiitake — may also help your immune system.

Everyone has some stress; it’s part of life. If stress drags on for a long time, it makes you more vulnerable to illness, from colds to serious diseases. Chronic stress exposes your body to a steady stream of stress hormones that suppress the immune system. You may not be able to get rid of your stress, but you can get better at managing it.

  • Learn to meditate.
  • Slow down.
  • Connect with other people.
  • Work out to blow off steam.

Counseling is a big help, too. Easing stress lowers levels of a stress hormone. It also helps you sleep better, which improves immune function. People who meditate regularly may have healthier immune system responses, some studies show. In one experiment, people who meditated over an 8-week period made more antibodies to a flu vaccine than people who didn’t meditate. And they still showed an increased immune system response 4 months later.

Having strong relationships and a good social network is good for you. People who feel connected to friends – whether it’s a few close friends or a large group – have stronger immunity than those who feel alone, studies show. In one study, lonely freshmen had a weaker immune response to a flu vaccine than those who felt connected to others. Although there are many other things that affect your health, making meaningful connections with people is always a good idea.

Laughing is good for you. It curbs the levels of stress hormones in your body and boosts a type of white blood cell that fights infection. Just anticipating a funny event can have a positive effect on your immune system. In one study, men were told 3 days in advance that they were going to watch a funny video. Their levels of stress hormones dropped.

.

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Increased Physical Activity Reduces Breast Cancer Risk, International Study Suggests

Increasing physical activity and reducing time spent sedentary is likely to decrease the risk of breast cancer, a study of more than 100,000 women suggests. An international team including researchers from Australia, the UK and US have used genetic analysis to establish a causal relationship between overall activity levels and cancer risk.

The study, published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, included data from 130,957 women, 76,505 of whom had breast cancer. While previous research has shown a correlation between physical activity and lowered risk of breast cancer, proving causation has been difficult.

“There has always been a little bit of uncertainty as to whether physical activity truly causes a lower rate of breast cancer or whether that relationship is confounded by other factors,” said Associate Prof Brigid Lynch of Cancer Council Victoria, the study’s senior author.

“For example, women who tend to be more physically active might have healthier lifestyles in other ways as well.”Lynch said the new study “suggests that it is certainly a causal effect: physical activity does reduce your risk of developing breast cancer”.“We saw a risk reduction across all breast cancer types,” she said.

The researchers used a technique known as Mendelian randomisation to establish causality, which uses genetic variants as proxies for particular traits – in this case, physical activity and time spent sitting or reclining.They found that a higher level of physical activity, or general movement, was associated with a 41% reduction in invasive breast cancer risk.

In pre- and perimenopausal women, vigorous physical activity at least three days per week was linked to a 38% lower risk of breast cancer compared to no vigorous activity.“For every 100 odd minutes [of sedentary time] per day we observed a 20% risk increase in breast cancer overall, and a doubling of risk for triple-negative breast cancer [which is more aggressive and difficult to treat],” Lynch said.

Physical activity is thought to lower breast cancer risk because it decreases the amount of both oestrogen and androgen hormones circulating in the bloodstream. A reduction in inflammation may also be a factor.“There’s always been a lot of focus on other health behaviours like healthy eating, maintaining a healthy weight, reducing alcohol intake,” Lynch said. “There’s a big role for physical activity in preventing cancer.”

The research drew data from the UK Biobank as well as 76 other studies conducted as part of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.One limitation of the study was that it only included data from women of European ancestry.“We can’t say for sure that these genetic instruments are applicable across different racial backgrounds,” Lynch said.

But she added that large observational studies in Asia and for women of different ethnicities in the US have found correlations between physical activity and reduced risk.“We do already recommend that physical activity is one of things you can do to reduce your breast cancer risk,” said Associate Prof Wendy Ingman of the University of Adelaide, who was not involved in the study.

Other factors associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer include minimising alcohol intake, and breastfeeding. “The longer a woman breastfeeds for, the less breast cancer risk she has,” Ingman said.

… we have a small favour to ask. Tens of millions have placed their trust in the Guardian’s fearless journalism since we started publishing 200 years ago, turning to us in moments of crisis, uncertainty, solidarity and hope. More than 1.5 million supporters, from 180 countries, now power us financially – keeping us open to all, and fiercely independent.

Unlike many others, the Guardian has no shareholders and no billionaire owner. Just the determination and passion to deliver high-impact global reporting, always free from commercial or political influence. Reporting like this is vital for democracy, for fairness and to demand better from the powerful.

And we provide all this for free, for everyone to read. We do this because we believe in information equality. Greater numbers of people can keep track of the events shaping our world, understand their impact on people and communities, and become inspired to take meaningful action. Millions can benefit from open access to quality, truthful news, regardless of their ability to pay for it.

By:

Source: Increased physical activity reduces breast cancer risk, international study suggests | Australia news | The Guardian

Critics by Vanessa B. Sheppard, PhD, Kepher Makambi, PhD, Teletia Taylor, PhD, Sherrie Flynt Wallington, PhD, Jennifer Sween, MS, and Lucile Adams-Campbell, PhD

A population-based case-control study was conducted with 199 women (97 cases and 102 controls) from the Washington, DC metro area. A self-report physical activity questionnaire elicited responses on walking for exercise and vigorous physical activity (e.g., running, aerobics, etc.) in the past year. Responses were used to calculate a metabolic equivalent (MET) score [MET-hours/week = hours/week vigorous activity×7+ hours/week walking ×3]. The MET score was categorized into low, medium and high tertiles. Multivariate logistic regression examined the association between physical activity and breast cancer.

African American women who engaged in vigorous physical activity (> 2 hours/week in the past year) had a 64% reduced risk of breast cancer compared to those who did not participate in any vigorous activity (odds ratio, OR = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.17–0.75). We also found a 64% reduced breast cancer risk in women with a high versus low tertile of total activity (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.16–0.79). For postmenopausal women, vigorous physical activity and total activity (high versus low tertile) also had an inverse relationship with breast cancer (p<.05).

Data regarding the association of physical activity and breast cancer has been equivocal and lacking for African American women. This study found that modest levels of physical activity reduced breast cancer risk in this group. Targeted efforts are needed to encourage more African American women to engage in physical activity.

Breast cancer is the leading cancer diagnosed in US women. With more than 190,000 cases diagnosed each year, there are few prevention strategies. Known risk factors, such as genetic mutations and family history of cancer, account for only 30% of a woman’s risk for being diagnosed with breast cancer. Thus, lifestyle changes may reduce a woman’s breast cancer risk.

Research suggests that an increase in physical activity, in particular, among sedentary, post-menopausal women changes their hormone levels to reflect a lower risk of breast cancer diagnosis. Therefore, physical activity may be one of the best approaches towards the primary prevention of breast cancer.

The relationship between physical activity and breast risk is complex and may be explained by certain molecular mechanisms. It is plausible that physical activity could affect breast cancer risk because it also affects other risk factors, such as menstrual cycle, body mass, immune system, and hormones such as IGF. It is well accepted that physical inactivity increases one’s risk of obesity. Obesity has separately been considered a breast cancer risk factor and there is an inverse relationship between obesity and physical activity.

How physical activity and obesity might confound each other is unknown; obesity is positively associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women but inversely associated with risk in premenopausal women. Further, some data suggests that adult weight gain, rather than BMI, affects breast cancer risk, especially among non users of hormonal replacement therapy.

Studies have shown a relationship between obesity and risk of breast cancer but in samples of mostly Caucasian women.Research, although equivocal, suggest that physical activity is inversely related to breast cancer risk in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Considering African American women have higher rates of being overweight or obese, limited physical activity may be a significant breast cancer risk factor in this population. Some data in African American women suggests that breast cancer risk is reduced with increased physical activity.

In a study by Adams-Campbell et al, strenuous physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in African American women. This study, however, focused only on strenuous physical activity levels. Bernstein et al also found that increased physical activity reduces breast cancer risk in African-American women. However, this study also lacked data on the effect of moderate intensity exercise in this population. More research is needed to determine whether moderate levels of physical activity can also reduce breast cancer risk in this population.

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What Is Seed Cycling? Experts Weigh In On Eating Seeds For Fertility, Hormone Balance

If you’re trying to get pregnant, you’ve likely come across the practice of seed cycling, which involves eating specific seeds in the hopes of boosting fertility.

Of course, the irresistibly salty crunch of sunflower or pumpkin seeds makes them great snacks. But could those seeds actually do more for your health or even help balance hormone levels?

While seeds may be nutritious and tasty, experts are skeptical that seed cycling can produce real results. Here’s what you should know before you try it — and why you might want to go slow when adding seeds to your diet.

What is seed cycling?

The basic premise of seed cycling is that eating certain types of ground seeds (pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, sesame seeds and sunflower seeds) every day at different points in your menstrual cycle can affect hormone levels. And seed cycling proponents claim the practice may increase fertility and ease PMS symptoms.

“The theory — emphasis on the word theory — of seed cycling is that compounds called lignans can stimulate estrogen activity,” Whitney Linsenmeyer, a registered dietitian, spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and assistant professor at Saint Louis University, told TODAY.

Lignans are a set of compounds found in seeds (especially flax seeds) that can have anti-inflammatory properties, TODAY explained previously. And there is some limited research, like this 2011 study in mice, that suggests lignans can interact with estrogen and even produce estrogen-like effects.

Other components in seeds, primarily fatty acids, “can serve as precursors to steroid hormones, potentially, or could impact inflammation,” Dr. Emily Jungheim, chief of reproductive endocrinology and infertility at Northwestern Medicine, told TODAY.

It’s “possible” that eating more fatty acids could affect hormone levels and “create a more favorable environment for hormone signaling,” she said. There are few studies suggesting that eating sesame seeds and flax seeds can affect hormone levels in women.

But there are no randomized controlled trials on seed cycling specifically, Jungheim said. And infertility is more likely to be caused by other underlying health issues that can’t be solved with seeds, she added.

Does seed cycling improve fertility?

“The general idea that nutrition can impact your fertility is absolutely valid,” said Linsenmeyer, who is also an assistant professor at Saint Louis University. And there is some evidence that certain dietary factors (like unsaturated fats, whole grains, fish and vegetables) as well as being underweight or having obesity can make a difference.

“But there is no evidence that this specific practice — seed cycling — can impact fertility in any clinically significant way,” she said. “In terms of actually making a clinically significant impact on hormonal levels, there’s just no science there to support that,” Linsenmeyer said.

The truth is, “if somebody’s struggling with infertility, usually there’s some major thing that needs to be addressed,” Jungheim said. It might be that someone isn’t ovulating, that there’s an underlying health condition (like thyroid disease) making it more challenging to get pregnant or that their partner’s sperm count is too low, for instance.

But, if issues like those are causing fertility problems, eating a bunch of seeds isn’t likely to help. “There’s nothing I can think of physiologically or scientifically that would make it biologically feasible that eating a specific type of seed in one portion of the cycle would make you ovulate,” Jungheim said.

There may be other benefits to eating seeds, of course

“Seeds are very nutritious,” Linsenmeyer said. “So, the bottom line is yes — if you want to incorporate more seeds in your diet, go for it.” They can be a great source of fiber, protein and omega-3 fatty acids, she said.

But if you’re adding a lot of seeds to your diet at once, you may experience some gastrointestinal changes as your body adjusts to having more fiber. “Frankly, I would expect to see changes in bowel movements that might be just, like, startling to people,” Linsenmeyer said. “The insoluble fiber content adds a lot of bulk to the stool.”

You might also notice yourself feeling fuller sooner or not feeling as hungry when it comes time for your next meal due to the high fat content in seeds, she said.

All of that is why Linsenmeyer recommends people who are interested in adding more seeds to their diet do so gradually over the course of a week or two — and be sure to drink plenty of water.

Before you try seed cycling to boost fertility…

First, remember that it can take a while to get pregnant — and that is generally normal. “If you’re younger than 35, we generally recommend trying for a year,” Jungheim said, noting that over-the-counter ovulation prediction kits make it easier to know when you’re most fertile. For those over 35, she recommends checking in after six months.

But if you’re not having periods for three months in a row, that’s a sign that you may not be ovulating normally, Jungheim said, and you should talk with your doctor. Or, if you know you have a history of fibroids, endometriosis, PCOS or other issues that can affect fertility, it makes sense to check in with your doctor earlier on in the process, she said.

“I would encourage folks to get at least a diagnostic workup before turning to seed cycling,” Jungheim said. While treatments are not always covered by insurance, those initial tests usually are, she added. Early testing can screen for underlying (generally treatable) issues, like thyroid disease, and your diagnosis may be delayed if you’re spending time with seed cycling instead of talking to your doctor.

And recognize that there may also be emotional costs to pinning your hopes on something like seed cycling, Linsenmeyer added. “To me, the risk is getting somebody’s hopes up when there is no science to support the practice.”

Source: What Is Seed Cycling? Experts Weigh In On Eating Seeds For Fertility, Hormone Balance

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Sore Throats Suck. Do Throat Lozenges Help At All?

It’s hard to get through a winter without suffering sore throat, but luckily they normally get better within a few days. Sore throat is a common symptom of COVID and its newer variants. And of course, many sore throats are caused by viral colds or flu, so they can be treated at home. The most common treatment is probably throat lozenges – but do they really work any better than sucking on a hard lolly?

Why does my throat hurt so much?

A sore throat can fall anywhere between slight discomfort to a sensation of “swallowing razor blades”. Occasionally it hurts so much to swallow that people dribble saliva from their mouths, rather than swallowing it.Bacteria and viruses can invade the thin moist skin (mucosa) lining the throat. This kills many lining cells and triggers inflammation, which appears as redness, swelling and increased secretions.

Infections in the nose also cause thick mucus to travel down the back of the throat and cause further irritation. This is referred to as “post-nasal drip”. A blocked nose causes reliance on mouth breathing, which tends to dehydrate the already inflamed throat. Ouch.

What do lozenges do?

Lozenges are a solid medication intended to be dissolved or disintegrated slowly in the mouth. They consist of one or more active ingredients and are flavoured and sweetened to make them pleasant tasting. Hard lozenges are generally formed using sucrose or other sugars similar to the process for hard candy confections.

There are many active ingredients added to lozenges, including antiseptics; pain relievers; menthol and eucalyptus oil; cough suppressants such as dextromethorphan and soothing compounds. “Cough drops” and sore throat lozenges are almost identical but may contain different proportions of these ingredients.

Different brands of lozenges advertise a confusing choice of formulations. It is more common now to see brands with “triple action” ingredients that promise to be anaesthetic (to numb pain), antiseptic (to kill germs) and anti-inflammatory (to reduce redness).Unfortunately, clinical trials directly comparing the benefit of different medication types for most common conditions (head to head trials) are rarely undertaken.

This is likely due to the added complexity of such trials compared with placebo controlled trials, and medication research often being funded by the pharmaceutical manufacturer of the products. So, we have to rely on indirect comparisons instead. The traditional approach to treating sore throat is to assume lozenges or gargling with antiseptics will reduce sore throat by treating the infection causing it.

However, a limited number of trials of antiseptic lozenges (such as Strepsils and Betadine lozenges) produced only a small reduction in sore throat pain (a difference of one unit in a ten-point pain scale compared with placebo). So they do seem to provide a small degree of relief, and continue to be sold. More and more brands are including other medications beyond antiseptics in their range of throat lozenges

Checking the effects

There are some other explanations for the apparent effectiveness of any treatment for a self-limiting infection. How do we know if the symptom or infection would have lasted longer if we hadn’t used that treatment? To tell, we’d need a control group who didn’t receive the treatment, and a large sample size to overcome the role of chance causing the difference.

Relief might come from something other than the active ingredient. After all, sucking on a sweet, hard lozenge could soothe a dry throat by increasing saliva release. To test this effect, we’d need a true placebo medication – identical in every respect apart from the active ingredient.

Several well-designed and well-conducted controlled clinical trials show some active ingredients provide significantly better pain relief than placebo lozenges. These medications fall into two main groups: local anaesthetics (such as benzocaine) and anti-inflammatory agents (flurbiprofen).

A study comparing benzocaine lozenges, (now offered in many brands of lozenges) to placebo lozenges found quicker pain relief (20 minutes for benzocaine compared to more than 45 minutes for the placebo). More study participants felt relief using the medication, though very few reported complete pain relief.

A systematic research review found nine studies that supported the benefit of flurbiprofen lozenges (available in Australia in Strepfen Intensive lozenges) for a range of sore throat conditions. In one of the reviewed studies, flurbiprofen produced greater reductions in sore throat pain (47%) as well as difficulty swallowing (66%) and swollen throat (40%) over the first 24 hours compared with placebo.lite2-1

One of the common sore throat treatments sold in Australia is Difflam, which contains the anti-inflammatory medication benzydamine. One clinical trial found a greater than two point reduction in the ten point pain scale by day three in those using benzydamine versus placebo.

Are lozenges better than sore throat sprays?

A study using radioactive labelled medication demonstrated more prolonged and complete delivery of medication in the mouth for lozenges compared to spray and gargle. This seems to be the basis for the claim that sprays are less effective than lozenges.

However, drawing conclusions from such evidence is less accurate than a study that directly compares the effectiveness of the various modes of delivery on actual pain. One study compared flurbiprofen and found similar pain relief benefit between lozenges and spray.

So the choice of delivery method can be based on personal preference, including the taste of the product.

The takeaway

Sore throat lozenges and sprays provide some additional relief for the pain of sore throat, particularly those with anti-inflammatory or local anaesthetic ingredients. They are often combined with an antiseptic agent, which may or may not add any significant benefit.

Used as directed, these agents seem safe and have negligible adverse effects. They are also affordable and readily available. But this shouldn’t stop us using other treatments we know also soothe sore throats, such as a small spoonful of honey.

By: Senior Lecturer in General Practice, The University of Queensland

Source: Sore throats suck. Do throat lozenges help at all?

Critics by Karina Bray

Throat lozenges generally contain painkillers, antibacterial agents, antitussives, pectin, menthol and/or eucalyptus. We take a closer look at each ingredient to see how effective it is in reducing sore throat symptoms. Benzydamine hydrochloride and flurbiprofen are painkillers that belong to the group known as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) that help reduce swelling. 

A number of good-quality studies have shown that flurbiprofen lozenges and benzydamine hydrochloride given as a spray or gargle provide effective relief from sore throat symptoms, including difficulty in swallowing. Amylmetacresol, cetylpyridinium chloride, dichlorobenzyl alcohol and hexylresorcinol are antibacterial agents that help fight against disease-causing bacteria. 

But the majority of sore throats are caused by viral infections rather than bacterial, so for the most part antibacterial agents in lozenges aren’t going to help. Local anaesthetics numb the area they’re in contact with and provide temporary relief from soreness. Lignocaine hydrochloride and benzocaine are used widely in medical and dental practice for numbing the mouth and throat during minor surgical procedures, or when a tube must be inserted into the windpipe.

Benzocaine, lignocaine hydrochloride, benzydamine hydrochloride and hexylresorcinol also have local anaesthetic properties. Pholcodine and dextromethorphan hydrobromide are antitussives that are intended to help suppress dry, unproductive (non-phlegmy) coughs, which can contribute to making your throat sore. But a wide-scale review of trials testing antitussives (mainly dextromethorphan) found that they were no more effective than a placebo for treating coughs in most cases. And a much higher concentration of dextromethorphan was used in the trials than is found in throat lozenges.

Menthol is made synthetically or obtained from mint oils. It’s the component of peppermint oil that’s thought to be responsible for most of its therapeutic properties. It gives a cooling and soothing sensation when you inhale or eat it, thanks to its ability to chemically trigger cold-sensitive receptors in the skin. But the effect of nasal decongestion from menthol is subjective – studies show that although people feel decongested after inhaling menthol vapour, there’s no actual improvement in the nasal airway when airflow is measured.

Just like menthol, eucalyptus is thought to act as a nasal decongestant. However, there’s a lack of controlled, clinical studies to support its effectiveness. Pectin is commonly used as a thickening agent in foods like jam and jelly. In throat lozenges it’s used to coat the throat, and in doing so has a soothing effect in much the same way as a teaspoon of honey would.

Related contents:

Sore throat lozenges and sprays provide only a small reduction in throat pain News-Medical.Net

Over 50s to be offered Covid booster as new variants spread LBC News

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